Global Environment Facility and undp



Yüklə 1.38 Mb.
səhifə14/31
tarix21.08.2017
ölçüsü1.38 Mb.
1   ...   10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   ...   31

3.3 FORESTS

The forests of Nepal are classified into National Forests and Private Forests. Any forest, excluding private forests, whether marked or unmarked within a forest boundary, is a National Forest in Nepal. The category includes wastelands, uncultivated lands and unregistered lands surrounded by or adjoining forests, as well as paths, ponds, lakes, rivers, streams and riverine lands within forests. According to the Forest Act, 1993, there are five sub-categories of National Forest (see also Table 3.1):


Government-managed Forests: National Forests managed by HMGN with the main objective being production. The Department of Forests manages these forests.
Community Forests: National Forests handed over to a user group for development, conservation and utilisation for the collective benefit of the community.
Leasehold Forests: National Forests leased to any institution established under current law, industry or community, for the production of forest products, agroforestry, tourism or farming of insects and wildlife in a manner conducive to the conservation and development of forests.
Religious Forests: National Forests handed over to any religious group or community for development, conservation, and utilisation.
Protected Forests: National Forests declared by HMGN as protected in consideration of their special environmental, scientific or cultural significance. Forests in PAs also fall under this category, which are managed either by the DNPWC or by authorised NGOs.
Table 3.4 Classification of forests, management objectives and responsible institutions


Forest Type

Management objectives

Responsible Institutions
National Forest










Forests managed by HMGN

Community Forests


Leasehold Forests

Religious Forests

Protected Forests


Production of forest products

Production of forest products and multiple purpose use

Rehabilitation of degraded forests, production of forest products, tourism, wildlife farming

Protection of religious site

Protection of wildlife, conservation of water, biodiversity and environment


District Forests Offices

Forest user groups


Leasehold groups, NGOs, Industries

Religious institutions


Dept. of Forests, DNPWC, NGOs

Private Forest










Forests or tree farms, land ownership of which does not belong to HMGN

Production of forest products

Individual person, industry, NGO

Source: Forest Act, 1993

3.3.1 NATIONAL AND LEASEHOLD FORESTRY PROGRAMME

National and leasehold forestry aims to develop and manage forest resources through government agencies or private sector leaseholders, complementing community and private forestry (HMGN/ADB/ FINNIDA 1988). All areas that have not been handed over to forest user groups as community forests or set-aside as leasehold forests and that are not religious forests are either Government-Managed Forests or Protected Forests. These forests are managed according to approved Operational Forest Management Plans. All responsibilities and rights of use of such forests remain with the Department of Forests.

Improving the productivity of natural forests, developing forests on degraded areas and protecting forests on both sides of rivers and streams and environmentally sensitive areas are the major activities of the national and leasehold forestry programme.

3.3.1.1 Policy and legislation



Forest Act, 1993: The Forest Act, 1993, accounts for all forest values, including environmental services and biodiversity, as well as production of timber and other products. The provisions relating to protected forests, community forests and leasehold forests will have long term impact on the conservation and sustainable use of components of biological resources. Section 23 empowers the government to delineate any part of a national forest that has a 'special environmental, scientific or cultural importance' as a protected forest. The Department of Forests is required to prepare an operational plan for any protected forest. The inclusion of these terms in a legal document lends support to the conservation of biodiversity in areas that are located outside existing national parks and reserves (Belbase 1997). The government is empowered to grant any part of a national forest for the following purposes: (i) as a leasehold forest for raw materials required by industries (ii) to plant trees and increase the production of forest products for sale or use (iii) for tourism or agroforestry in a manner conducive to the conservation and development of forests.
The Environment Protection Act, 1996: After the establishment of the Ministry of Population and Environment, it assumed responsibility for environmental protection in different sectors. The Environment Protection Act, 1996, and the Environment Protection Regulations, 1997, have made Initial Environmental Examinations or Environmental Impact Assessments mandatory for development proposals involving forests, industry, roads, tourism, drinking water, solid waste management, and agriculture. However, a thorough analysis of these requirements shows that the Initial Environmental Examination and Environmental Impact Assessment guidelines are too complicated for many who should be applying them.

3.3.1.2 Major achievements

Operational Forest Management Plans have been prepared and partially implemented for 18 districts (Table 4.2), 17 of which are in the Terai and one in the Mid-hills.


Protection Forests: Wherever possible, forest strips of at least double the width of the particular river or stream in question have been set aside along both banks to protect the water quality and the land from erosion. Due attention is being given to the management of Protection Forests in the Siwalik Hills, where the natural process of regeneration is favoured for the improvement of the vegetation cover. This minimises the work the soil would generally require if artificial regeneration were to be applied. Nearly 60% of the forests in the 18 districts (Table 3.2) have been classified as Protection Forests and can complement biodiversity conservation.
Table 3.5 Districts with Operational Forest Management Plans


District

Forest Area (hectares)

Production

Protection

CF Potential

Total

actual CF Area

1.

Illam

1,496

39,280

41,150

80,926

11,715

2.

Jhapa

10,513

1,167

7,877

195,567

8,470

3.

Morang

15,264

37,569

2,667

55,500

46

4.

Sunsari

11,866

11,504

1,495

24,865

85

5.

Udayapur

4,145

98,719

16,967

11,9831

20,703

6.

Sarlahi

6,849

14,206

2,273

23,328

119

7.

Rautahat

15,869

2,170

2,939

20,978

205

8.

Bara

25,959

3,273

3,197

32,429

159

9.

Parsa

10,110

3,387

3,496

16,993

24

10.

Makwanpur

1,876

87,652

50,994

140,522

13,575

11.

Chitwan

5,614

20,416

4,870

30,900

4,742

12.

Nawalparasi

20,846

80,950

8,962

11,0758

836

13.

Rupandehi

7,014

18,533

6,459

32,006

5,790

14.

Kapilbastu

32,616

29,933

8,316

70,865

223

15.

Bankey

25,784

83,631

3,880

113,295

2,104

16.

Bardia

14,792

14,681

4,273

33,746

1,706

17.

Kailali

64,196

13,3128

12,400

209,724

5,255

18.

Kanchanpur

23,536

31,165

2,999

57,700

114
1   ...   10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   ...   31


Verilənlər bazası müəlliflik hüququ ilə müdafiə olunur ©azkurs.org 2016
rəhbərliyinə müraciət

    Ana səhifə