Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005 Country Report 203 Rome, 2005



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Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005 

Country Report 203 

  

Rome, 

2005 

                              

 

Forestry Department 

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 

   


 

G

LOBAL 



F

OREST 


R

ESOURCES 

 

A

SSESSMENT 



2005 

 

 



P

UERTO 


R

ICO


 

 

 



C

OUNTRY 


R

EPORT


 

 

 



 

 

 



 

 


FRA 2005 – Country Report 203 

 

PUERTO RICO 

 

2(18) 



 

 

 



 

 

The Forest Resources Assessment Programme 

 

Sustainably managed forests have multiple environmental and socio-economic functions important at the 



global, national and local scales, and play a vital part in sustainable development. Reliable and up-to-

date information on the state of forest resources - not only on area and area change, but also on such 

variables as growing stock, wood and non-wood products, carbon, protected areas, use of forests for 

recreation and other services, biological diversity and forests’ contribution to national economies - is 

crucial to support decision-making for policies and programmes in forestry and sustainable development 

at all levels.  

 

FAO, at the request of its member countries, regularly monitors the world’s forests and their 



management and uses through the Forest Resources Assessment Programme. This country report 

forms part of the Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005 (FRA 2005), which is the most 

comprehensive assessment to date. More than 800 people have been involved, including 172 national 

correspondents and their colleagues, an Advisory Group, international experts, FAO staff, consultants 

and volunteers. Information has been collated from 229 countries and territories for three points in time: 

1990, 2000 and 2005. 

 

The reporting framework for FRA 2005 is based on the thematic elements of sustainable forest 



management acknowledged in intergovernmental forest-related fora and includes more than 40 variables 

related to the extent, condition, uses and values of forest resources. More information on the FRA 2005 

process and the results - including all the country reports - is available on the FRA 2005 Web site 

(

www.fao.org/forestry/fra2005



).  

 

The Global Forest Resources Assessment process is coordinated by the Forestry Department at FAO 



headquarters in Rome. The contact person for matters related to FRA 2005 is: 

 

Mette Løyche Wilkie 



Senior Forestry Officer  

FAO Forestry Department 

Viale delle Terme di Caracalla 

Rome 00100, Italy 

 

E-mail: 


Mette.LoycheWilkie@fao.org

  

 



Readers can also use the following e-mail address: 

fra@fao.org

 

 

 



DISCLAIMER 

 

 



The designations employed and the presentation of material in this information product do not 

imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of 

the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or 

concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.  

 

 

 



The Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005 Country Report Series is designed to document 

and make available the information forming the basis for the FRA 2005 reports. The Country Reports 

have been compiled by officially nominated country correspondents in collaboration with FAO staff. Prior 

to finalisation, these reports were subject to validation by forestry authorities in the respective countries. 

 


FRA 2005 – Country Report 203 

 

PUERTO RICO 

 

3(18) 



 

Report preparation and contact person 

 

 



This report has been prepared by: 

 

Mr Edgardo González (officially nominated National Correspondent to FRA) 

Director of Forest Service  

State Forester, Dept. of Environment and  

Natural Resources, 

 P.O. Box 9066600,  

Puerta de Tierra, San Juan,  

Puerto Rico, 00906-6600,  

Telephone (787) 724-3647  

Fax (787) 721-5984,  

E-mail: sfpr@caribe.net 

 

and 



 

Mr Thomas J. Brandeis 

USDA Forest Service 

4700 Old Kingston Pike, Knoxville, TN 37919 

E-mail: 


tjbrandeis@fs.fed.us

 

 



 

 

This country report comprises only the following national reporting tables: 



 

Table T1 – Extent of Forest and Other wooded land 

Table T5 – Growing stock 

Table T6 – Biomass stock 

Table T7 – Carbon stock 

Table T9 – Diversity of tree species 

 

 


FRA 2005 – Country Report 203 

 

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4(18) 


Contents 

 

1

 

TABLE T1 –  EXTENT OF FOREST AND OTHER WOODED LAND .............................................. 3

 

1.1



 

FRA


 

2005


 

C

ATEGORIES AND DEFINITIONS



............................................................................................ 3

 

1.2



 

N

ATIONAL DATA



................................................................................................................................... 3

 

1.3



 

A

NALYSIS AND PROCESSING OF NATIONAL DATA



.................................................................................. 3

 

1.4



 

R

ECLASSIFICATION INTO 



FRA

 

2005



 CLASSES

....................................................................................... 3

 

1.5


 

D

ATA FOR 



N

ATIONAL REPORTING TABLE 

T1 ........................................................................................ 3

 

1.6



 

C

OMMENTS TO 



N

ATIONAL REPORTING TABLE 

T1 ................................................................................. 3

 

2

 

TABLE T5 –  GROWING STOCK ........................................................................................................... 3

 

2.1



 

FRA


 

2005


 

C

ATEGORIES AND DEFINITIONS



............................................................................................ 3

 

2.2



 

N

ATIONAL DATA



................................................................................................................................... 3

 

2.3



 

A

NALYSIS AND PROCESSING OF NATIONAL DATA



.................................................................................. 3

 

2.4



 

R

ECLASSIFICATION INTO 



FRA

 

2005



 CLASSES

....................................................................................... 3

 

2.5


 

D

ATA FOR 



N

ATIONAL REPORTING TABLE 

T5 ........................................................................................ 3

 

2.6



 

C

OMMENTS TO 



N

ATIONAL REPORTING TABLE 

T5 ................................................................................. 3

 

3

 

TABLE T6 –  BIOMASS STOCK.............................................................................................................. 3

 

3.1



 

FRA


 

2005


 

C

ATEGORIES AND DEFINITIONS



............................................................................................ 3

 

3.2



 

N

ATIONAL DATA



................................................................................................................................... 3

 

3.3



 

A

NALYSIS AND PROCESSING OF NATIONAL DATA



.................................................................................. 3

 

3.4



 

R

ECLASSIFICATION INTO 



FRA

 

2005



 CLASSES

....................................................................................... 3

 

3.5


 

D

ATA FOR 



N

ATIONAL REPORTING TABLE 

T6 ........................................................................................ 3

 

3.6



 

C

OMMENTS TO 



N

ATIONAL REPORTING TABLE 

T6 ................................................................................. 3

 

4

 

TABLE T7 –  CARBON STOCK............................................................................................................... 3

 

4.1



 

FRA


 

2005


 

C

ATEGORIES AND DEFINITIONS



............................................................................................ 3

 

4.2



 

N

ATIONAL DATA



................................................................................................................................... 3

 

4.3



 

A

NALYSIS AND PROCESSING OF NATIONAL DATA



.................................................................................. 3

 

4.4



 

R

ECLASSIFICATION INTO 



FRA

 

2005



 CLASSES

....................................................................................... 3

 

4.5


 

D

ATA FOR 



N

ATIONAL REPORTING TABLE 

T7 ........................................................................................ 3

 

4.6



 

C

OMMENTS TO 



N

ATIONAL REPORTING TABLE 

T7 ................................................................................. 3

 

5

 

TABLE T9 – DIVERSITY OF TREE SPECIES ...................................................................................... 3

 

5.1



 

FRA


 

2005


 

C

ATEGORIES AND DEFINITIONS



............................................................................................ 3

 

5.2



 

N

ATIONAL DATA



................................................................................................................................... 3

 

5.3



 

D

ATA FOR 



N

ATIONAL REPORTING TABLE 

T9 ........................................................................................ 3

 

5.4



 

C

OMMENTS TO 



N

ATIONAL REPORTING TABLE 

T9 ................................................................................. 3

 

 



 

 


FRA 2005 – Country Report 203 

 

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Table T1 –  Extent of Forest and Other wooded land 

 

1.1 



FRA 2005 Categories and definitions 

Category Definition 

Forest 


Land spanning more than 0.5 hectares with trees higher than 5 meters and 

a canopy cover of more than 10 percent, or trees able to reach these 

thresholds in situ. It does not include land that is predominantly under 

agricultural or urban land use.  

Other wooded land 

Land not classified as “Forest”, spanning more than 0.5 hectares; with trees 

higher than 5 meters and a canopy cover of 5-10 percent, or trees able to 

reach these thresholds in situ; or with a combined cover of shrubs, bushes 

and trees above 10 percent. It does not include land that is predominantly 

under agricultural or urban land use. 

Other land 

All land that is not classified as “Forest” or “Other wooded land”. 

Other land with tree cover  

(Subordinated to “Other 

land”) 

Land classified as “Other land”, spanning more than 0.5 hectares with a 



canopy cover of more than 10 percent of trees able to reach a height of 5 

meters at maturity.  

Inland water bodies 

Inland water bodies generally include major rivers, lakes and water 

reservoirs.  

 

1.2 National 



data 

Data sources 

 

References to sources of 



information 

Quality 

(H/M/L) 

Variable(s) Year(s) Additional 

comments 

Kennaway, T. & Helmer, 

E.H. (unpublished data) 

International Institute of 

Tropical Forestry and 

Colorado State University 

 

1991 



Landsat ETM+ satellite image 

classification 

Kennaway, T. & Helmer, 

E.H. (unpublished data) 

International Institute of 

Tropical Forestry and 

Colorado State University 

 



2000 

Landsat ETM+ satellite image 

classification 

 

Classification and definitions 

 

National class 

Definition 

Lower montane forest 

(1991 and 2000) 

Submontane evergreen tall, elfin and sierra palm cloud forest (moist, wet, 

rain) 

Dry forest  



(1991 and 2000) 

Includes the following forest types: 

Lowland drought deciduous open woodland/shrubland (dry) ("open" = 25-

60% cover) 

Lowland drought deciduous dense woodland/shrubland (dry) ("dense" = > 

60% cover) 

Lowland drought and semi-deciduous forest and forest shrub on karst and 

other substrates 

Lowland drought and semi-deciduous sclerophyllous forest with succulents on 

serpentine substrate 

Moist forest 

 (1991 and 2000) 

Lowland seasonal evergreen and semi-deciduous forest and forest/shrub on 

karst substrate 



FRA 2005 – Country Report 203 

 

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Lowland seasonal evergreen coconut palm forest 

Lowland and submontane evergreen and seasonal evergreen forest 

Lowland and submontane evergreen and seasonal evergreen forest on karst 

substrate 

Wet forest  

(1991 and 2000) 

Submontane evergreen sclerophyllous forest on serpentine substrate 

Seasonally flooded forest (Pterocarpus swamp) 

Mangrove  

(1991 and 2000) 

Tidally and semi-permanently flooded evergreen sclerophyllous forest 

 

Original data 

 

These estimates are based on unpublished Landsat ETM+ satellite image classification 



with dates centered around the years 1991 and 2000.  Estimates include the mainland 

island of Puerto Rico and the outlying Puerto Rican islands of Vieques and Culebra. 

 

The definition of forest land used by Kennaway and Helmer is land with ≥ 25% cover of 



woody vegetation that consists of trees or trees and shrubs.

   


 

1.3 

Analysis and processing of national data 

Calibration 

A correction factor was calculated to increase forest area estimates made by Kennaway and 

Helmer, which had a total land area for Puerto Rico of 881,174.43 ha, to forest area estimates 

calibrated to the greater land area estimate from FAO STAT (887,000.00 ha). 

All forest area estimates made by Kennaway and Helmer were multiplied by the correction 

factor (1.006611143). 

 

Kennaway and Helmer 



land area 

FAO STAT land 

area Correction 

factor 


881,174.43 887,000.00 1.0066 

 

Estimation and forecasting 

Forest area estimates from Kennaway and Helmer for 1991 and 2000 were multiplied by the 

correction factor described in section 1.3.1, by forest type.  Then, an annual rate of change 

(ha/yr) was calculated for each forest type.  The annual rate of change for each forest type was 

multiplied by 5 years and that amount added to that forest type’s area in 2000 to forecast 

forest area in 2005.  The rate of change was also subtracted from the 1991 forest area estimate 

to derive a 1990 forest area estimate. 

 

  

1991  



forest area 

(ha) 


2000  

forest area 

(ha) 

Annual rate of  



change  

(ha/yr) 


Estimated 2005  

forest area  

(ha) 

Estimated 1990 



forest area  

(ha) 


Dry 69,983 

80,061 


1,120 

85,660 


68,863 

Moist 295,401 

289,820 

-620 286,719 

296,021 

Wet 5,486 

5,449 

-4 


5,428 

5,490 


Lower montane 

25,257 


22,646 

-290 


21,195 

25,547 


Mangrove 8,130 

8,870 


82 

9,281 


8,048 

Totals (ha) 

404,257 

406,846 


288 

408,284 


403,969 

Totals (1000 ha) 

404 

407 


408 


404 

FRA 2005 – Country Report 203 

 

PUERTO RICO 

7(18) 


1.4 Reclassification 

into FRA 2005 classes 

The definition of forest land used by Kennaway and Helmer is land with ≥ 25% cover of 

woody vegetation that consists of trees or trees and shrubs.

   


 

1.5 

Data for National reporting table T1 

 

Area (1000 hectares) 



FRA 2005 Categories 

1990 2000 2005 

Forest 


404 407 408 

Other wooded land 

NDA

NDA


NDA

Other land 

483 

480 


479 

   ...of which with tree cover 

1)

 NDA 


NDA

NDA


Inland water bodies 

8.00 


8.00 

8.00 


TOTAL 

895 

895  

895  

 

1)



 

Area of “Other land with tree cover” is included in the area reported under “Other land” and should  

therefore be excluded when calculating the total area for the country. 

 

 



1.6 

Comments to National reporting table T1 

Note that the 1990 forest area estimates (403,969

 

ha) derived from Kennaway and Helmer’s 



Landsat ETM+ satellite image classification differs substantially from the forest area 

estimates published in Franco et al. 1997 (287,000 ha) and used in FRA 2000.  There are two 

reasons for these differences. 

 

First, these new estimates include the islands of Vieques and Culebra, which were excluded 



from the forest inventory of Franco et al. (1997).  Including Vieques and Culebra adds 11,640 

ha of forest.   

 

Second, it has been proposed that classification of Landsat imagery captures smaller forest 



fragments that would have been excluded from the forest classification of aerial photographic 

imagery used in Franco et al. (1997).  Further study of this topic will be undertaken. 

 

Literature cited 



Franco, P. A., P. L. Weaver, and S. Eggen-McIntosh. 1997. Forest resources of Puerto Rico, 

1990. Southern  Resource Bulletin SRS-22, USDA Forest Service Southern Research 

Station, Asheville, North Carolina).   


FRA 2005 – Country Report 203 

 

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 2 

Table T5 –  Growing stock 

 

2.1 



FRA 2005 Categories and definitions 

 

Category Definition 

Growing stock 

Volume over bark of all living trees more than X cm in diameter at breast 

height (or above buttress if these are higher). Includes the stem from ground 

level or stump height up to a top diameter of Y cm, and may also include 

branches to a minimum diameter of W cm. 

Commercial growing stock 

The part of the growing stock of species that are considered as commercial or 

potentially commercial under current market conditions, and with a diameter at 

breast height of Z cm or more.  

 

2.2 National 



data 

Data sources 

 

References to sources of 



information 

Quality 

(H/M/L) 

Variable(s) Year(s) Additional 

comments 

USDA Forest Service 

forest inventory 

completed in 2004 

 

2004 



Data from a recently completed 

forest inventory of the US Virgin 

Islands. 

Kennaway, T. & Helmer, 

E.H. (unpublished data) 

International Institute of 

Tropical Forestry and 

Colorado State University 

 

1991 



Landsat ETM+ satellite image 

classification 

Kennaway, T. & Helmer, 

E.H. (unpublished data) 

International Institute of 

Tropical Forestry and 

Colorado State University 

 



2000 

Landsat ETM+ satellite image 

classification 

 

Classification and definitions 

 

National class 

Definition 

Growing stock 

All live stems with DBH ≥ 12.5 cm except for palm and tree fern species 

Growing stock volume 

Outside bark stem volume (m

3

) of growing stock taken from a 30 cm 



stump to a 10 cm minimum upper stem diameter.  This volume does not 

include any branch volume, only main bole volume. 

 

 

Original data 



Original data is unpublished at this time, but will be made publicly available through the 

USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis website. 



FRA 2005 – Country Report 203 

 

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2.3 

Analysis and processing of national data 

Calibration 

Forest area was calibrated to FAO STAT figures as described in the documentation for table 

T1. 

Estimation and forecasting 

Mean per hectare growing stock outer bark volume was estimated for dry, moist, wet, lower 

montane and mangrove forest types.  Mean per hectare volume values for each forest type 

were then multiplied by the number of hectares of each respective forest type for the years 

1990, 2000, and 2005.  Forest area for each forest type was estimated and forecast as 

described in the documentation for table T1. 

 

  

1990 forest area (ha) 



Mean Volume (m

3

/ha) 



Total Volume (m

3



Dry 68,863.22 

14.96


1,030,193.80 

Moist 296,021.11 

75.47

22,340,713.26 



Wet 5,490.11 

129.44


710,639.98 

Lower montane 

25,547.11 

106.42


2,718,723.56 

Mangrove 8,047.78 

52.31

420,979.26 



Totals 403,969.33 

 

 



27,221,249.86 

 

 



 

 

 



 

 

 



  

2000 forest area (ha) 

Mean Volume (m

3

/ha) 



Total Volume (m

3



Dry 80,061.34 

14.96


1,197,717.65 

Moist 289,820.30 

75.47

21,872,738.04 



Wet 5,448.75 

129.44


705,286.20 

Lower montane 

22,645.76 

106.42


2,409,961.78 

Mangrove 8,869.52 

52.31

463,964.59 



Totals 406,845.67 

 

 



26,649,668.26 

 

 



 

 

 



 

 

 



  

2005 forest area (ha) 

Mean Volume (m

3

/ha) 



Total Volume (m

3



Dry 85,660.51 

14.96


1,281,481.23 

Moist 286,719.94 

75.47

21,638,753.87 



Wet 5,427.96 

129.44


702,595.14 

Lower montane 

21,195.23 

106.42


2,255,596.38 

Mangrove 9,280.22 

52.31

485,448.31 



Totals 408,283.87 

 

 



26,363,874.93 

 

 



2.4 Reclassification 

into FRA 2005 classes 

The total volume figures above are equivalent to total growing stock. 



FRA 2005 – Country Report 203 

 

PUERTO RICO 

10(18) 


2.5 

Data for National reporting table T5 

 

Volume (million cubic meters over bark) 



FRA 2005 Categories 

Forest 

Other wooded land 

  

1990 2000  2005  1990 2000 2005 

Growing stock 

27.22 


26.65 

26.36 


 ND 

ND  


ND  

Commercial growing stock 

 ND 

ND  


ND 

ND 


ND 

ND 


 

 

Specification of country threshold  values 



Unit 

Value 

Complementary 

information 

1. Minimum diameter at breast height of trees 

included in Growing stock (X) 

cm 


12.5 cm     

2.

 



Minimum diameter at the top end of stem (Y) for 

calculation of Growing stock 

cm 

 10.0 cm    



3. Minimum diameter of branches included in 

Growing stock (W) 

cm NA 

 

 No commercial g.s. 



estimates made 

4.

 



Minimum diameter at breast height of trees in 

Commercial growing stock (Z) 

cm NA 

 

 No commercial g.s. 



estimates made 

5. Volume refers to “Above ground” (AG) or 

“Above stump” (AS) 

AG / AS 


 AS 

  

6.



 

Have any of the above thresholds (points 1 to 4) 

changed since 1990 

Yes/No  


No 

No estimates made 

in 1990. 

7. If yes, then attach a separate note giving details 

of the change 

Attachment 

 NA 

  

 



 

2.6 

Comments to National reporting table T5 

Growing stock represents all species of trees with DBH ≥ 12.5 cm except for palms and tree 

ferns.  Commercial growing stock is not defined due to the lack of comprehensively defined 

commercial markets for wood products in Puerto Rico. 



FRA 2005 – Country Report 203 

 

PUERTO RICO 

11(18) 




Table T6 –  Biomass stock 

 

3.1 



FRA 2005 Categories and definitions 

 

Category Definition 

Above-ground biomass 

All living biomass above the soil including stem, stump, branches, bark, seeds, 

and foliage. 

Below-ground biomass 

All living biomass of live roots.  Fine roots of less than 2mm diameter are excluded 

because these often cannot be distinguished empirically from soil organic matter or 

litter.   

Dead wood biomass 

All non-living woody biomass not contained in the litter, either standing, lying on 

the ground, or in the soil. Dead wood includes wood lying on the surface, dead 

roots, and stumps larger than or equal to 10 cm in diameter or any other diameter 

used by the country. 

 

3.2 National 

data 

Data sources 

 

References to sources of 



information 

Quality 

(H/M/L) 

Variable(s) Year(s) Additional 

comments 

USDA Forest Service 

forest inventory 

completed in 2004 

 

2004 



Data from a recently completed 

forest inventory of the US Virgin 

Islands. 

Kennaway, T. & Helmer, 

E.H. (unpublished data) 

International Institute of 

Tropical Forestry and 

Colorado State University 

 

1991 



Landsat ETM+ satellite image 

classification 

Kennaway, T. & Helmer, 

E.H. (unpublished data) 

International Institute of 

Tropical Forestry and 

Colorado State University 

 



2000 

Landsat ETM+ satellite image 

classification 

 

Classification and definitions 

 

National class 

Definition 

Above-ground biomass 

Total biomass in oven-dry kilograms of all live above-ground tree parts, 

including foliage, as estimated from regression equations that predict 

above-ground biomass from individual tree DBH and total height 

measurements.  Estimated for all trees with DBH ≥ 2.5 cm. 

Below-ground biomass 

Total biomass in oven-dry kilograms of all live below-ground tree parts, as 

estimated from a regression equation modelling the relationship between 

above-ground biomass and below-ground biomass.  Estimated for all trees 

with DBH ≥ 2.5 cm. 

 

Original data 

Original data is unpublished at this time, but will be made publicly available through the 

USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis website. 



FRA 2005 – Country Report 203 

 

PUERTO RICO 

12(18) 


 

3.3 

Analysis and processing of national data 

Calibration 

Forest area was calibrated to FAO STAT figures as described in the documentation for table 

T1. 

Estimation and forecasting 

Mean per hectare growing above (AGB) and below (BGB)-ground biomass were estimated 

for dry, moist, wet, lower montane, and mangrove forest types.  Average per hectare AGB 

and BGB values for each forest type were then multiplied by the number of hectares of each 

respective forest category for the years 1990, 2000, and 2005.  Forest area for each forest type 

was estimated and forecast as described in the documentation for table T1. 



 

 

  

1990 forest area (ha) 



AGB (Mg/ha) 

Total AGB (Mg) 

BGB (Mg/ha) 

Total BGB (Mg) 

Dry 68,863.22 

37.73 


2,598,209.37 

8.74 


601,864.56 

Moist 296,021.11 

97.83 

28,959,745.30 



18.2 

5,387,584.22 

Wet 

5,490.11 



101.72 558,454.10 

18.33 100,633.74 

Lower montane 

25,547.11 

143.59 

3,668,309.68 



26.67 

681,341.45 

Mangrove 

8,047.78 58.31 

469,265.92 11.57 

93,112.79 

Totals 

403,969.33  



 

36,253,984.38  

 

6,864,536.76 



 

 

 



   

 

 



 

 

 



 

 

  



2000 forest area (ha) 

AGB (Mg/ha) 

Total AGB (Mg) 

BGB (Mg/ha) 

Total BGB (Mg) 

Dry 80,061.34 

37.73 

3,021,098.68 



8.74 

699,383.85 

Moist 

289,820.30 97.83 



28,352,134.50 18.20 

5,274,497.59 

Wet 5,448.75 

101.72 


554,254.60 

18.33 


99,896.22 

Lower montane 

22,645.76 

143.59 


3,251,738.80 

26.67 


603,869.60 

Mangrove 

8,869.52 58.31 

517,220.00 11.57 

102,595.54 

Totals 


406,845.67  

 

35,696,446.58  



 

6,780,242.80 

 

 

 



   

 

 



 

 

 



 

 

  



2005 forest area (ha) 

AGB (Mg/ha) 

Total AGB (Mg) 

BGB (Mg/ha) 

Total BGB (Mg) 

Dry 85,660.51 

37.73 

3,232,382.38 



8.74 

748,295.99 

Moist 

286,719.94 97.83 



28,048,836.60 18.20 

5,218,073.48 

Wet 5,427.96 

101.72 


552,140.17 

18.33 


99,515.12 

Lower montane 

21,195.23 

143.59 


3,043,455.50 

26.67 


565,190.00 

Mangrove 

9,280.22 58.31 

541,169.53 11.57 

107,346.16 

Totals 


408,283.87  

 

35,417,984.18  



 

6,738,420.75 

 

 

 



   

 

 



 

 

3.4 Reclassification 

into FRA 2005 classes 

FRA 2005 – Country Report 203 

 

PUERTO RICO 

13(18) 


 

3.5 

Data for National reporting table T6 

 

Biomass (million metric tonnes oven-dry weight) 



FRA 2005 Categories 

Forest 

Other wooded land 

  

1990 2000 2005 1990 2000 2005 

Above-ground 

biomass 36.25 35.70 35.42 ND 

  ND  ND 

Below-ground 

biomass 6.86 6.78 6.74 ND  ND  ND 

Dead wood biomass 

 ND 

 ND 


 ND 

ND 


ND 

ND 


TOTAL 

43.11 42.48 42.16 ND  ND  ND 

 

 



Thresholds used by the country are the following: 

Above-ground biomass (AGB) was calculated for all living trees with DBH ≥ 2.5 cm. 

 

3.6 

Comments to National reporting table T6 

Above-ground biomass (AGB) was calculated for all living trees with DBH ≥ 2.5 cm using 

the following equations. 

 

Lower montane forest, palo colorado forest type equation (Weaver and Gillespie 1992) 



T

BH

H

D

AGB

2

*



0310

.

0



7962

.

4



+

=

 



 

Subtropical Wet forest (Scatena et al. 1993) 

 

)

282



.

3

*ln



950

.

0



(

2



=

T

BH

H

D

e

AGB

 

 



Subtropical Moist forest (Brown et al. 1989) 

 

)



ln

*

9719



.

0

1141



.

3

(



2

T

BH

H

D

e

AGB

+



=

 

 



Subtropical Dry forest (Brown 1997) 

)

ln



*

32

.



2

996


.

1

(



2

BH

D

e

AGB

+



=

 

 



Sierra palm species Prestoea montana for all life zones (Brown 1997) 

 

T



H

AGB

*

4



.

6

0



.

10

+



=

 

 



Mangrove species Rhizophora mangle (Cintrón and Schaeffer-Novelli 1984) 

1000


/

)]

(



*

957


.

125


[

8557


.

0

2



T

BH

H

D

AGB

=

 



 

Mangrove species Laguncularia racemosa (Cintrón and Schaeffer-Novelli 1984) 

1000

/

)]



(

*

0513



.

70

[



9084

.

0



2

T

BH

H

D

AGB

=

 



 

Mangrove species Avicennia germinans (Fromard et al. 1998) 

)

(

*



14

.

0



4

.

2



BH

D

AGB

=

 



 

 


FRA 2005 – Country Report 203 

 

PUERTO RICO 

14(18) 


Below-ground biomass was derived using the equation in (Cairns et al. 1997) for estimating 

individual tree BGB for tropical forests: 

 

)

ln



8836

.

0



0587

.

1



(

AGB

e

BGB

+



=

 

 



 

Literature cited 

 

Brown, S. 1997. Estimating biomass and biomass change in tropical forests. A primer. FAO 



Forestry Paper 134, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. 

Brown, S., A. J. Gillespie, and A. E. Lugo. 1989. Biomass estimation methods for tropical 

forests with application to forest inventory data. Forest Science 35:881-902. 

Cairns, M. A., S. Brown, E. H. Helmer, and G. A. Baumgardner. 1997. Root biomass 

allocation in the world's upland forests. Oecologia 111:1-11. 

Cintrón, G., and Y. Schaeffer-Novelli. 1984. Caracteristicas y desarollo estructural de los 

manglares de Norte y Sur America. Ciencia Interamericana 25:4-15. 

Fromard, F., H. Puig, E. Mougin, G. Marty, J. L. Betoulle, and L. Cadamuro. 1998. Structure, 

above-ground biomass and dynamics of mangrove ecosystems: new data from French 

Guiana. Oecologia 115:39-53. 

Martínez-Yrízar, A., J. Sarukhán, A. Pérez-Jiménez, E. Rincón, M. Maass, A. Solís-

Magallanes, and L. Cervantes. 1992. Above-ground phytomass of a tropical deciduous 

forest on the coast of Jalisco, México. Journal of Tropical Ecology 8:87-96. 

Scatena, F. N., W. L. Silver, T. Siccama, A. Johnson, and M. J. Sanchez. 1993. Biomass and 

nutrient content of the Bisley Experimental Watershed, Luquillo experimental Forest, 

Puerto Rico, before and after Hurricane Hugo, 1989. Biotropica 25:15-27. 

Weaver, P. L., and A. J. Gillespie. 1992. Tree biomass equations for the forests of the 

Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico. Commonwealth Forestry Review 71:35-39. 



 

FRA 2005 – Country Report 203 

 

PUERTO RICO 

15(18) 




Table T7 –  Carbon stock 

 

4.1 



FRA 2005 Categories and definitions 

 

Category Definition 

Carbon in above-ground biomass 

Carbon in all living biomass above the soil, including stem, stump, 

branches, bark, seeds, and foliage.   

Carbon in below-ground biomass 

Carbon in all living biomass of live roots. Fine roots of less than 2 mm 

diameter are excluded, because these often cannot be distinguished 

empirically from soil organic matter or litter. 

Carbon in dead wood biomass 

Carbon in all non-living woody biomass not contained in the litter, either 

standing, lying on the ground, or in the soil. Dead wood includes wood 

lying on the surface, dead roots, and stumps larger than or equal to 10 cm in 

diameter or any other diameter used by the country. 

Carbon in litter 

Carbon in all non-living biomass with a diameter less than a minimum 

diameter chose by the country for lying dead (for example 10 cm), in 

various states of decomposition above the mineral or organic soil. This 

includes the litter, fumic, and humic layers.  

Soil carbon 

Organic carbon in mineral and organic soils (including peat) to a specified 

depth chosen by the country and applied consistently through the time 

series. 

 

4.2 National 



data 

Data sources 

 

References to sources of 



information 

Quality 

(H/M/L) 

Variable(s) Year(s) Additional 

comments 

USDA Forest Service 

forest inventory 

completed in 2004 

 

2004 



Data from a recently completed 

forest inventory of the Puerto Rico. 

Kennaway, T. & Helmer, 

E.H. (unpublished data) 

International Institute of 

Tropical Forestry and 

Colorado State University 

 



1991 

Landsat ETM+ satellite image 

classification 

Kennaway, T. & Helmer, 

E.H. (unpublished data) 

International Institute of 

Tropical Forestry and 

Colorado State University 

 

2000 



Landsat ETM+ satellite image 

classification 



Classification and definitions 

 

National class 



Definition 

Above-ground carbon 

Total carbon in oven-dry kilograms of all live above-ground tree parts, 

including stem, stump, branches, bark, seeds, and foliage, as estimated 

from regression equations that predict above-ground biomass from 

individual tree DBH and total height measurements, and then multiplying 

by a factor of 0.5.  Estimated for all trees with DBH ≥ 2.5 cm. 

Below-ground carbon 

Total carbon in oven-dry kilograms of all live below-ground tree parts, as 

estimated from a regression equation modelling the relationship between 

above-ground biomass and below-ground biomass, then multiplying by a 

factor of 0.5.  Estimated for all trees with DBH ≥ 2.5 cm. 



FRA 2005 – Country Report 203 

 

PUERTO RICO 

16(18) 


Original data 

Original data is unpublished at this time, but will be made publicly available through the 

USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis website. 

 

4.3 



Analysis and processing of national data 

Calibration 

Forest area was calibrated to FAO STAT figures as described in the documentation for table 

T1. 

Estimation and forecasting 

Forest area for each forest type was estimated and forecast as described in the documentation 

for table T1. 

4.4 Reclassification 

into FRA 2005 classes 

NA 


4.5 

Data for National reporting table T7 

 

 



Carbon  (Million metric tonnes) 

FRA 2005 Categories 

Forest 

Other wooded land 

  

1990 2000 2005 1990 2000 2005 

Carbon in above-ground biomass 

18.13 17.85 17.71 ND  ND  ND 

Carbon in below-ground biomass 

3.43 3.39 3.37 ND  ND  ND 



Sub-total: Carbon in living biomass 

21.56 

21.24 

21.08 

ND ND ND 

Carbon in dead wood  

ND ND ND ND ND ND 

Carbon in litter 

ND ND ND ND ND ND 

Sub-total: Carbon in dead wood and 

litter 

ND ND ND ND ND ND 

Soil carbon to a depth of _____ cm 

ND ND ND ND ND ND 



TOTAL 

CARBON 

 

ND ND ND ND ND ND 

 

 



4.6 

Comments to National reporting table T7 

Carbon in above and below-ground biomass was estimated by multiplying above and below-

ground biomass values from table T6 by 0.5. 

 


FRA 2005 – Country Report 203 

 

PUERTO RICO 

17(18) 




Table T9 – Diversity of tree species 

 

5.1 



FRA 2005 Categories and definitions 

 

Category Definition 

Number of native tree species 

The total number of native tree species that have been identified within 

the country. 

Number of critically endangered 

tree species 

The number of native tree species that are classified as “Critically 

endangered” in the IUCN red list. 

Number of endangered tree 

species 

The number of native tree species that are classified as “Endangered” in the 

IUCN red list. 

Number of vulnerable tree species  The number of native tree species that are classified as “Vulnerable” in the 

IUCN red list. 

5.2 National 

data 

Data sources 

 

References to sources of 



information 

Quality 

(H/M/L) 

Variable(s) Year(s) 

Additional 

comments 

IUCN Red List of 

threatened species 

H Vulnerable 

and 

endangered species 



2000 Secondary 

source 


Classification and definitions 

Original data 

5.3 

Data for National reporting table T9 

 

Number of species 



FRA 2005 Categories 

(year 2000) 

Native tree species 

NDA 

Critically endangered tree species 



22 

Endangered tree species 

16 

Vulnerable tree species 



 16 

5.4 

Comments to National reporting table T9 

The lists of endangered and vulnerable species include all plant species, not only trees. 

 

Critically endangered species: 



Auerodendron pauciflorum  

Banara vanderbiltii  

Buxus vahlii  

Callicarpa ampla  

Calyptranthes kiaerskovii  

Cordia rupicola  

Cordia wagnerorum  

Cornutia obovata  

FRA 2005 – Country Report 203 

 

PUERTO RICO 

18(18) 


Eugenia woodburyana  

Henriettea membranifolia  

Ilex cookii  

Leptocereus quadricostatus  

Myrcia paganii  

Pleodendron macranthum  

Psidium sintenisii  

Solanum drymophilum  

Styrax portoricensis  

Ternstroemia luquillensis  

Ternstroemia subsessilis  

Trichilia triacantha  

Xylosma pachyphyllum  

Zamia portoricensis  

 

Endangered species: 



Brunfelsia portoricensis  

Calyptranthes portoricensis  

Calyptranthes thomasiana  

Coccoloba rugosa  

Erythrina eggersii  

Eugenia haematocarpa  

Goetzea elegans  

Guaiacum officinale  

Guaiacum sanctum  

Ilex sintenisii  

Maytenus cymosa  

Nectandra krugii  

Pouteria hotteana  

Schoepfia arenaria  

Stahlia monosperma  

Zanthoxylum thomasianum  

 

Vulnerable species:  



Antirhea portoricensis  

Antirhea sintenisii  

Calyptranthes luquillensis  

Chrysophyllum pauciflorum  

Gaussia attenuata  

Juglans jamaicensis  

Manilkara pleeana  

Manilkara valenzuelana  

Mappia racemosa  

Marlierea sintenisii  

Maytenus ponceana  

Picrasma excelsa  

Schefflera gleasonii  

Tabernaemontana oppositifolia  

Zamia amblyphyllidia  

Zanthoxylum flavum 

Каталог: forestry
forestry -> Evaluación de los recursos Informe nacional 161 forestales mundiales 2005
forestry -> Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005 Country Report 178 Rome, 2005
forestry -> Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005 Country Report 186 Rome, 2005
forestry -> Evaluación de los recursos Informe nacional 174 forestales mundiales 2005
forestry -> Workshop Proceedings: Revision of the National List of Protected Trees as per Section 12, National Forests Act of 1998
forestry -> Melliferous plants for Cameroon Highlands and Adamaoua Plateau honey
forestry -> Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005 Country Report 123 Rome, 2005
forestry -> Evaluación de los recursos Informe nacional 189 forestales mundiales 2005
forestry -> Evaluación de los recursos Informe nacional 195 forestales mundiales 2005
forestry -> Forest Resources Assessment Programme Working Paper 78/e rome


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