Glossary There exist diverse definitions and connotations associated with terminology used in plant genetic resource. This short glossary does not present a



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Western Ghats 

(Northwestern 

Ghats: Konkan 

and 


Southwestern 

Ghats: Malabar 

Coast)

North Western GhatsAbelmoschus angulosusA. ficulneusA. manihot, 

Cajanus lineatus

C. sericeusCanavalia lineataCinnamomum goaense, 



Coffea wightiana

C. crassifoliaCucumis ritchiei, C. setosusCurcuma 



inodora

C. pseudomontanaC. purpurea, C. reclinataDolichos bracteatus

syn. Sphenostylis bracteataEchinochloa colonumGarcinia malabarica, G. 

morella

G. talbotiiMangifera sylvaticaMomordica tuberosa; syn. M. 



cymbalaria

Oryza meyeriana; syn. O. indandamanicaPanicum hippothrix



Pennisetum orientale

Piper argyrophyllumP. galeatumP. hookeriP. 



hymenophyllum

P. trichostachyonVigna dalzellianaV. khandalensis; syn. 



V. grandis

Zingiber neesanum; syn. Z. macrostachyum, and Z. purpureum 

(34)

South Western GhatsAbelmoschus angulosusA. manihot ssp. 

tetraphyllus

Amorphophallus bonoccordensisA. commutatusA. 



hohenackeri

A. mysorensisA. nicolsianusA. smithsonianusArtocarpus 



gomezianus

 ssp. zeylanicusA. hirsutusCajanus candolleiC. lineatus



Carissa spinarum

; syn. C. paucinerviaCinnamomum filipedicellatumC. 



heyneanum

C. macrocarpumC. malabatrumC. ripariumC. 



travancoricum

C. wightiiColocasia esculentaCorchorus pseudo-olitorius



Crotalaria clarkei

C. digitataC. grahamianaCurcuma aromaticaC. 



aurantiaca

C. caesia; syn. C. malabaricaC. coriaceaC. decipiensC. 



ecalcarata

C. harithaC. karnatakensisC. kudagensisC. nilamburensisC. 



neilgherrensis

C. oligantha; syn. C. cannanorensisC. raktakantaC. 



reclinata

C. thalakaveriensisC. vamanaDioscorea hamiltoniiD. hispida

syn. D. daemonaD. intermediaD. oppositifoliaD. pentaphylla; syn. D. 

jacquemontii

D. spicataD. tomentosaD. wallichiiD. wightiiDolichos 



uniflorus

Ensete superbumEugenia singampattianaFragaria nilgerrensis



Garcinia morella

G. travancoricaG. wightiiG. xanthochymusJasminum 



angustifolium

J. flexileJ. malabaricumJ. mesnyiLinum mysorenseLuffa 



umbellata

 (acutangula), Momordica dioicaM. sahyadricaMusa superba



Myristica dactyloides

M. malabaricaOlea glanduliferaOryza meyeriana



O. officinalis

; syn. O. officinalis ssp. malampuzhaenensisPiper 



argyrophyllum

P. barberiP. galeatumP. hapniumP. hookeriP. 



pykarahense

P. schmidtiiP. silentvalleyensis, P. trichostachyonPueraria 



tuberosa

Sesamum laciniatumS. malabaricumS. mulayanumS. radiatum



Solanum anguivi

; syn. S. indicumS. erianthumS. incanumS. nigrum



S.pubescens

; syn. S. torvumS. viarumSyzygium arnottianumS. beddomei



S. malabaricum

Trichosanthes cucumerinaT. nervifoliaT. tricuspidata

syn. T. bracteataT. villosulaT. wallichianaVigna bournaeaV. pilosaV. 

vexillata

 var. wightiiVitis pedataV. repanda; syn. Cissus repandaZingiber 



cernuum

Z. neesanum; syn. Z. macrostachyumZ. purpureumZ. roseumZ. 



wightianum

, and Z. zerumbet (112)



Coastal zone 

(Sand dunes of 

West and East 

Coast)


Caesalpinia pulcherrima

Canavalia catharticaC. maritimaCassia siamea



C. tora

Casuarina equisetifolia (wild forms), Cissus quadrangularis



Citrullus colocynthis

Cocos nucifera (wild forms), Crotalaria pallidaC. 



retusa

C. verrucosaIpomoea aquaticaI. carnea ssp. fistulosaI. pes-



caprae

Ixora arborea; syn. I. parvifloraPhoenix paludosaPhysalis 



minima

Saccharum spontaneumUniola paniculata,  

and Ziziphus williamsii (21)

(continued)

Appendices


297

Biogeographical 

zones

Wild relatives of cultivated species recorded



Islands 

(Andaman and 

Nicobar and 

Lakshadweep 

Islands)

Amorphophallus carnosus

A. longistylusBauhinia nicobarica; syn. B. 



stipularis

Bombax insigne var. andamanicaB. insigne var. polystemon



Canavalia turgid

Dioscorea nummulariaD. rogersiiD. vexans



Dipterocarpus andamanicus

Ficus andamanicaGarcinia andamanicaG. 



cadelliana

G. calycinaG. kurziiGrewia calophyllaHornstedtia fenzlii



Ixora capitulifera

I. hymenophyllaJasminum cordifoliumJ. andamanicum



J. multiflorum

J. unifoliolatumMangifera andamanicaM. camptosperma



Manilkara littoralis

Nypa fruticansOryza indandamanicaPhyllanthus 



andamanicus

Piper sarmentosumPolyalthia parkinsoniiPterocarpus 



dalbergioides

Syzygium andamanicumS. kurziiS. maniiS. polyanthumS. 



samarangense

Terminalia bialataT. catappaT. maniiT. proceraVanilla 



andamanica

, and Vigna marina (44)

Source: Singh (

2017


)

 Appendix  II

Exploration, surveys, and bio-perspective assessment has led to identification 

around 1500 plant species to be under threat in India. This includes more than 1100 

higher plants, including the wild relatives of crop/cultivated species. The rarity and 

the threat to these species have been caused by urbanization, developmental activi-

ties, destruction of habitats by anthropogenic factors like over grazing, mining, etc. 

Botanical Survey of India have published five volumes (3 published and 2 in press) 

of the Red Data Books of Indian Plants listing 1182 species, 623 listed published 

earlier. In 2001, a tentative list of species needing conservation was also drawn 

(Archive 2001) to facilitate both in situ and ex situ conservation. Further investiga-

tions, in many plant species has confirmed the threat perception with ICUN catego-

ries. Based on survey and the investigations in this direction, the Ministry of 

Environment and Forest, Government of India releases press release on the plant 

species under threat to draw public/scientific attention and develop awareness and 

support for conservation of plant species, particularly those of economic value, 

including wild relatives of crops/cultivated species. An attempt is being made to list 

the representative crop/cultivated species for a bird’s-eye view.

Representative Wild Relatives of Crop/Cultivated Species Reported to Be Under Threat

Wild relatives of cultivated species

Crop group

a

ICUN category



Abutilon bidentatum

 var. major

ORN

R

Abutilon ranadei



ORN

CR

Acacia campbelii

AGFOR

VU

Acacia donaldii



AGFOR

DD

Acer caesium

ORN

VU

Acer oblongum



 var. membranaceum

ORN


CR

Acer osmastonii

ORN


EN

Aconitum balfourii

ORN/M


DD

(continued)

Appendices


298

Wild relatives of cultivated species

Crop group

a

ICUN category



Acorus calamus

M & AP


EN

Aconitum heterophyllum

ORN


EN

Aconitum kashmiranum

ORN


EN

Aconitum violaceum

ORN


VU

Aegle marmelos

 var. mahurensis

F & NT

R

Albizia thompsonii



AGFOR

R

Albizia thompsonii

 var. galbana

AGFOR


R

Allium auriculatum

VEG


EN

Allium loratum

VEG


EN

Allium roylei

VEG


EN

Allium stracheyi

VEG


VU

Anogeissus sericea

 var. nummularia

IND CR

R

Arnebia benthamii



M & AP

CR

Asparagus jacquemonti

VEG

DD

Asparagus rottleri



VEG

DD

Barleria gibsonioides

ORN/M

R

Barleria prionitis



 ssp. dicantha

ORN/M


DD

Barleria stocksii

ORN/M


Bauhinia variegata

ORN


DD

Berberis affinis

M & AP


R

Berberis apiculata

M & AP


R

Berberis kashmirian

M & AP


R

Berberis lambertii

M & AP


VU

Berberis pseudoumbellata

M & AP


DD

Berberis royleana

M & AP


DD

Bombax insigne

COTIN


CR

Boswellia ovelifoliolata

M & AP


EN

Boswellia serrata

M & AP


Brachystelma laevigatum

ORN


VU

Brachystelma pauciflorum

ORN


EN

Butea monosperma var. lutea

M & AP


EN

Brachystelma volubile

ORN


DD

Cajanus cajanifolius

GL

DD



Cajanus lineatus

GL

DD



Calamus brandisii

ORN/IND


R

Calamus inermis

ORN


VU

Camellia sinensis

COMC


Canavalia stocksii

VEG


R

Capparis cinerea

F & NT


DD

Capparis diversifolia

F & NT


VU

Capparis grandis

F & NT


DD

Capparis pachyphylla

F & NT


VU

Carum villosum

SP & CON


EN

Cenchrus rajasthanensis

FOR


DD

Ceropegia attenuata

FOR


R

Ceropegia bulbosa

FOR


VU

(continued)

Appendices


299

Wild relatives of cultivated species

Crop group

a

ICUN category



Ceropegia fantastica

FOR


EN

Ceropegia fimbriifera

FOR


VU/R

Ceropegia intermedia

FOR


DD

Ceropegia maccannii

FOR


EN

Ceropegia odorata

FOR


EN

Ceropegia pusilla

FOR


R

Ceropegia spiralis

FOR


R

Chlorophytum borivilianum

M & AP


CR

Chlorophytum malabaricum

M & AP


R

Cinnamomum filipedicellatum

SP & CO


EN

Cinnamomum heyneanum

SP & CO


DD

Cinnamomum perrottetii

SP & CO


VU

Cinnamomum riparium

SP & CO


VU

Cinnamomum travancoricum

SP & CO


VU

Citrus indica

F & NT


EN

Citrus macroptera

F & NT


EN

Coffea crassifolia

COMC


R

Commiphora wightii

M & AP


R

Crinum brachynema

ORN


CR

Crinum eleonorae

ORN


EX

Crinum woodrowii

ORN


R/CR

Crotalaria bourneae

FIB


DD

Crotalaria clarkei

FIB


R

Crotalaria clavata

FIB


EN

Crotalaria digitata

FIB


EN/R

Crotalaria fysonii

 var. glabra

FIB

EN

Crotalaria grahamiana



FIB

R

Crotalaria longipes

FIB

EN

Crotalaria medicaginea



 var. rigida

FIB


Crotalaria paniculata

FIB


NT/LC

Crotalaria willdenowiana galbrifoliata

FIB


R

Curcuma caesia

SP & CO


EN

Curcuma coriacea

SP & CO


EN

Curcuma decipiens

SP & CO


R

Curcuma pseudomontana

SP & CO


Curculigo orchioides

M & AP


EN

Cycas beddomei

ORN


EN

Cycas circinalis

ORN


EN

Cymbidium aloifolium

ORN


NT

Cymbidium whiteae

ORN


Cymbopogon flexuosus

FOR


EN

Cyperus dwarkensis

FOR


R

Cypripedium himalaicum

ORN


EN

Dactylorhiza hatagirea

ORN/M


Dalbergia congesta

AGFOR


EN

Delphinium malabaricum

 var. ghaticum

ORN

VU

(continued)



Appendices

300

Wild relatives of cultivated species

Crop group

a

ICUN category



Dendrobium pauciflorum

ORN


EN

Dichanthium armatum

FOR


R

Dioscorea deltoidea

VEG


EN

Dioscorea wightii

VEG


R

Diospyros barberi

F & NT


Diospyros holeana

F & NT


VU

Diospyros paniculata

F & NT


VU

Dipcadi ursulae

 var. longiracemosa

ORN

Elaeocarpus munronii

 (Rudraksha)

INCR

NT

Elaeocarpus recurvatus



INCR

VU

Ephedra gerardiana

M & AP

EN

Ephedra foliata



M & AP

Embelia ribes

M & AP


CR

Eugenia argentea

ORN


EN/EX

Eugenia cotinifolia

 ssp. codyensis

ORN

EN

Eugenia discifera



ORN

EN

Eugenia indica

ORN

EN

Euphorbia katrajensis



INCR

R

Ficus andamanica

F & NT

EN

Ficus angladei



F & NT

CR

Garcinia kingii

F & NT

DD

Garcinia talbotii



F & NT

Garcinia travancorica

F & NT


VU

Garcinia wightii

F & NT


VU

Grewia damine

F & NT


Grewia gamblei

F & NT


EN

Grewia pandaica

F & NT


CR

Hildegardia populifolia

FIB


CR/VU

Impatiens johnii

ORN


EN/EX

Impatiens macrocarpa

ORN


CR

Impatiens neo-barnesii

ORN


EN

Impatiens orchioides

ORN


VU

Impatiens tenella

ORN


EN

Impatiens nilagirica

ORN


CR

Indigofera barberi

INCR


R

Indigofera coerulea

 var. monosperma

INCR

R

Indigofera constricta



INCR

R

Indigofera thothathri

INCR

VU

Ipomoea clarkei



VEG/ORN

EN

Ixonanthes khasiana

INCR

VU

Ixora lawsonii



ORN

EN

Ixora longibracteata

ORN

DD

Jasminum adenophyllum



ORN

EN

Jasminum strictum

ORN

CR

Jasminum wightii



ORN

R

Lactuca benthamii

VEG

EN

(continued)



Appendices

301

Wild relatives of cultivated species

Crop group

a

ICUN category



Lactuca cooperi

VEG


EN

Lactuca filicina

VEG


EN

Lactuca undulata

VEG


EN

Livistonia jenkinsiana

ORN


EN

Madhuca bourdillonii

AGFOR


EN

Madhuca diplostemon

AGFOR


EN

Magnolia gustavii

ORN


CR

Mallotus philippensis

INCR


R

Mangifera andamanica

F & NT


VU/NT

Mangifera khasiana

F & NT


DD

Michelia kisopa

ORN


DD

Michelia punduana

ORN


R

Mucuna pruriens

FOR


DD

Myristica dactyloides

SP & CO


VU

Myristica malabarica

SP & CO


VU

Nardostachys grandiflora

 (jatamansi)

M & AP

CR

Nepenthes khasiana



M & AP

EN

Nymphaea pygmaea

ORN

EX

Oryza nivara



C

DD

Panax pseudoginseng

M & AP

VU/CR


Paphiopedilum insigne

ORN


EN

Paphiopedilum spicerianum

ORN


EN

Paphiopedilum venustum

ORN


EN

Paphiopedilum villosum

ORN


VU

Pandanus mangalorensis

INCR


CR

Pandanus martinianus

INCR


EN

Pandanus palakkadensis

INCR


CR

Pandanus unguifer

INCR


EN

Phoenix rupicola

COMCR


NT

Phyllanthus narayanswami

M & AP


EN

Phyllanthus talbotii

M & AP


R

Picrorhiza kurroa

M & AP


EN

Pimpinella katrajensis

INCR


R

Pimpinella tirupatiensis

INCR


EN

Pinus gerardiana

INCR


R

Piper barberi

SP&CON


CR

Piper mullesua

SP&CON


VU

Piper pykarahense

SP&CON


Podophyllum hexandrum

M & AP


EN

Portulaca oleracea

VEG


Prunus himalaica

F & NT


R

Pterocarpus santalinus

M & AP


EN

Pueraria tuberosa

M & AP


NT

Rauvolfia beddomei

M & AP


Rauvolfia micrantha

M & AP


Rauvolfia serpentina

M & AP


VU

(continued)

Appendices


302

Wild relatives of cultivated species

Crop group

a

ICUN category



Rhododendron arboreum

 ssp. arboreum

ORN

Rhododendron concinnoides

ORN


VU

Rhododendron elliottii

ORN


DD

Rhododendron formosum

ORN


VU

Rhododendron johnstoneanum

ORN


DD

Rhododendron santapaui

ORN


EN

Rhododendron subansiriense

ORN


Rhododendron wattii

ORN


EN

Rubus almorensis

F & NT


DD

Rubus fockei

F & NT


DD

Rhynchosia beddomei

GL

R



Rhynchosia velutina

GL

VU



Rubia himalayensis

INCR


VU

Salix obscura

AGFOR


Salvadora oleoides

F/AGFOR


Salvadora Persica

F/AGFOR


Santalum album

INCR


VU

Saussurea bracteata

M & AP


R

Saussurea clarkei

M & AP


Saussurea costus

M & AP


CR

Saussurea involucrata

M & AP


R

Saussurea obvallata

M & AP


VU

Shorea tumbuggaia

INCR


EN

Sterculia khasiana

M & AP


EX

Sterculia urens

M & AP


EN

Syzygium alternifolium

F & NT/M


EN

Syzygium andamanicum

F & NT


CR

Syzygium benthamiana

F & NT


DD

Syzygium beddomei

F & NT


R

Syzygium bourdillonii

F & NT


EN

Syzygium caryophyllatum

F & NT


Syzygium chavaran

F & NT


EN

Syzygium gambleanum

F & NT


E

Syzygium manii

F & NT


CR

Syzygium occidentalis

F & NT


DD

Syzygium palghatense

F & NT


EX/EN

Syzygium stocksii

F & NT


DD

Syzygium travancoricum

F & NT


EN/CR

Taxus wallichiana

M &AP


EN

Tecomella undulata

INCR


Terminalia arjuna

M &AP


DD

Terminalia pallida

M &AP


EN

Tinospora sinensis

M &AP


VU

Vanda coerulea

ORN


R/CR

Vanda wightii

ORN


EX/RD

Vanilla andamanica

SP & CO


CR

(continued)

Appendices


303

Wild relatives of cultivated species

Crop group

a

ICUN category



Vanilla wightiana

SP & CO


R

Vigna dalzelliana

GL

Vigna khandalensis

GL

R

Withania coagulans



M & AP

Zingiber cernuum

SP & CO


DD

Zingiber purpureum

 var. palamaunsis

SP & CO

EN

Ziziphus truncata



F & NT

Ziziphus williamsii

F & NT


a

C

 cereals, GL grain legumes, OS oilseed, FIB fiber, FOR forage, VEG vegetable, F & NT fruit and 

nuts, SP & CO spices and condiments, COMCR commercial crops, M & AP medicinal and aro-

matic plants; ORN ornamentals, AGFOR agroforestry, INCR industrial crops

Source: CAMP Workshop (1998), Chadburn (

2012a


b



c

d



e



f

), MoEF (2010), Nayar and Sastry 

(1987–1990), Rawat (2008), Red Data Book of Indian Plants, Singh (

2004


2015


), Ved et al. 

(2015), Walter and Gillett (

1998

), WCMC (



1998h

)

 Appendix  III

The germplasm collections of wild relatives in major crop species have been evalu-

ated against main yield reducing factors, particularly the biotic and abiotic stresses 

and for nutritional traits in food crops and yield and quality-related traits in others. 

This has resulted in identification many desirable traits in these wild species. 

However, the possible genetic diversity that may exist within a species is yet to be 

studied in greater details in most of cases. This has created an expectation of the 

specific desirable trait(s) in all accessions of that species, which in many cases may 

not be true.

A great variation has been observed in identification wild relatives of crop/culti-

vated species under various crop groups with desirable traits. A large number desir-

able traits have been discovered in wild relatives of field and horticultural crops of 

food and forage value. However, the same is not true for other groups, such as spices 

and condiments, floriculture, medicinal and aromatic plants, agroforestry and cot-

tage industry crops, and others, because of several inherent lacunas or constraints, 

such as:

 1.  Many are yet to reach crop status and mostly cultivated in gardens and home-

stead gardens.

 2.  Many of them are perennial in nature with difficulties in their evaluation for 

desirable features.

 3.  Many have complex breeding system.

 4.  Crop or genetic improvement activities in many are still in infancy.

 5.  There has been lack of efforts in developing screening methodologies for/against 

various traits.

 6.  Lack of efforts toward evaluation for desirable traits.

Recognizing these constraints, a list of representative’s wild relatives with desir-

able features is being produced herewith in summary.

Appendices


304

Representative wild species related to crop/cultivated species with potential useful traits

Wild-related species

Identified desirable trait(s)



Cereals

1.

Aegilops tauschii

Source of disease and pest

2.

Avena barbata

Source of disease resistance (virus, rust, mildew) 

and quality

3.

Avena fatua

Resistant to drought, diseases (virus, rust, 

mildew), and high yield

4.

Avena sterilis

Resistant to diseases (virus, rust, mildew), 

herbicides, and high grain yield

5.

Elymus dahuricus

Source of salt tolerance (wheat and barley)

6.

Hordeum spontaneum

Sorce for quality, yield, disease resistance, cold, 

salt, and waterlogging tolerance

7.

Eleusine compressa

Drought tolerance (finger millet)

8.

Oryza granulata

Tolerant to drought, shade, and aerobic soil, 

immune to bacterial leaf blight (BLB) and 

resistance to brown plant hopper (BPH), yellow 

stem borer

9.

Oryza minuta

Source of resistance to BLB, green leaf hopper 

(GLH), whitebacked plant hopper (WBPH) and 

BPH


10. Oryza nivara

Source of grassy stunt virus and sheath blight 

(SB) resistance

11. Oryza officinalis

Source of BPH, GLH, and BLB resistance

12. Oryza rufipogon

Source of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), 

quality, yield, metal and salt tolerance, and SB 

resistance

13. Panicum turgidum

Drought and salt tolerant

14. Paspalum scrobiculatum

Drought and salt resistant

15. Pennisetum orientale

Drought resistant, prolonged green

16. Triticum turgidum/dicoccoides (wild 

tetraploid wheat)

High protein content



Grain legumes

1.

Cajanus albicans

Source of high seed protein (HSP) and sterility 

mosaic virus (SMV)

2.

Cajanus cajanifolius

Source of nuclear male sterility (NMS) and 

(CMS), soil salinity

3.

Cajanus crassus

Resistance to SMV

4.

Cajanus lineatus

Source of cleistogamy and CMS

5.

Cajanus mollis

Source of highest seed protein (HSP) content

6.

Cajanus platycarpus

Resistance to Phytophthora blight (PB), soil 

salinity


7.

Cajanus scarabaeoides

Source of CMS, HSP and dwarfism, and 

resistance to pod borer (PB), SMV

8.

Cajanus sericeus

Source of HSP, CMS, and resistance to both PB 

and SMV


9.

Cicer microphyllum

Drought resistance

10. Glycine soja

Source for resistance to yellow mosaic virus 

(YMV), adaptability, cold tolerance, and short 

season


(continued)

Appendices



305

Wild-related species

Identified desirable trait(s)

11. Macrotyloma sar-garhwalensis

Source of high protein content

12. Vigna acontifolia

Drought resistant

13. Vigna mungo var. silvestris

Hard seed coat

14. Vigna radiata var. setulosa

Source of drought and buchiids resistance

15. Vigna vexillata

Resistant to cowpea weevil

Oilseeds

1.

Brassica tournefortii

Source of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS)

2.

Carthamus oxyacantha

Highly drought tolerant

3.

Lepidium latifolium

Source of cold tolerance

4.

Linum perenne

Cold tolerance

5.

Linum strictum

Source of fiber strictness

6.

Sesamum alatum

Resistance to phyllody disease

7.

Sesamum laciniatum

Resistance to diseases and pests of sesame

8.

Sesamum malabaricum

Source of cytoplasmic sterility and powdery 

mildew in sesame

9.

Sesamum mulayanum

Source of resistance to phyllody, powdery 

mildew, and wilt

Fiber yielding plants/crops

1.

Boehmeria macrophylla

Fiber quality

2.

Boehmeria platyphylla

Source of fiber strength

3.

Corchorus aestuans

Source of resistance to stem rot

4.

Corchorus depressus

Source of drought/heat tolerant

5.

Corchorus fascicularis

Source of drought/heat tolerant and adaptability

6.

Corchorus pseudo-olitorius

Immune to fungal diseases, stem rot, root rot, 

black band, soft rot, and anthracnose

7.

Corchorus tridens

Source high protein (vegetable/fodder)

8.

Gossypium arboreum

Source for resistance pest and diseases and 

tolerance to drought and CMS

9.

Gossypium herbaceum

Resistance to biotic and drought stresses, source 

of adaptability and yield, and quality traits and 

CMS

Forage crops

1.

Cenchrus setigerus

Source of drought resistant

2.

Cenchrus rajasthanensis

Source of drought resistant

3.

Chrysopogon aciculatus

Tolerant to heavy grazing

4.

Dichanthium annulatum

Tolerant to heavy grazing and lodging

5.

Diplachne fusca

Source of salt tolerance

6.

Eragrostis curvula

Extremely drought tolerant

Vegetables

1.

Abelmoschus angulosus

Source of resistance to yellow vein mosaic virus 

(YVMV), mites, and tolerance to low 

temperatures and light frost

2.

Abelmoschus caillei

Source of resistance to YVMV and shoot and 

fruit borer

3.

Abelmoschus crinitus

Source of resistant Cercospora blight

4.

Abelmoschus manihot tetraphyllus 

var. pungens

Resistant to enation leaf curl virus

(continued)

Appendices



306

Wild-related species

Identified desirable trait(s)

5.

Abelmoschus manihot

Source of resistant to YVMV

6.

Abelmoschus tuberculatus

Tolerant to YVMV and fruit borer

7.

Allium roylei

Source of resistance to powdery mildew, leaf 

blight, etc.

8.

Canavalia cathartica

Source of nutritional traits

9.

Canavalia rosea

Highly salt tolerant

10. Citrullus colocynthis

Source for drought tolerance and pest resistance

11. Cucumis callosus

Resistance to fruit fly and leaf-eating caterpillars 

and tolerance to drought

12. Cucumis hardwickii

Source of cold tolerant and resistance to 

powdery mildew

13. Lablab purpureus var. typicus

Drought hardy

14. Momordica cochinchinensis

Rich in nutrients

15. Solanum anguivi (indicum)

Source of resistance to Fusarium wilt

16. Solanum melongena Linn var. 

incanum

Source of variation for phenolic content, 



Fusarium

 wilt, and frost and drought resistance

17. Solanum melongena Linn var. 

insanum

Source of resistant to bacterial wilt, shoot, and 

fruit borer

18. Solanum nigrum

Source of resistant to potato bacterial wilt

19. Solanum sisymbriifolium

Source of resistance to Verticillum wilt 

resistance, Meloidogyne spp. and eggplant pest, 

such as aphid, shoot, and fruit borer

20. Solanum torvum

Source of resistance to Verticillum wilt, bacterial 

wilt, pest Meloidogyne spp., root stock for 

eggplant

21. Solanum virginianum (xanthocarpum)

Source of resistance to bacterial wilt

22. Trichosanthes dioica (wild type)

Source of resilience to stresses

Fruits and nuts

1.

Citrus assamensis

Source for waterlogging tolerance

2.

Citrus cavaleriei

Source of cold tolerance and graft stock

3.

Citrus hystrix

Source of Citrus pest resistance

4.

Citrus indica

Source of Citrus disease resistance

5.

Citrus jambhiri

Cold hardiness, source of drought resistance, 

also used as rootstock

6.

Citrus karna

Source of graft stock

7.

Citrus latipes

Source cold tolerant, potential disease 

resistance, and graft stock

8.

Citrus limonia

Most used source of rootstock and Citrus 

disease resistance

9.

Citrus maderaspatana

Source of graft stock

10. Citrus reshni

Gene sources for salt tolerance in graft stock

11. Citrus reticulata

Source of graft stock and winter hardiness

12. Citrus trifoliata

Source of dwarfing, graft stock, hardiness, and 

disease resistance

13. Diospyros lotus

Gene sources for graft stock

14. Ficus palmata

Source of graft stock for fig

15. Fragaria daltoniana

Frost tolerant strawberry

16. Fragaria nilgerrensis

Source of quality

(continued)

Appendices


307

Wild-related species

Identified desirable trait(s)

17. Garcinia hombroniana

Source of rootstock

18. Garcinia sopsopia

A suitable rootstock for mangosteen

19. Garcinia xanthochymus

Source of graft stock for cultivated mangosteen

20. Grewia oppositifolia

Tolerant to frost

21. Malus baccata

Source of resistance to diseases, cold tolerance 

and graft stock

22. Malus sikkimensis

Source for disease resistance and dwarfing gene

23. Mangifera indica

Source of graft stock

24. Mangifera sylvatica

Potential source of graft stock for mango

25. Manilkara zapota

For variability in fruit size

26. Musa balbisiana

Source of improved vigor and tolerance to biotic 

and abiotic stresses

27. Prunus cerasoides

Source of disease resistance and graft stock for 

sweet cherry

28. Prunus cornuta

Source of disease resistance for sweet cherry 

and as graft stock

29. Prunus prostrata

Used as graft stock and potential source of 

disease resistance

30. Pyrus pashia

Common rootstock for Asian pear

31. Pyrus polycarpa

Field resistant to powdery mildew and fire blight

32. Pyrus pyrifolia

Preferred rootstock for pear

33. Ribes glaciale

Immunity to rust caused by Cronartium ribicola

34. Rubus ellipticus

Shade tolerant

35. Syzygium cumini

Variability used in genetic improvement

36. Vitis lanata

Source of late ripening and resistant to disease

37. Ziziphus nummularia

Genetic source of rootstock



Spices and condiments

1.

Alpinia galangal

Source of aromatic rootstock

2.

Cinnamomum travancoricum

Source of antifungal activities

3.

Cinnamomum curvifolium

Source of high essential oil

4.

Curcuma ecalcarata

Source of pinocembrin and piperitenone

5.

Curcuma leucorhiza

Source of edible starch

6.

Curcuma sylvatica

Source of highest concentration (320 mg/100 g) 

of biologically active peptide turmerin

7.

Myristica beddomei

Fruit pericarp is a rich source of nutritional 

compounds

8.

Myristica malabarica

Source of good rootstock for grafting the true 

nutmeg


9.

Piper attenuatum

Source of highest percentage of crotepoxide

10. Piper galeatum

Source of bold fruits

11. Piper hamiltonii

Source of resistance to betelvine blackfly

12. Piper nigrum (INGR 8100)

Source of proliferating spikes

13. Piper thomsonii (INGR 8009)

Source of sex change from male to bisexual 

plant

14. Zingiber cassumunar



Source of fungitoxic action against Rhizoctonia 

solani

, the damping off pathogen

(continued)

Appendices



308

Wild-related species

Identified desirable trait(s)

15. Zingiber rubens

Source of cold hardyness

16. Zingiber zerumbet

Sources of ginger disease resistance

Commercial crops

1.

Camellia oleifera

Source of edible seed oil

2.

Camellia taliensis

Gene resources for tea improvement

3.

Miscanthus nepalensis

Potential ornamental

4.

Narenga porphyrocoma

Source of temperature tolerance and resistance 

to red rot disease of sugarcane

5.

Phoenix paludosa

Source for poor soil tolerance

6.

Saccharum arundinaceum

Source of drought and disease resistance

7.

Saccharum spontaneum

Source of vigor, cold tolerance, hardiness, and 

disease resistance and yield

8.

Sclerostachya fusca

Source of waterlogging resistance, heavy 

tillering, and earliness in sugarcane



Medicinal and aromatic plants

1.

Albizia procera

Drought tolerant

2.

Alpinia malaccensis

Potential ornamental plant

3.

Cymbopogon khasianus

Source of essential oil and methyl eugenol

4.

Plectranthus hadiensis

 var. 

tomentosus

Source of bioactive phytochemicals, especially 

terpenoids

Ornamental plants for floriculture

1.

Barleria grandiflora

Potential regular ornamental

2.

Begonia griffithiana

Potential regular ornamental

3.

Hedychium coccineum

Early bloomer

4.

Hedychium marginatum

Potential regular ornamental

5.

Jasminum parkeri

Potential regular ornamental for rockeries

6.

Rhododendron arboreum

Source of variability as parent in hybrids

7.

Rosa macrophylla

Source of variability

Agroforestry trees

1.

Acacia jacquemontii

Source of high temperature and excessive 

drought tolerance

2.

Acer caesium

 ssp. caesium

Source of seed dormancy

3.

Populus euphratica

Source of drought and salinity tolerance

4.

Salix wallichiana

Frost resistant

Cottage industry plants and others

1.

Bambusa pallida

Source of cane and quality fiber

2.

Dendrocalamus hamiltonii

Source of palatable shoots

3.

Indigofera glandulosa

Source of high protein

4.

Millettia pinnata

Drought resistant

5.

Morus alba

Drought tolerant

6.

Morus macroura

Source of resistant to drought, salinity, and frost

Source: Analysis of reviewed literature

Appendices


309

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017

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Document Outline

  • Glossary
  •  Appendices
    • Appendix I
    •  Appendix II
    •  Appendix III
  • References
1   2   3


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