Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area Values Study in the Cessnock Local Government Area and Surrounds



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Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities

Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area Values Study in the Cessnock Local Government Area and Surrounds

25 June 2013






  1. Document information

Client: Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities

Title: Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area Values Study in the Cessnock Local Government Area and surrounds

Document No: 2189203A-ECO-RPT-0162

Date: 21 June 2013






  1. Rev

  1. Date

  1. Details

  1. 01

  1. 30/05/2013

  1. Draft Report

  1. A

  1. 25/06/2013

  1. Final Report




  1. Author, Reviewer and Approver details

  1. Prepared by:

  1. Debbie Landenberger

  2. Paul Rossington

  1. Date: 25/05/2013

  1. Signature:



  1. Reviewed by:

  1. Toby Lambert

  2. Selga Harrington

  1. Date: 25/06/2013

  1. Signature:



  1. Approved by:

  1. Alex Cockerill

  1. Date: 25/06/2013

  1. Signature:






  1. Distribution

  1. Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities, Parsons Brinckerhoff file, Parsons Brinckerhoff Library




  1. ©Parsons Brinckerhoff Australia Pty Limited 2013

  1. Copyright in the drawings, information and data recorded in this document (the information) is the property of Parsons Brinckerhoff. This document and the information are solely for the use of the authorised recipient and this document may not be used, copied or reproduced in whole or part for any purpose other than that for which it was supplied by Parsons Brinckerhoff. Parsons Brinckerhoff makes no representation, undertakes no duty and accepts no responsibility to any third party who may use or rely upon this document or the information.

The views and opinions expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the Australian Government or the Minister for Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure that the contents of this publication are factually correct, the Commonwealth does not accept responsibility for the accuracy or completeness of the contents, and shall not be liable for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the contents of this publication.




  1. Document owner

  1. Parsons Brinckerhoff Australia Pty Limited

  2. ABN 80 078 004 798

  3. Level 3 51-55 Bolton Street
    Newcastle NSW 2300
    PO Box 1162
    Newcastle NSW 2300
    Australia
    Tel: +61 2 4929 8300
    Fax: +61 2 4929 8382
    Email: newcastle@pb.com.au
    www.pbworld.com

  4. Certified to ISO 9001, ISO 14001, AS/NZS 4801
    A GRI Rating: Sustainability Report 2011



Funded by the Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population, and Communities through the Sustainable Regional Development Program

creative commons

Creative Commons

This report is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Australia licence

(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/au/deed.en).

Recommended citation: Cockerill, A., Lambert, T, Landenberger, D and Rossington, P. (2013). Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area Values Study in the Cessnock Local Government Area and surrounds. Report funded by the Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population, and Communities through the Sustainable Regional Development Program. Parsons Brinckerhoff, Newcastle.
Contents

Page number


Glossary 5

Abbreviations 9

Executive summary 11

1.Introduction 16

1.1Background 16

1.2Study area 18

1.3World Heritage explanation and project focus 23

1.To represent a masterpiece of human creative genius. 23

2.To exhibit an important interchange of human values, over a span of time or within a cultural area of the world, on developments in architecture or technology, monumental arts, town-planning or landscape design. 23

3.To bear a unique or at least exceptional testimony to a cultural tradition or to a civilization which is living or which has disappeared. 23

4.To be an outstanding example of a type of building, architectural or technological ensemble or landscape which illustrates (a) significant stage(s) in human history. 23

5.To be an outstanding example of a traditional human settlement, land-use, or sea-use which is representative of a culture (or cultures), or human interaction with the environment especially when it has become vulnerable under the impact of irreversible change. 23

6.To be directly or tangibly associated with events or living traditions, with ideas, or with beliefs, with artistic and literary works of outstanding universal significance. (The Committee considers that this criterion should preferably be used in conjunction with other criteria). 23

7.To contain superlative natural phenomena or areas of exceptional natural beauty and aesthetic importance. 23

8.To be outstanding examples representing major stages of earth's history, including the record of life, significant on-going geological processes in the development of landforms, or significant geomorphic or physiographic features. 23

9.To be outstanding examples representing significant on-going ecological and biological processes in the evolution and development of terrestrial, fresh water, coastal and marine ecosystems and communities of plants and animals. 23

10.To contain the most important and significant natural habitats for in-situ conservation of biological diversity, including those containing threatened species of outstanding universal value from the point of view of science or conservation. 23

1.4Project aims 24

1.Identify and recommend high priority conservation areas within the Lower Hunter region through an assessment of World Heritage values (and complementary values) across portions of the GBMWHA and adjacent lands in the Cessnock LGA. 24

11.Analysis and identification of potential threats to World Heritage values as a result of development and conservation considerations. 24

12.Analysis and identification of potential measures to protect, maintain and improve World Heritage values in the region. 24

1.5Acknowledgements 25

2.Methods 27

2.1Personnel 27

2.2Literature review 27

2.3Stakeholder consultation 29

2.4Priority conservation mapping 30

13.High (3) – vegetation communities that occur in GBMWHA and occur within the Cessnock LGA 31

14.Medium (2) – eucalypt dominated vegetation communities 31

15.Low (1) non-eucalypt dominated communities. 31

2.5GIS analysis 34

2.6Fieldwork 35

2.7Limitations 36

3.Values assessment 38

3.1World Heritage Values within GBMWHA 38

3.2World Heritage Values in Cessnock LGA 41

3.3Migratory species 50

3.4Commonwealth listed threatened ecological communities 50

3.5State listed threatened ecological communities 51

3.6Values in nearby areas 52

4.Priority conservation areas 54

4.1Mapping results 54

4.2Priority conservation areas 64

5.Threats and management 68

5.1Key threatening processes 68

5.2Regional overview 68

5.3Discussion of key threats 70

16.Exotic Rust Fungi of the order Uredinales (Myrtle Rust, Uredo rangelii) 78

17.Root-rot Fungus (Phytophthora cinnamomi) 78

6.Field verification 92

6.1Western Region 92

6.2Central Region 99

6.3Eastern Region 103

6.4Chapter summary 105

7.Conclusion and recommendations 108

7.1Conclusion 108

7.2Recommendations 110

8.References 114

18.
Eucalypt species recorded in Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area 119

19.
Key Threatening Processes (KTPs) within GBMWHA and complementary lands 125

a)Key Threatening Processes (KTPs) within GBMWHA and complementary lands 126

List of tables



Page number


List of figures



Page number


List of appendices



1.To represent a masterpiece of human creative genius. 23

2.To exhibit an important interchange of human values, over a span of time or within a cultural area of the world, on developments in architecture or technology, monumental arts, town-planning or landscape design. 23

3.To bear a unique or at least exceptional testimony to a cultural tradition or to a civilization which is living or which has disappeared. 23

4.To be an outstanding example of a type of building, architectural or technological ensemble or landscape which illustrates (a) significant stage(s) in human history. 23

5.To be an outstanding example of a traditional human settlement, land-use, or sea-use which is representative of a culture (or cultures), or human interaction with the environment especially when it has become vulnerable under the impact of irreversible change. 23

6.To be directly or tangibly associated with events or living traditions, with ideas, or with beliefs, with artistic and literary works of outstanding universal significance. (The Committee considers that this criterion should preferably be used in conjunction with other criteria). 23

7.To contain superlative natural phenomena or areas of exceptional natural beauty and aesthetic importance. 23

8.To be outstanding examples representing major stages of earth's history, including the record of life, significant on-going geological processes in the development of landforms, or significant geomorphic or physiographic features. 23

9.To be outstanding examples representing significant on-going ecological and biological processes in the evolution and development of terrestrial, fresh water, coastal and marine ecosystems and communities of plants and animals. 23

10.To contain the most important and significant natural habitats for in-situ conservation of biological diversity, including those containing threatened species of outstanding universal value from the point of view of science or conservation. 23

1.Identify and recommend high priority conservation areas within the Lower Hunter region through an assessment of World Heritage values (and complementary values) across portions of the GBMWHA and adjacent lands in the Cessnock LGA. 24

11.Analysis and identification of potential threats to World Heritage values as a result of development and conservation considerations. 24

12.Analysis and identification of potential measures to protect, maintain and improve World Heritage values in the region. 24

13.High (3) – vegetation communities that occur in GBMWHA and occur within the Cessnock LGA 31

14.Medium (2) – eucalypt dominated vegetation communities 31

15.Low (1) non-eucalypt dominated communities. 31

16.Exotic Rust Fungi of the order Uredinales (Myrtle Rust, Uredo rangelii) 78

17.Root-rot Fungus (Phytophthora cinnamomi) 78

18.
Eucalypt species recorded in Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area 119

18.
Eucalypt species recorded in Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area 119

19.
Key Threatening Processes (KTPs) within GBMWHA and complementary lands 125

19.
Key Threatening Processes (KTPs) within GBMWHA and complementary lands 125

a)Key Threatening Processes (KTPs) within GBMWHA and complementary lands 126




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