Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area Values Study in the Cessnock Local Government Area and Surrounds



Yüklə 0.58 Mb.
səhifə19/19
tarix19.08.2017
ölçüsü0.58 Mb.
1   ...   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18   19

1 V = Vulnerable, E = Endangered listed under the TSC Act.

2 V=Vulnerable, E=Endangered listed under the EPBC Act

3 Species in bold are threatened species listed either on the EPBC Act and/or the TSC Act
19.
Key Threatening Processes (KTPs) within GBMWHA and complementary lands

a)Key Threatening Processes (KTPs) within GBMWHA and complementary lands



  1. Key Threatening Processes1

  1. Threat type

  1. Direct or indirect threat

  1. Relevance to the GBMWHA

  1. Relevance to complementary lands

Loss of climatic habitat caused by anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases (EPBC Act)

Anthropogenic Climate Change (TSC Act)

Climate Change

Indirect

Moderate
Although the nature and intensity of possible effects is not currently well known, this has potential to cause broadscale modification to vegetation and habitat characteristics through alteration to temperature, rainfall and fire regimes. The effects may be particularly severe for endemic species with highly specific habitat requirements.


Moderate
Although the nature and intensity of possible effects is not currently well known, this has potential to cause broadscale modification to vegetation and habitat characteristics through alteration to temperature, rainfall and fire regimes. The effects may be particularly severe for endemic species with highly specific habitat requirements.


Land clearance (EPBC Act)

Clearing of native vegetation (TSC Act)

Land clearing

Direct

Low
GBMWHA is managed to ensure minimal vegetation clearance occurs.


High
Clearing of native vegetation and land clearance are likely to be occurring on an ongoing incremental basis on private lands and unprotected crown lands (with the exception of state forest) throughout the complementary lands.


Bushrock removal (TSC Act)

Habitat modification

Direct

Low
Substantial historic bushrock removal is likely to have occurred but is unlikely to continue in anything but a minor and localised basis within the GBMWHA.


Moderate
Substantial historic bushrock removal is likely to have occurred and may continue on a localised basis within the complementary lands.


Forest eucalypt dieback associated with over-abundant psyllids and Bell Miners (TSC Act)

Habitat modification

Direct

Moderate
This process is likely to be occurring chiefly in more disturbed vegetation at the periphery of the GBMWHA.


High
This process is likely to be occurring, or to have potential to occur, in more fragmented and disturbed remnants of vegetation throughout the complementary lands.


High frequency fire resulting in the disruption of life cycle processes in plants and animals and loss of vegetation structure and composition (TSC Act)

Habitat modification

Direct

Moderate
Potential exits for a conflict between fire regimes suitable for hazard reduction and ideal regimes for the conservation of biodiversity in areas adjacent to residential areas. Current management practices are however in place to balance potentially competing requirements. The achievement of regimes suitable for both conservation and the protection of human life and assets may become more difficult to achieve under the influence of climate change. The potential for arson to contribute to high frequency fire in this area is relatively low, except perhaps at its periphery.

High
Potential exits for a conflict between fire regimes suitable for hazard reduction and ideal regimes for the conservation of biodiversity in areas adjacent to residential areas. Current management practices are however in place to balance potentially competing requirements. The achievement of regimes suitable for both conservation and the protection of human life and assets may become more difficult to achieve under the influence of climate change.

Loss of Hollow-bearing Trees (TSC Act)

Habitat modification

Direct

Low
Substantial loss of hollow-bearing trees is likely to have occurred during historic timber harvesting activities in parts of the GBMWHA but is unlikely to continue in anything but a minor and localised basis.


High
Substantial historic loss of hollow-bearing has occurred due to broad scale vegetation clearing, vegetation thinning and firewood collection within the complementary lands. Loss of hollow-bearing trees is continuing due to incremental clearing of remnant vegetation and the senescence of remnant paddock tress.


Loss or degradation (or both) of sites used for hill-topping by butterflies (TSC Act)

Habitat modification

Direct

Low
Minimal clearing or degradation of hill-top sites has occurred within the GBMWHA.


Moderate
Loss of degradation of hill-topping sites due to vegetation clearing and forestry operations may be occurring or have potential to occur in the ranges immediately to the east of the GBMWHA which are largely included in state forests.


Removal of dead wood and dead trees (TSC Act)

Habitat modification

Direct

Low
Substantial removal of dead wood and dead trees is likely to have occurred in areas previously subject to forestry but is unlikely to continue in anything but a minor and localised basis within the GBMWHA.


Moderate
Substantial historic removal of dead wood and dead trees is likely to have occurred during the establishment of grazing properties and is likely to be continuing as a result of illegal firewood collection and incremental clearing of native vegetation.


Alteration of habitat following subsidence due to longwall mining (TSC Act)

Habitat modification

Direct

Low
Longwall mining is prohibited in the GBMWHA. Not a current issue but may be in future if restrictions on mining are relaxed.


Moderate
Historic mining is likely to have caused alteration to riparian and wetland habitats in parts on the complementary lands. Current and future mining may have potential to cause further impacts.


Dieback caused by the root-rot fungus (Phytophthora cinnamomi) (EPBC Act)

Infection of native plants by Phytophthora cinnamomi (TSC Act)

Disease

Direct

High
Although the threatening process is not currently known from the GBMWHA, it may have potential to cause broad scale impacts on vegetation community composition and animal habitat, particularly if its prevalence in increased as a result of climate change.


High
Although the threatening process is not currently known from the GBMWHA, it may have potential to cause broad scale impacts on vegetation community composition and animal habitat, particularly if its prevalence in increased as a result of climate change.


Infection of amphibians with chytrid fungus resulting in chytridiomycosis (EPBC Act)

Infection of frogs by amphibian chytrid causing the disease chytridiomycosis (TSC Act)

Disease

Direct

High
This process is likely to have resulted in the loss or drastic reduction in numbers and areas of occupancy of at least one frog species, the Giant Barred-frog. Other frog species may be at risk of loss.


High
This process is likely to have resulted in a drastic reduction in numbers and areas of occupancy of at least one frog species, the Giant Barred-frog. Other frog species may be at risk of loss.


Introduction and establishment of Exotic Rust Fungi of the order Uredinales pathogenic on plants of the family Myrtaceae

Disease

Direct

High
Uredo rangelii (Myrtle Rust), an exotic rust fungus of the order Uredinales pathogenic on plants of the family Myrtaceae, has been recorded within Yengo NP and Wollemi NP in the GBMWHA and in close proximity to Blue Mountains NP. The threatening process may, depending on the susceptibility of local species, have potential to cause broad scale impacts on vegetation community composition and animal habitat. The National Management Group for Myrtle Rust determined that it is no longer technically feasible to eradicate Uredo rangelii.

High
Although Myrtle Rust is not currently known from the complementary lands, it has been recorded nearby and it is likely to occur in future and may cause broad scale impacts on vegetation community composition and animal habitat.


Psittacine Circoviral (beak and feather ) Disease affecting endangered psittacine species (EPBC Act)

Infection by Psittacine Circoviral (beak and feather) Disease affecting endangered psittacine species and populations (TSC Act)

Disease

Direct

Low
Psittacine Circoviral Disease likely to affect the Swift Parrot which occupies the GBMWHA, however, no practical environmental management measures are likely to be available for the mitigation of impacts on this species in the locality.


Low
Psittacine Circoviral Disease likely to affect the Swift Parrot which occupies the complementary lands, however, no practical environmental management measures are likely to be available for the mitigation of impacts on this species in the locality.


Competition and land degradation by rabbits (EPBC Act)

Competition and grazing by the feral European Rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus (L.) (TSC Act)

Pest animal species

Direct

Moderate.
Likely to be concentrated near the boundary of GBMWHA and adjacent clearings.


High
Likely to occur throughout the complementary lands particularly near the interface of native vegetation and adjacent clearings.

Competition and land degradation by unmanaged goats (EPBC Act)

Competition and habitat degradation by Feral Goats, Capra hircus Linnaeus 1758

Pest animal species

Direct

Moderate.
Records on the Atlas of NSW Wildlife indicate that Feral Goats are likely to be present in Blue Mountains NP & Wollemi NP.

Moderate.
Records on the Atlas of NSW Wildlife indicate that the Feral Goats are likely to be present in the eastern part of the Cessnock LGA.


Competition from feral honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (TSC Act)

Pest animal species

Direct

Moderate
This process is likely to be established throughout the GBMWHA. It is likely to affect a variety of hollow-dependent animals and nectar-feeding birds and mammals.


Moderate
This process is likely to be established throughout the complementary lands. It is likely to affect a variety of hollow-dependent animals and nectar-feeding birds and mammals.


Herbivory and environmental degradation caused by feral deer (TSC Act)

Pest animal species

Direct

Moderate
Deer have been recorded in a number of locations in the GBMWHA and are likely to be causing localised damage to vegetation and animal habitats. If numbers increase over time, impacts are likely to become more significant.

Moderate
Deer have been recorded over a large proportion of the complementary lands and are likely to be causing localised damage to vegetation and animal habitats. If numbers increase over time, impacts are likely to become more significant.

Introduction of the Large Earth Bumblebee Bombus terrestris (L.) (TSC Act)

Pest animal species

Indirect

Moderate
The species is not yet established in the region, however the climate of the GBMWHA may be suitable. If/when the species does become established, it may have significant impacts on World Heritage biodiversity values through promoting the spread and/or naturalisation of weeds such as Scotch Broom.

Moderate
The species is not yet established in the region, however the climate of the complementary lands may be suitable. If/when the species does become established, it may have significant impacts on biodiversity values through promoting the spread and/or naturalisation of weeds such as Scotch Broom.

Loss of biodiversity and ecosystem integrity following invasion by the Yellow Crazy Ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes) on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean (EPBC Act)

Invasion of the Yellow Crazy Ant, Anoplolepis gracilipes (Fr. Smith) into NSW (TSC Act)

Pest animal species

Direct

Moderate
The species has not yet been recorded in NSW and the climate of the GBMWHA may or may not be suitable, however, if the species does become established, it could have very significant impacts on World Heritage biodiversity values. The area is likely to become more suitable for the species with increases in temperature associated with climate change.

Moderate
The species has not yet been recorded in NSW and the climate of the GBMWHA may or may not not be suitable, however, if the species does become established, it could have very significant impacts on World Heritage biodiversity values. The area is likely to become more suitable for the species with increases in temperature associated with climate change.

Predation and hybridisation by Feral Dogs, Canis lupus familiaris (TSC Act)

Pest animal species

Direct

Moderate
Hybridisation with remnant Dingo populations in much of the GBMWHA is likely to be extensive and irreversible; however, remnant Dingo populations with relatively low wild dog influence may exist, particularly in the north of the area.


Predation by Feral Dogs may impact negatively impact threatened species (e.g. Koala) but may also have positive impacts on other threatened species through suppression of Fox numbers.

Moderate
Hybridisation with remnant Dingo populations in the complementary lands is likely to be extensive and irreversible. Predation by Feral Dogs may impact negatively impact threatened species (e.g. Koala) but may also have positive impacts on other threatened species through suppression of Fox numbers.


Predation by European red fox (EPBC Act)

Predation by the European Red Fox Vulpes Vulpes (Linnaeus, 1758) (TSC Act)

Pest animal

Direct

High
Likely to be a major cause of declines in the abundance and area of occupation of species of terrestrial mammals, ground-nesting birds and possibly reptiles.


High
Likely to be a major cause, in addition to habitat loss and fragmentation, of losses of species of terrestrial mammals, ground-nesting birds and possibly reptiles from smaller remnants and declines in the abundance and area of occupation of species in larger remnants.


Predation by feral cats (EPBC Act)

Predation by the Feral Cat Felis catus (Linnaeus, 1758) (TSC Act)

Pest animal species

Direct

Moderate
Likely to be contributing to declines in the abundance and area of occupation of species of small mammals, ground-nesting birds and possibly reptiles.


Moderate
Likely to be contributing to declines in the abundance and area of occupation of species of small mammals, ground-nesting birds and possibly reptiles.


Predation by Gambusia holbrooki Girard, 1859 (Plague Minnow or Mosquito Fish) (TSC Act)

Pest animal species

Direct

Moderate
Likely to be found predominantly in lowland reaches of waterways in cleared environments and near the periphery of GBMWHA. Likely to have a moderate impact on native fish and frog species in these environments.


Moderate
Likely to be found predominantly in lowland reaches of waterways in cleared environments throughout the complementary lands. Likely to have a moderate impact on native fish and frog species in these environments.


Predation, Habitat Degradation, Competition and Disease Transmission by Feral Pigs (EPBC Act)

Predation, habitat degradation, competition and disease transmission by Feral Pigs, Sus scrofa Linnaeus 1758 (TSC Act)

Pest animal species

Direct

High
Particularly in the southern part of the GBMWHA. Likely to have significant localised impacts on:


native vegetation via direct disturbance and weed spread,

native birds, reptiles, frogs via predation

native fungus-eating mammals via competition

Moderate
Likely to have a sparse and localised distribution in the LGA. Likely to have localised impacts on:


native vegetation via direct disturbance and weed spread,

native birds, reptiles, frogs via predation

native fungus-eating mammals via competition

The biological effects, including lethal toxic ingestion, caused by Cane Toads (Bufo marinus) (EPBC Act)

Invasion and establishment of the Cane Toad (Bufo marinus) (TSC Act)

Pest animal species

Direct

Moderate
The species is not yet established in the region, however the climate of the GBMWHA may be suitable. If/when the species does become established, it is likely to have very significant impacts on World Heritage biodiversity values. The area is likely to become more suitable for the species with increases in temperature associated with climate change.

Moderate
The species is not yet established in the region, however the climate of the complementary lands is likely to be suitable. If/when the species does become established, it is likely to have very significant impacts on biodiversity values. The area is likely to become more suitable for the species with increases in temperature associated with climate change.

The reduction in the biodiversity of Australian native fauna and flora due to the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta (fire ant) (EPBC Act)

Importation of Red Imported Fire Ants Solenopsis invicta Buren 1972 (TSC Act)

Pest animal species

Direct

Moderate
The species has not yet been recorded in NSW and the climate of the GBMWHA may or may not be suitable, however, if the species does become established, it could have very significant impacts on World Heritage biodiversity values. The area is likely to become more suitable for the species with increases in temperature associated with climate change.

Moderate
The species has not yet been recorded in NSW and the climate of the GBMWHA may or may not be suitable, however, if the species does become established, it could have very significant impacts on World Heritage biodiversity values. The area is likely to become more suitable for the species with increases in temperature associated with climate change.

Invasion and establishment of exotic vines and scramblers (TSC Act)

Weeds

Direct

Moderate
A variety of exotic vines and scramblers have been recorded or are likely to occur at the periphery of the GBMWHA, in historic clearings, along roads and in riparian areas. Further expansion of the range and increases in the dominance of weeds could have substantial impacts on World Heritage Values, particularly riparian and rainforest environments.

Moderate
A variety of exotic vines and scramblers have been recorded or are likely to occur throughout the complementary lands, particularly in clearings, along roads and in riparian areas. Further expansion of the range and increases in the dominance of weeds could have substantial impacts on biodiversity values, particularly riparian and rainforest environments.

Invasion and establishment of Scotch Broom (Cytisus scoparius) (TSC Act)

Weeds

Direct

Moderate
Scotch Broom has been recorded at the periphery of the GBMWHA adjacent to residential areas. Further expansion of the range and increases in the dominance of the species could have substantial impacts on World Heritage Values, particularly heathland environments.

Moderate
Scotch Broom has been recorded at the periphery of the GBMWHA adjacent to residential areas. Further expansion of the range and increases in the dominance of the species could have substantial impacts on World Heritage Values, particularly heathland environments.

Invasion of native plant communities by African Olive Olea europaea L. subsp. cuspidata (Wall ex G. Don Cirferri) (TSC Act)

Weeds

Direct

Moderate
Much of the sandstone dominated environment of the GBMWHA is likely to be marginal as habitat for the species, however, areas with soils of shale, alluvial or volcanic origin are likely to be susceptible to invasion. Grassy woodland and rainforest communities are the most likely to be susceptible.

High
Concentrated in lowland areas of the complementary lands in areas subject to clearing and disturbance from agricultural activities. The species has potential to have very significant impacts on grassy woodland and open forest communities on alluvial and shale-derived soils and on and associated threatened species.


Invasion of native plant communities by Chrysanthemoides monilifera (TSC Act)

Weeds

Direct

Moderate
Chrysanthemoides monilifera
ssp. monilifera (Boneseed) has been recorded along roadways adjacent to the GBMWHA boundaries along the Great Western Highway and Bells Line of Road. The species may have potential to become more widespread in the GBMWHA.

High
Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. monilifera (Boneseed) and Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. rotunda (Bitou Bush) have been recorded in the complementary lands, predominantly in coastal and near-coastal areas. Bitou Bush is causing very sever impacts on dune vegetation in the locality.

Invasion of native plant communities by exotic perennial grasses (TSC Act)

Weeds

Direct

Moderate
Much of the sandstone dominated environment of the GBMWHA is likely to be marginal as habitat for exotic perennial grasses; however, areas with soils of shale, alluvial or volcanic origin are likely to be susceptible to invasion. Grassy woodland communities are the most likely to be susceptible.

High
Concentrated in lowland areas of the complementary lands in areas subject to clearing and disturbance from agricultural activities. Exotic perennial grasses have potential to have very significant impacts on grassy woodland and open forest communities on alluvial and shale-derived soils and on and associated threatened species.


Invasion, establishment and spread of Lantana (Lantana camara L. sens. La (TSC Act)

Weeds

Direct

Moderate
Lantana has been recorded or is likely to occur at the periphery of the GBMWHA, in historic clearings, along roads and in riparian areas. Further expansion of the range and increases in the dominance of the species could have substantial impacts on World Heritage Values, particularly riparian and rainforest environments.

Moderate
Lantana has been recorded or is likely to occur patchily throughout the complementary lands, particularly in moister vegetation types, in clearings, along roads and in riparian areas. Further expansion of the range and increases in the dominance of weeds could have substantial impacts on biodiversity values, particularly riparian and rainforest environments.

Loss and degradation of native plant and animal habitat by invasion of escaped garden plants, including aquatic plants (EPBC Act)

Weeds

Direct

Moderate
Evident in the GBMWHA particularly at its boundaries, along disturbed waterways and road edges.


High
Likely to occur throughout the complementary lands particularly near the interface of native vegetation and adjacent clearings and along waterways.


Loss and degradation of native plant and animal habitat by invasion of escaped garden plants, including aquatic plants (TSC Act)

Weeds

Direct

Moderate
A variety of escaped garden plants have been recorded or are likely to occur at the periphery of the GBMWHA, in historic clearings, along roads and in riparian areas. Further expansion of the range and increases in the dominance of weeds could have substantial impacts on World Heritage Values, particularly riparian and rainforest environments.

Moderate
A variety of escaped garden plants have been recorded or are likely to occur throughout the complementary lands, particularly in clearings, along roads and in riparian areas. Further expansion of the range and increases in the dominance of weeds could have substantial impacts on biodiversity values, particularly riparian and rainforest environments.

Alteration to the natural flow regimes of rivers and streams and their floodplains and wetlands (TSC Act)

Waterways

Direct

Low
Minor localised alteration to flow regimes is likely to have occurred due to historic clearing of some valley floors within the GBMWHA however the impact is unlikely to be substantial.


High
Substantial alteration to flow regimes is likely to have occurred due to broadscale clearing of vegetation particularly on valley floors and floodplains and the construction of water storage facilities.


Decline in woodland and forest birds due to aggressive exclusion by abundant Noisy Miners (Preliminary Determination NSW Scientific Committee – TSC Act)

Pest animal species

Direct

Low
Minor impacts are considered likely within the GBMWHA due to the ‘intactness’ of the vegetation, however the impact is unlikely to be substantial.


Moderate
This KTP is likely to be occurring throughout the complementary lands to various degrees, depending on the patch size. Generally, the larger the patch size and the less disturbance evident, the lower the impact Noisy Miners are likely to be having.


Note: 1. Equivalent EPBC Act and TSC Act listed key threatening processes are included together for brevity.

1   ...   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18   19


Verilənlər bazası müəlliflik hüququ ilə müdafiə olunur ©azkurs.org 2016
rəhbərliyinə müraciət

    Ana səhifə