Guide to plants of northern and east-central Mali



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Lauraceae

Cassytha


Cassythia filiformis 50391

records: Bamako, Niala near Djenne, Dire-Bandiagara (Boudet); Djenne (JH)

habitat: Soudanian savannas, Sahelian riverbank thickets

notes: herbaceous liana, leafless, filiform (spaghetti-like) green or orange-yellow stems not more than 1 mm wide, sucks branches of host using suckers (may even suck itself); small white flowers on racemes 2-6 cm long, becoming a spherical fruit


Laurus

Laurus nobilis 50392 (bay laurel, cultivated)

ethnobotany: cultivated, leaves used in Songhay zone and in cities as spice (bay leaf)

Lemnaceae (see Araceae)


(family now incorporated in its entirety into Araceae; formerly in Lemnaceae were aquatic genera Wolffiopsis, Pseudowolffia, Lemna, Wolffia)

Lentibulariaceae

Utricularia (bladderworts, carnivorous)

Utricularia benjaminiana

records: Macina, Gao (Boudet)

habitat: wet areas

Utricularia foliosa (leafy bladderwort)

records: Macina, Gao, Yanfolila (Boudet)

habitat: deep water

Utricularia gibba subsp. exoleta

records: Bamako, Gao (Boudet)

habitat: ponds

Utricularia inflexa var. stellaris (see U. stellaris)

Utricularia reflexa var. reflexa (bladderwort)

records: Macina, Gao (Boudet)

habitat: aquatic

Utricularia stellaris (in Berhaut 4.256 & 258 as U. inflexa var. stellaris)

records: Gao, San, Macina, In Tillit, Bourem, Niono (Boudet); common in Niger R. around Timbuktu and Gao (JH)

habitat: rice fields of Niger R.

notes: small submerged leafless aquatic herb with 6-8 air-pouches in star-shaped rosette; yellow flower emerges at surface; fruit is capsule with point at top




Loganiaceae

Spigelia


Spigelia anthelmia 50393 [introduced]

records: Sikasso (ravine) (Boudet); [if correctly identified] Hombori (JH)


Strychnos

Strychnos spinosa 50394

records: Bandiagara to Mopti, Koulouba (Boudet)

habitat: shrubby savanna on gravelly or lateritic soil


Loranthaceae


(mistletoes--hemiparasitic on upper branches of various trees)

(Songhay-Dogon do not distinguish spp. except indirectly by host tree)


Englerina

Englerina lecardii 50685

records: Macina, Bamako (Boudet)

notes: flower yellow


Tapinanthus (flowers red or red-and-white)

Tapinanthus bangwensis 50396 (syn T. globiferus subsp. bangwensis)

records: none (Boudet)

notes: globular tip of corolla is longer than wide and usually lacks wings; lobes of flowering corolla curl back

Tapinanthus globiferus (includes T. kerstingii) [not in Berhaut]

subsp. globiferus

records: Timbuktu (Boudet)

[Boudet’s T. kerstingii: San, Sanga, Léré]

Tapinanthus pentagonia 50397

records: Douentza-Hombori, Macina, Bamako (Boudet)

notes: globular tip of bud is wider than long and is covered by 5 small undulating wings; lobes of flowering corolla usually curl back but s.t. erect

Tapinanthus kerstingii (see T. globiferus)


Lythraceae

Ammannia [herbs, stems more or less quadrangular, large leaves sessile on main stems, along with branching stems with much smaller leaves]

Ammannia auriculata 50399

records: Niono, Gao, Sotuba (Boudet); Beni, Bounou (JH)

habitat: inundatable areas

notes: leaves with auriculate bulge at base; flowers bright violet on axillary corymb with distinct peduncle

Ammannia baccifera 50400

records: Dire, Dire to Bandiagara (Boudet); along Niger R (JH)

habitat: wet areas

notes: ramified herb 25-60 cm; leaf lanceolate-elliptical 3-8 cm x 0.3-0.8 cm with greatest width in middle; small nearly sessile violet flowers


Ammannia senegalensis [not in Berhaut] [get description]

records: Gosi, Bourem, Niafounke

habitat: inundatable areas

range: Senegal to East Africa (2 varieties)


Lawsonia

Lawsonia inermis 50401 (cultivated henna bush)

ethnobotany: used by some women as cosmetic on hands and feet, as in Arab countries
Rotala [aquatic, submerged]

Rotala elatinoides

records: Gao, Kabara to Mopti

habitat: rice fields

Rotala filiformis

records: Gao (Boudet)

habitat: wet areas

Rotala tenella

records: Ansongo (and south) (Boudet)

habitat: inundatable plains




Malpighiacae

Acridocarpus

Acridocarpus chevalieri

records: Koulikoro, Kita (Boudet)

Acridocarpus monodii 50402 [not in Berhaut]

records: Kikara near Douentza (Boudet); especially in zone between highway Bankass to Somadougou and the village of Idielina at base of Bandiagara cliffs, especially abundant at Yabatulu village 14°13’15”N, 3°29’49”W (Birnbaum & Florence 2005); Kikara, Walo, Anda (JH)

habitat: inselbergs, rocky rubble

notes: leaves more slender than those of A. spectabilis

notes: scrambling shrubby bush (sometimes lianescent); leaves slender; white nerves proeminent on underside of leaf only; young leaves red; flowers and fruits at various times in dry season

ethnobotany: medicinal, slender leaves sold in markets

references: Bull I.F.A.N. 24A:93, fig 2 (1962); Ic. Plant. Afr. (I.F.A.N.) 6:127 (1964); and (with current distribution data) Philippe Birnbaum & Jacques Florence, "Validation d'Acridocarpus monodii Arènes & Jaeger ex Birnbaum & F.Florence, sp. nov (Malpighiaceae); Notes sur sa biologie"; Adansonia 27(2):235-41, 2005.

Acridocarpus spectabilis

records: far south (Boudet)

habitat: moist areas in woodland or grass savanna



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