Guide to plants of northern and east-central Mali



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Olacaceae

Ximenia


Ximenia americana 50468

records: region of Timbuktu, Bamako (Boudet); Kikara, Tongo Tongo (JH)

notes: low-branching shrub 3 m; leaves alternate or clustered; bark greyish but branches can be purple-red, flower yellow-green or white; usually has axillary thorns (not paired), yellow-orange fruits 2.5 cm diameter containing one pit surrounded by pulp

ethnobotany: pulp of fruit edible



Onagraceae (= Oenotheraceae)



Jussiaea (see Ludwigia)

Jussiaea abyssinica (see Ludwigia abyssinica)

Jussiaea erecta (see Ludwigia erecta)

Jussiaea leptocarpa (see Ludwigia leptocarpa)

Jussiaea linifolia (see Ludwigia hyssopifolia)

Jussiaea hyssopofolia (see Ludwigia hyssopifolia)

Jussiaea perennis (see Ludwigia perennis)

Jussiaea pulvinaris (see Ludwigia senegalensis)

Jussiaea repens (see Ludwigia adscendens)

Jussiaea senegalensis (see Ludwigia senegalensis)

Jussiaea stenorraphe (see Ludwigia stenorraphe)

Jussiaea stolonifera (see Ludwigia adscendens)

Jussiaea suffruticosa (see Ludwigia octovalvis)
Ludwigia (as Jussiaea in FWTA2 1.1, p. 167-70)

reference: Peter Raven. 1963. “The Old World species of Ludwigia (including Jussiaea), with a synopsis of the genus (Onagraceae).” Reinwardtia 6(4):327-42

Ludwigia spp. in S.E. Asia: http://www.nationaalherbarium.nl/Riceweedsweb/www/ludwig.htm
floating: adscendens

nonfloating:

seeds in 2 or more rows from base to apex of each cell in capsule, 3-4 sepals

8-10 stamens

stenorraphe (plant pubescent/pilose, capsule often 2-4 cm)

erecta (plant glabrous, capsule not more than 2 cm)

3-4(-5) stamens

perennis (erect, leaf lanceolate to linear, capsule not tapering)

senegalensis (prostrate, leaf obovate to oblanceolate, capsule tapering at apex)

octovalvis

seeds in a single row at base and middle of cell, expanding to two rows in upper part

hyssopifolia

seeds in a single row through the full length of each cell of capsule

leptocarpa

abyssinica

adscendens (floating, with conspicuous pneumatophores)

Ludwigia abyssinica (syn Jussiaea abyssinica)

records: Finnkolo (Boudet)

habitat: swamps, lakeside, river bank

notes: stout subsucculent, erect or straggling herb, s.t. woody at base, to 3 m tall, well-branched; flowers appearing as though in axillary clusters; seeds in a single row through the full length of each cell of capsule

reference: Raven (1963) p. 380 and Figures pp. 410 and 42

Ludwigia adscendens subsp. diffusa 50469 (syn L. stolonifera [thus Boudet]; Boudet also gives Jussiaea repens, J. stolonifera)

records: Timbuktu, Mopti, Gao (Boudet, for “stolonifera”)

habitat: calm water, often floating, may form large masses

notes: herb with prostrate or ascending stems, rooting at nodes, with conspicuous white erect spindle-shaped mucronate pneumatophores (aerial roots) arising in clusters at nodes of floating stems and from roots; seeds in a single row through the full length of each cell of capsule

reference: “stolonifera” Raven (1963) p. 390 and Figure 32; Boulos (2000) Flora of Egypt vol 2 p. 150

Ludwigia erecta 50470 (syn Jussiaea erecta) [introduced sp.]

records: Timbuktu, Bamako (Boudet); Ayorou (Rep. of Niger), Beni (JH)

habitat: beside water, trodden wet areas

notes: [FWTA2] plant glabrous; stems strongly angled; petiole 0.3-1.5 cm long; stamens 8-10, seeds in 2 rows from base to apex of each cell in capsule; 3-4 sepals 0.3-0.6 mm long, petals 0.4-0.5 cm long; capsule less than 2 cm long

Ludwigia hyssopifolia 50471 (syns Jussiaea linifolia [FWTA2], J. hyssopifolia)

records: Bamako (Boudet); Beni, Sangha, Boro (JH)

habitat: wet places, beside water, rice fields

notes: erect annual herb usually 2 feet tall, much-branched often persisting and becoming woody at base; elongate pneumatophores (type of aerial root) arising from buried submerged roots; 4 sepals 0.2-0.35 cm long, petals 0.3 cm long, 8 stamens; seeds in a single row at base and middle of each cell of capsule, expanding to two rows in upper part [based mostly on FWTA2 for J. linifolia]

reference: Raven (1963) p. 385

Ludwigia leptocarpa (syn Jussiaea leptocarpa)

records: Bamako, Labbezanga (Boudet)

habitat: ponds

notes: herb to 3 m tall, often somewhat woody below, reclining at base then erect and well-branched; numerous s.t. dense spreading hairs esp. on young parts; erect floating pneumatophores (type of aerial root) arising from roots under water; leaves with 11-12 lateral nerves on each side of midrib; seeds in a single row through the full length of each cell of capsule

reference: Raven (1963) p. 375 and Figure p. 420

Ludwigia octovalvis (syn J. suffruticosa [in part])

records: Nafadié, Bamako (Boudet)

habitat: wet places, swamps, pens, wet sand

notes: well-branched herb to about 4 feet high, s.t. woody at base or even shrubby; 3-4 sepals; seeds in 2 rows from base to apex of each cell in capsule

taxonomy: close to L. stenorraphe

reference: Raven (1963) p. 356 and Figures pp. 417-18

Ludwigia perennis (syn Jussiaea perennis)

records: Niono, Banama (Boudet)

habitat: drying clay

notes: annual erect herb to 1 m; [FWTA2:] leaves lanceolate to linear; capsules 12 mm long or less, not particularly tapering to apex; seeds in 2 rows from base to apex of each cell in capsule

reference: Raven (1963) p. 367 and Figure pp. 419

Ludwigia pulvinaris (see L. senegalensis)

Ludwigia senegalensis (syn L. pulvinaris, Jussiaea senegalensis, J. pulvinaris)

records: Bourem-Bamba islands, Sotuba (“pulvinaris”), Gao, Koulikoro (“senegalensis”) (Boudet)

habitat: wet places

notes: small prostrate herb, creeping at nodes, s.t. completely submerged, stem mostly 5-35 cm long; seeds in 2 rows from base to apex of each cell in capsule

reference: Raven (1963) p. 37a and Figures pp. 412 and 419 (“pulvinaris”), also p. 378 and Figure p. 419 (“senegalensis”)

Ludwigia stenorraphe subsp. stenorraphe (syn L. suffruticosa var. stenosperma, Jussiaea stenorraphe)

records: Bamako, Kita (Boudet)

habitat: swampy or wet open places

notes: erect, shrubby herb or soft shrub 1-3 m; [FWTA2:] plant pubescent/pilose; petals 0.6-1.6 cm long; sepals often turn bright red after petals fall; capsule 2-4 cm; seeds in 2 rows from base to apex of each cell in capsule

taxonomy: close to L. octovalvis

reference: Raven (1963) p. 367 and Figure pp. 419; FWTA2 1.1 p. 168 (illustration)



Ludwigia stolonifera (see L. adscendens)


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