Guide to plants of northern and east-central Mali



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Orchidaceae


[monocots]
Eulophia

Eulophia angolensis

Eulophia cristata


Opiliaceae

Opilia


Opilia celtidifolia 50702

notes: woody liana

records: none (JH, one false identification turned out to be Loeseneriella)

native terms: Pergue (dialect of Jamsay) kà:mbà-kɛ̂: is cognate to Nanga term for Strophanthus (scrambling liana with similar lenticellated branches)




Orobanchaceae

Cistanche

Cistanche phelypaea

records: Goundam, Gao (Boudet)

habitat: parasitic on other plants in sandy places

Orobanche

Orobanche aegyptiaca

records: Timbuktu, Kidal (Boudet)

habitat: parasite on Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae

Orobanche ramosa var. ramosa (syn Phelypaea ramosa)

records: Timbuktu (Boudet)

Palmae (see Arecaceae)



Papaveraceae

Argemone


Argemone mexicana [introduced sp.] (Mexican prickly poppy)

records: Nioro, Djenne (Boudet)

habitat: weed on sandy-clayey soils, banks of watercourses

notes: large thistly leaves; large cup-shaped yellow flower with red stamens




Papilionaceae (see Fabaceae--Faboideae)



Pedaliaceae

Ceratotheca

Ceratotheca sesamoides 50472

records: Hombori, Kikara, Dianwely, Beni, Bounou, Bendiely (JH)

notes: erect herb, branched, 18-50 cm high; flowers pink or light red-purple outside, paler with purple streaks inside; flat rectangular capsule has 2 divergent horns or spines at the apex
Rogeria

Rogeria adenophylla 50473

records: Hombori, Kikara, Dianwely Maounde, Bendiely, Tanga, Segue (JH)

notes: tall erect herb to 3m; broad leaf with 3 shallow lobes 5-10 cm long; 1-3 subsessile flowers white to purplish, in leaf-axils; each capsule 2.5-3 cm long with thorny spines


Sesamum

Sesamum alatum 50474 (wild sesame)

records: Adrar, Gao, Hombori, Bandiagara (Boudet); Hombori, Douentza, Kikara, Walo (JH)

notes: erect herb (not branching); leaf divided 3-5 foliate or lobed at least near base of stem; flower lavender; seed winged

Sesamum indicum 50475 [cultivated sesame]

records: widely cultivated in Dogon country (JH)

notes: leaf undivided except some division near base of stem; seed not winged

Sesamum radiatum

records: Sotuba (Boudet); not observed in Dogon country (JH)

notes: close to S. indicum; erect herb 2 feet high, glandular hairs, unpleasant smell; leaf undivided; flowers purplish-pink; seed not winged

ethnobotany: can be cultivated

reference: illustrations in FWTA2 2, p. 390


Periplocaceae


(for Raphionacme, see Asclepiadaceae)

Phyllanthaceae


(separated off from Euphorbiaceae)

tribes:


Antidesmeae (Antidesma, Uapaca)

Brideliae (Bridelia)

Phyllantheae (Flueggea, Margaritaria, Phyllanthus)
Antidesma

Antidesma venosum 50476

records: Sanga, Koulikoro, Yanfolila (Boudet)

habitat: riverbanks

notes: small tree 2-3 m, leaves alternate, elliptical 6-12 cm x 4-7 cm, gently pointed; short petiole 0.5-1 cm, pubescent, with 2 stipules 5-6 mm long; petiole and central vein often red when young; young branch lenticillate, becoming silver-white; spiciform inflorescence on small branch; male and female flowers on different trees; ovoid fruits in spike, fruits 5-6 mm long, with short point at tip
Bridelia

Bridelia micrantha

records: Birgo (Boudet)

habitat: wooded savanna

notes: tree 10-15 m, alternate leaves, elliptical, 8-15 cm x 5-7 cm, slightly undulating edges corresponding to upper veins; petiole 0.6-1 cm; young branches lenticellate; old branches have obtuse thorns 3-10 mm here and there; greenish flowers in dense glomerules at petiole axils; ovoid berries, black at maturity, 7 mm x 5-6 mm
Flueggea

Flueggea virosa subsp. virosa 50477 (syn Securinega virosa, S. microcarpa) (“Chinese waterberry”)

records: Koulikoro, Bamako, Macina, Sanga, Mossi, Yanfolila (Boudet); Tin Hamma north of Gao, Kikara, Douentza, Adia (JH)

habitat: inundatable depressions

notes: tree; globular white fruits

Margaritaria

Margaritaria discoidea var. discoidea 50478 (syn Phyllanthus discoideus)

records: Yorobouboula, Doniena (Boudet)

habitat: gravelly slope

notes: tree


Phyllanthus (organized into shrub/tree vs. herb)

shrubs/trees



Phyllanthus beillei (see P. welwitschianus)

Phyllanthus muellerianus 50479

records: Bamako (Boudet); Walo (JH)

habitat: lateritic

notes: tree

Phyllanthus reticulatus var. reticulatus 50481

records: Ansongo, Gossi, Goundam, Sotuba, Sanga (Boudet); Timbuktu, Tupere, Tongo Tongo, Kikara (JH)

habitat: riverbank

notes: shrub; trunk thin, erect, little branching

Phyllanthus welwitschianus (syn P. beillei [thus Berhaut])

records: Niena, Kadondougou (Boudet)

habitat: thicket beside ravine (etc.)

notes: tree

herbs


Phyllanthus maderaspatensis

records: Gao, Tin Ahara (Boudet)

habitat: gravel, rubble

notes: herb

Phyllanthus pentandrus 50480

records: Macina, Mopti-San, Bamako, Sanga (Boudet); Timbuktu, Hombori, Kikara, Beni (JH)

habitat: dunes, depressions

notes: herb

Phyllanthus rotundifolius var. rotundifolius

records: Sompi, Timbuktu (Boudet)

habitat: deep sandy soil

notes: herb


Securinega

Securinega virosa (see Flueggea virosa)

Piperaceae


[cultivated peppercorns]
Piper

Piper guineense 50482

ethnobotany: both spp. of peppercorn are sold as spices in Timbuktu and elsewhere in Mali, but generally not part of Dogon cooking; P. guineense peppercorns are sold with peduncles attached

Piper nigrum 50483

ethnobotany: see P. guineense


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