Guide to plants of northern and east-central Mali



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Vitaceae


broad-leafed climbing or trailing vines, perennial roots with annual leaves

(in Berhaut under Ampelidaceae)


genus key: Ampelocissus vs. Cissus

tendrils borne on the inflorescence; flowers polygamo-monoecious Ampelocissus

tendrils never borne on the inflorescence; flowers bisexual Cissus
Ampelocissus (leaf can be confused with Cissus rufescens)

Ampelocissus africana 50665 (in Berhaut as A. grantii)

records: Niono, Bamaka, Sanga (Boudet)

habitat: dunes, laterite (in shade)

notes: perennial, woody liana; large leaves about as broad as long, with at least hints of lobes on sides, deeply cordate at base, with many fairly deep dentations all around; tiny flowers appear in panicles at about 1/3 point on the tendril (“vrille”) opposite the leaf; clusters of berries

native name: often called "herder's wild grape (Lannea microcarpa)" because of similarity of fruit clusters, but not eaten


Cissus

Cissus populnea var. populnea 50666

records: Bamako, Koulouba (Boudet); Douentza-Dianwely (JH)

habitat: savanna

notes: liana with pale woody terete stems up to 9 cm diameter, exuding watery sap when cut; cordiform leaf 10-28 cm diameter, without dentations, summit in acute point; petiole 2-4 cm or longer; reddish papery stipules on stem at base of petiole; opposite the petiole is either a tendril or a flower panicule (several green or cream flowers, then large berries 2-2.5 cm x 1.5 cm, dark violet when mature)

Cissus quadrangularis 50667

varieties: quadrangularis and pubescens

records:


farily common in Dogon and montane Songhay country especially among rocks or in thickets, e.g. Hombori, Kikara, Konna, Tongo Tongo, Tanga (JH)

var. quadrangularis: San (Bani R.), Nampala, Niono

var. pubescens: Segou, Sanga, San (Boudet)

habitat: clayey

notes: thick stems with unmistakable square cross-section; red fruits

Cissus rufescens 50568 (can be confused with Ampelocissus africana)

records: Koulikoro, Bamako, Yanfolila

habitat: savanna

notes: herb with perennial underground rootstock and annual branches, can climb but often trailing on ground; stems and petioles crimson; tendrils absent or short and unbranched and not coiled; broad leaf 5-13.5 cm long, often nearly circular but with slight bulge to side or s.t. with 3-5 lobes, somewhat cordate at base, finely dentate all around; tiny flowers in umbels grouped at tip of peduncle, flower buds red, open flowers yellow
Cyphostemma

Cyphostemma cymosum 50669 [get info]

records: Anda village (JH)

notes (from specimen photos): composite (digitate) leaf with five large leaflets emerging at the same node, leaflet margins gently serrate, leaflets narrowed at base, multi-branched inflorescence



Xanthorrhoeaceae (see Asphodelaceae)




Zingiberaceae


[monocots]
Aframomum

Aframomum melegueta 50670 [fruit imported for sale]

ethnobotany: large hard fruits sold in markets e.g. for eye medicine
Zingiber

Zingiber officinale 50671 (ginger)

records: sold in markets in large towns (for beverages) (JH)


Zygophyllaceae


[Saharan except Tribulus terrestris]

[for Balanites see Balanitaceae]


Fagonia

[fruits pyramidal, opening at bottom into 5 compartments with 1 seed each]

Fagonia glutinosa var. glutinosa

records: Sahara (Boudet)

habitat: rocks and sand

notes: spiny annual or perennial herb 20-40 cm tall, with woody base; stems prostrate, much-branched, brittle

reference: Fl Egypt vol 2 p. 18; Flore du Sahara 2nd ed p. 317; Ibis (image)

Fagonia jolyi (see F. indica)

Fagonia indica (syns F. oliveri, F. jolyi)

records: Saharan (Boudet)

habitat: sand

notes: perennial shrublet with procumbent or erect branches to 60 cm tall, stems woody at base; conspicuous long spines

Fagonia oliveri (see F. indica)
Seetzenia

Seetzenia lanata

records: “à rechercher au Mali” (Boudet p. 105)

notes: prostrate herb, glabrous plant; trifoliate leaves, medial leaflet losenge-form, laterial leaflets oblong; small isolated flowers without petals on long axillary peduncles; ovoid capsule

Tetraena

Tetraena simplex (syn Zygophyllum simplex [thus Boudet etc.])

records: Sahara (Boudet)
Tetraena gaetula subsp. waterlotii (syns Zygophyllum waterlotii, Zygophyllum gaetulum) [get description]

records: Sahara (Boudet)

notes: fleshy herb to 20-30 cm

ethnobotany: browsed by camels; fleshy foliage made into a plaster to draw furuncles (< Jstor)


Tribulus (Saharan except T. terrestris)

[fruit dividing into usually 5 carpels, each with 3-5 compartments each with 1 seed]



Tribulus alata (see T. pentandrus)

Tribulus longipetalus (see T. macropterus and T. pentandrus)

Tribulus macropterus subsp. macropterus (syn T. longipetalus subsp. macropterus)

records: Saharan (Boudet)

habitat: sand

ref.: Fl Egypt vol 2 p. 27

Tribulus mollis (syn T. ochroleucus)

records: Adrar, Sahara (Boudet)

habitat: sand

notes: annual herb with procumbent flexuous stems 25-30 cm long, branched from the base

ref.: Fl Egypt vol 2 p. 30



Tribulus ochroleucus (see T. mollis)

Tribulus pentandrus var. pentandrus (syn T. longipetalus, T. alatus)

records: Sahara (Boudet); also Arabia, Pakistan, Egypt

habitat: sand

notes: annual (or biennial) herb, branches prostrate (rarely procumbent) to 80 cm long

Tribulus terrestris 50672

records: Timbuktu, Gao, Tassaguela (Boudet); common in Timbuktu-Gao region and at Hombori, occasional in northern Dogon country (JH)

habitat: often in towns as a rainy-season weed with Boerhavia repens and Portulaca oleracea (JH)



notes: annual herb, prostrate, yellow flower, notorious spiny fruits (dangerous if stepped on)
Zygophyllum

Zygophyllum gaetulum (see Tetraena gaetula)

Zygophyllum simplex (see Tetraena simplex)

Zygophyllum waterlotii (see Tetraena gaetula)


alphabetical list of genera (family on right)


Abildgaardia

Cyperaceae

Abrus

Fabaceae (Faboideae)

Abutilon

Malvaceae

Acacia

Fabaceae (Mimosoideae)

Acanthospermum

Asteraceae

Achyranthes

Amaranthaceae

Acroceras

Poaceae

Acrodocarphus

Malpighiaceae

Actionipteris

ferns (Actiniopteridaceae)

Adansonia

Bombacaceae

Adenium

Apocynaceae

Adiantum

ferns (Adiantaceae)

Aerva

Amaranthaceae

Aeschynomene

Fabaceae (Faboideae)

Afrotrilepis

Cyperaceae

Afzelia

Fabaceae (Caesalpinioideae)

Ageratum

Asteraceae

Albizia

Fabaceae (Mimosoideae)

Allium

Alliaceae

Allophylys

Sapindaceae

Alloteropsis

Poaceae

Aloe

Asphodelaceae

Alternanthera

Amaranthaceae

Alysicarpus

Fabaceae (Faboideae)

Amaranthus

Amaranthaceae

Ambrosia

Asteraceae

Ammannia

Lythraceae

Ammodaucus

Apiaceae

Amorphophallus

Araceae

Ampelocissus

Vitaceae

Anacardium

Anacardiaceae

Anastatica

Brassicaceae

Andira

Fabaceae (Faboideae)

Andropogon

Poaceae

Aneilema

Commelinaceae

Anethum

Apiaceae

Annona

Annonaceae

Anogeissus

Combretaceae

Anthephora

Poaceae

Anticharis

Scrophulariaceae

Antidesma

Phyllanthaceae

Aphania (> Lepisanthes)

Sapindaceae

Arachis

Fabaceae (Faboideae)

Arachne

Poaceae

Argemone

Papaveraceae

Aristida

Poaceae

Aristolochia

Aristolochiaceae

Artemisia

Asteraceae

Aspilia

Asteraceae

Asteriscus

Asteraceae

Astraea

Euphorbiaceae

Astragalus

Fabaceae (Faboideae)

Azadirachta

Meliaceae

Azolla

ferns (Azollaceae)

Baissea

Apocynaceae

Balanites

Balanitaceae

Bassia

Chenopodiaceae

Bauhinea

Fabaceae (Caesalpinioideae)

Bergia

Elatinaceae

Bidens

Asteraceae

Blainvillea

Asteraceae

Blepharis

Acanthaceae

Blumea

Asteraceae

Boerhavia

Nyctaginaceae

Bolbitis

ferns (Lomariopsidaceae)

Bolboschoenus

Cyperaceae

Bombax

Bombacaceae

Borassus

Arecaceae

Borreria (> Spermacoce)

Rubiaceae

Boscia

Brassicaceae

Brachiaria

Poaceae

Brachystelma (> Raphionacme)

Asclepiadaceae

Bridelia

Phyllanthaceae

Bubonium (> Asteriscus)

Asteraceae

Bulbostylis

Cyperaceae

Burkea

Fabaceae (Caesalpinioideae)

Butomopsis

Hydrocharitaceae

Cadaba

Brassicaceae

Calligonum

Polygonaceae

Calotropis

Asclepiadaceae

Canavalia

Fabaceae (Faboideae)

Canthium (> Keetia)

Rubiaceae

Caperonia

Euphorbiaceae

Capparis

Brassicaceae

Capsicum

Solanaceae

Caralluma

Asclepiadaceae

Cassia

Fabaceae (Caesalpinioideae)

Cassytha

Lauraceae

Ceiba

Bombacaceae

Celosia

Amaranthaceae

Celtis

Ulmaceae

Cenchrus

Poaceae

Centaurea

Asteraceae

Ceratotheca

Pedaliaceae

Ceropegia

Asclepiadaceae

Ceruana

Asteraceae

Chamacrista

Fabaceae (Caesalpinioideae)

Chascanum

Verbenaceae

Chasmopodium

Poaceae

Chenopodium

Chenopodiaceae

Chloris

Poaceae

Chlorophytum

Anthericaceae

Christella (>Thelypteris)

ferns (Thelypteridaceae)

Chrozophora

Euphorbiaceae

Chrysochloa

Poaceae

Cienfuegosia

Malvaceae

Cissampelos

Menispermaceae

Cissus

Vitaceae

Cistanche

Orobanchaceae

Citrullus

Cucurbitaceae

Clematis

Ranunculaceae

Cleome

Brassicaceae

Coccinea

Cucurbitaceae

Cocculus

Menispermaceae

Coelachyrum

Poaceae

Cola

Sterculiaceae

Coldenia

Boraginaceae

Colocasia

Araceae

Colocynthis (> Citrullus)

Cucurbitaceae

Combretum

Combretaceae

Commelina

Commelinaceae

Commicarpus

Nyctaginaceae

Commiphora

Burseraceae

Convolvulus

Convolvulaceae

Conyza

Asteraceae

Corchorus

Tiliaceae

Cordia

Boraginaceae

Coreopsis (> Bidens)

Asteraceae

Cornulaca

Chenopodiaceae

Cotula

Asteraceae

Crataeva

Brassicaceae

Crinum

Amaryllidaceae

Crotalaria

Fabaceae (Faboideae)

Croton

Euphorbiaceae

Crypsis

Poaceae

Ctenium

Poaceae

Ctenolepis

Cucurbitaceae

Cucumis

Cucurbitaceae

Cucurbita

Cucurbitaceae

Cuminum

Apiaceae

Cussonia

Araliaceae

Cyamopsis

Fabaceae (Faboideae)

Cyanotis

Commelinaceae

Cyathula

Amaranthaceae

Cyclosorus

ferns (Thelypteridaceae)

Cymbopogon

Poaceae

Cynanchum

Asclepiadaceae

Cynodon

Poaceae

Cyperus

Cyperaceae

Dactyloctenium

Poaceae

Dalbergia

Fabaceae (Faboideae)

Dalechampia

Euphorbiaceae

Daniellia

Fabaceae (Caesalpinioideae)

Datura

Solanaceae

Daucus

Apiaceae

Desmidorchis (> Caralluma)

Asclepiadaceae

Desmodium

Fabaceae (Faboideae)

Detarium

Fabaceae (Caesalpinioideae)

Dicanthium

Poaceae

Dichrostachys

Fabaceae (Mimosoideae)

Dicliptera

Acanthaceae

Dicoma

Asteraceae

Digitaria

Poaceae

Diheteropogon

Poaceae

Dinebra

Poaceae

Dioscorea

Dioscoreaceae

Diospyros

Ebenaceae

Dipcadi (> Ornithogalum)

Hyacinthaceae

Drimia

Hyacinthaceae

Echinochloa

Poaceae

Echinops

Asteraceae

Eclipta

Asteraceae

Eichhornia

Pontederiaceae

Elatine

Elatinaceae

Eleocharis

Cyperaceae

Eleusine

Poaceae

Elionurus

Poaceae

Elyhtrophorus

Poaceae

Emex

Polygonaceae

Endostemon

Lamiaceae

Englerastrum

Lamiaceae

Englerina

Loranthaceae

Enneapogon

Poaceae

Entada

Fabaceae (Mimosoideae)

Enteropogon

Poaceae

Epaltes (> Litogyne)

Asteraceae

Eragrostis

Poaceae

Eremobium

Brassicaceae

Eriochloa

Poaceae

Erythrina

Fabaceae (Faboideae)

Erythrophleum

Fabaceae (Caesalpinioideae)

Eulophia

Orchidaceae

Euphorbia

Euphorbiaceae

Evolvulus

Convolvulaceae

Fagonia

Zygophyllaceae
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