History of Diabetes & Diabetics
Diabetes is not a newly born disease, it has been with human race from long back but, we came to knew about it in 1552 B.C. Obesity & Diabetes - Sushruta (6th century BCE), identified and relates diabetes with obesity and sedentary lifestyle. In addition, suggests exercise to help cure it.
Since this period, many of Greek as well French physicians had worked on it and made us aware of the nature of disease, organs responsible for it etc. In 1870s, a French physician had discovered a link between Diabetes and diet intake, and an idea to formulate individual diet plan came into picture.
Ancient diabetes diagnosis – Ancient Indians diagnose diabetes by watching whether ants got attracts towards the urine, and they refer diabetes as sweet urine diseases. In addition, Chinese, Korean, and Japanese called in the same manner.
Role of the Pancreas in Diabetes – In 1889 Joseph von Mering and Oskar Minkowski discovered the role of the pancreas in diabetes after they found that, a dog whose pancreas cut removed cause’s diabetes symptoms and died later.
Insulin produced by Pancreas - In 1910 Sir Edward Albert Sharpey-Schafer confirmed that, a shortage in chemical produced by the pancreas is behind the cause of diabetes.
World Diabetes Day – Banting successfully purified hormone insulin from bovine pancreas and first effective treatment on 1922. Banting receives the Nobel Prize in 1923 for this remarkable achievement and honored by celebrating World Diabetes Day on his birthday that is November 14.
Distinction between diabetes types - Sir Harold Percival (Harry) Himsworth, first confirms type 1 and type 2, and it was in 1936 publications. Diabetes was recognized with complete details and its types (Type 1and Type 2 diabetes - that is insulin dependent and non insulin dependent) in the year, 1959.
Diabetic diet was formulated with inclusion of milk, oats and other fiber containing foods in 1900-1915 In the decade of 1940, it has been discovered that different organs like kidney and skin are also affected if diabetes is creeping from a long term. A major turn in this research was in the year 1955, when the oral hypoglycemic drugs had been manufactured.
As we know this is one of the old diseases, existing in many individuals and still on rising charts. Hence, scientists are continuously working to relieve us from it, by discovering the relevant drugs and making new researches.
According to W.H.O estimates, by 2025 total 300 million of the worldwide population will be affected by diabetes. For every 21 seconds, someone is diagnosed with diabetes, an estimation given by American Diabetes Association. And, there are 20.8 million diabetics in US at present, which is roughly estimated as 7% of US population, out of this figure about 6.2 millions are unaware of the diabetes existence in there life.
Pre-diabetes is a condition in which blood-glucose levels are marginally higher than normal but not high enough for the diagnosis of diabetes.
Still, there is positive news if you have pre-diabetes you can reduce your risk of getting diabetes. With modest weight loss and moderate physical activity, you can prevent altogether and return to normal glucose levels or slow down the development of type 2 diabetes.
What is Pre-diabetes?
Impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or borderline diabetes were the other names for pre-diabetes.
If pre-diabetes, then there are more chances to develop type 2 diabetes. Being overweight and physically inactive contributes to pre-diabetes. Sometimes pre-diabetes can be reverse with weight loss that comes from healthy eating and more physical activity.
Most people with pre-diabetes do not have any symptoms. Diabetes blood test is the one and only way to diagnose pre-diabetes. If you are over 45 years and over weight, particularly large waist size, then you are at risk of developing pre diabetes and even diabetes. Therefore, it is necessary to get blood tested at least once in every year.
Diabetes is a chronic and complex disease, caused by having too much glucose (sugar) in the blood. This happens when there is low or no insulin production or improper use of insulin.
What is Diabetes? - About Diabetes
Diabetes (diabetes mellitus) is a metabolic disorder. Metabolism is a chemical process, occurs in all living cells or organisms, consumed food is broken down to yield energy and other substances necessary for life. It, furthermore, expels the waste let-out by this metabolic process.
Most of the foods we eat are broken down into glucose (a form of sugar) and released into the bloodstream, which is the principal source of energy for our body. However, presence of insulin is vital to absorb glucose by our cells. Insulin makes it possible for our cells to take-up glucose.
Insulin is a hormone produces and secretes by the pancreas. Once the blood-glucose level rises after eating, the pancreas automatically senses the glucose level, and it releases a proportionate quantity of insulin in the bloodstream. This helps our body cells to consume the glucose present in our bloodstream, and thus keeps the blood-sugar level at a normal range.
Diabetes is a condition in which the quantity of glucose in the blood is raised called hyperglycemia. This happens when there is low or no insulin production or improper use of insulin.
Why is Diabetes and Diabetes Mellitus called so?
Diabetes comes from Greek, and it means a siphon. Aretus the Cappadocian, a Greek physician during the second century A.D., named the condition diabainein,diabaineine refers a tubular organ that take-in or expels water - excessive urine discharges disease. He described patients who were passing too much water (polyuria) - like a siphon. The word became "diabetes" from the English adoption of the Medieval Latin diabetes..
In 1675 Thomas Willis added mellitus to the term, although it is commonly referred to simply as diabetes. Mel in Latin means honey; the urine and blood of people with diabetes has excess glucose, and glucose is sweet like honey. Diabetes mellitus could literally mean "siphoning off sweet water". Matthew Dobson in 1776 confirmed that diabetic’s urine and blood have excess sugar that contributes to its sweet taste.
In ancient China people observed that ants would be attracted to some people's urine, because it was sweet. The term "Sweet Urine Disease" was coined. Diabetes Mellitus