History of Diabetes & Diabetics



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What are the risk factors of diabetes?




  • Genetic (Hereditary) - family members had diabetes.

  • no or low physical activity

  • improper food habits

  • obesity – excess body weight and (or) waist size.

  • age greater than 45 years

  • gestational diabetes during pregnancy & Given birth a baby weighing more than 9 pounds

  • HDL or good cholesterol level less than 35 mg/dl

  • triglycerides level more than 250 mg/dl

  • blood pressure at or greater than 140/90 mmHg

  • previously diagnosed as pre-diabetes or Impaired glucose tolerance

  • ethnic – Asian, particularly Indian (world's largest diabetes population), Middle East, Oceania and the Caribbean, African American, Hispanic Americans, and Native Americans, all have high rates of diabetes.

Everyone over 45 should have their blood glucose checked at least every 2 years. Moreover, be performed more often if have high diabetes risk factors.

Gestational Diabetes Risk Factors


Gestational diabetes causes are high if having family history of diabetes, prior gestational or baby weight greater than 9 pounds and diagnosed as pre-diabetes.

Gestational Diabetes Risk Factors



  • family history of diabetes - have a parent, brother, or sister with diabetes

  • Race - African American, American Indian, Asian American, Hispanic/Latino, or Pacific Islander

  • 25 years of age or older

  • Overweight and or obese

  • had gestational diabetes in the previous pregnancy or given birth a baby weighing more than 9 pounds.

  • have pre-diabetes, high blood-glucose levels yet high enough for the diagnosis of diabetes.

If you have any of the above risk factors, ask your health care team about testing for gestational diabetes.

  • you are at high risk if you are very overweight, had gestational diabetes before, have a strong family history of diabetes, or have glucose in your urine.

Diabetes risk factors explained.


Certain factor that increases the chances of developing diabetes is diabetes risk factors. Now let us explore, why and how these risk factors increase the chances of having diabetes.

Genetic or Hereditary risk factor


If mother has diabetes, there is a risk factor of getting diabetes, and if father has diabetes, the risk is more. If both mother and father have diabetes, then chance of having diabetes is comparatively much more.

No or low physical activity


If there is no or low physical activity, then sugar or glucose that is consumed cannot be burnt fully, thus rises blood glucose-level and increases the glycogen storage. It forces to secrete more insulin to balance the excess glucose-level. However, in due a coarse pancreas is not able to secrete this increasing requirement causing diabetes.

Improper food habits


When consume foods high in glucose (carbohydrate) or fat (oily foods) than the actual requirement that leads to blood-glucose level rise. Pancreas responded by increasing the insulin secretion proportionally. Slowly, the pancreas is not able to secrete this increasing requirements lead to diabetes.

Obesity (excess body weight and or waist size)


Obesity (large waist size) or over weight means there is too much storage of fat. Mostly, this storage takes time that is because of continuous surplus consumption of sugar or/and oily food than required for long time. In addition, many studies proved that excess fat storage might be the contributing risk factor for insulin resistance (type 2 diabetes).

Age greater than 45 years


Every organ starts losing its ability after 40 to 45 years, including pancreas. Similarly, after 45 years of age, it is difficult to maintain required insulin secretion, so aging is considered as a diabetes risk factor.

Gestational diabetes during pregnancy


Risk factor of having diabetes is high for both mother and the child involved in gestational diabetes. It is due to both gene factor and inability of the body.

You previously diagnosed as pre-diabetes


Pre-diabetes means a high blood-glucose level higher than normal but not high enough to diagnose as diabetes. Pre-diabetes can be reversible by following diabetes lifestyle changes, if not end up with diabetes.

Ethnic


Certain country, region, community, hereditary, food habits, climate and lifestyle have some increased risk factor towards diabetes.

Blood Sugar Levels


For proper understanding of diabetic health, you must compare with a normal healthy individual (person without diabetes).

Blood sugar number means


In order to understand how your blood sugar behaves throughout the day? You need to monitor your blood sugar at different times. Your doctor can help you finding suitable blood-glucose target range. Here, we provided general blood-glucose numbers based on the American Diabetes Association guidelines.

Fasting blood-glucose number (before breakfast)


This test needs to be performing on an empty stomach, mostly after eight hours of fasting before breakfast. It shows how effective your long-acting insulin or medication that you take. In general, the results will be as follows:

  • FPG blood sugar number is considering normal up to 100 mg/dl (or 5.5 mmol/L).

  • FPG Levels between 110 and 125 (6.1 to 6.9 mmol/L) are considering impaired fasting glucose (pre-diabetes). It is slightly higher than normal but not high enough to diagnose as diabetes.

  • FPG level of 126 mg/dL (7.0 mmol/L) or higher absorbed on two different days are confirmed as diabetes.

  • diabetics on treatment should plan to achieve between 90 and 130 mg/dL (5 mmol/L to 7.2 mmol/L).

Pre-meal blood glucose number (before lunch & dinner)


This reading should be carried out before lunch and dinner. It shows how effective your breakfast and lunch time insulin or medication dosage.

  • for a normally healthy individual the blood sugar levels are maintained between 82 to 110 mg/dL (4.4 to 6.1 mmol/L).

  • for diabetics, the blood sugar number should be managed between 90 and 130 mg/dL (5 mmol/L to 7.2 mmol/L).

Two hours after eating (breakfast or lunch or dinner)


Blood glucose rises to its peak for few hours after you eat (not only for diabetics also for non-diabetics).

  • for people without diabetes, blood sugar increases modestly after eating and decreases after two hours of eating.

  • blood-glucose number measured between 140 to 200 mg/dL (7.8 to 11.1 mmol/L) is considering as at risk for type 2 diabetes and is referred to as impaired glucose tolerance or pre diabetes.

  • for diabetes, the initial increase is significant high and the level should remain at least that 180 mg/dL (10 mmol/L).

This reading shows if the insulin/medication you took was enough to cover the carbohydrates that you ate.

Just before bedtime


A target range for someone with diabetes is 110 to 150 mg/dL (6.1 to 8.4 mmol/L). You should not go to bed with blood sugar that is too low, because that may put you at risk of having a severe hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) episode during the night.

Diabetes is a disease characterized by abnormal metabolism of blood sugar and defective insulin production. Blood sugar levels are an important parameter for the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of diabetes. Blood sugar level is the level of sugar circulating in blood at a given time. Blood glucose levels vary at different time on various part of the day. Some factors that affect blood sugar levels are body composition, age, physical activity and sex. Males and females may also have differing blood sugar level.

Normal guidelines for blood sugar:

Blood Sugar Range : Level of Blood sugar on waking up with an empty stomach should be normally between 80 to 120 mg/dl. Thereafter normal blood sugar should be between 120 to 160 mg/dl two hours after having food and during bedtime the blood sugar values should be between 100 to 140 mg/dl. Any variations from the above mentioned value range of blood sugar is suggestive of diabetes, if the value of an individual’s blood sugar tends to be more than the upper limit. Repeated blood sugar test is necessary to confirm diabetes.

Conditions wherein blood sugar level will be higher other than diabetes:

There are certain conditions where blood sugar level of an individual will differ from the normal range and repeated medical tests are necessary to confirm it as diabetes. The various conditions are pregnancy and lactation, fasting, after severe binge eating, fever, severe injuries, after severe physical exertion, severe dehydration, for patients undergoing certain medical therapeutic procedures, etc. In such cases blood sugar level changes are normal and not linked to regular diabetes.

Adverse effects of blood sugar levels on diabetes patients:

While in most of the cases, blood sugar levels will be high in case of diabetes patients, its level can have adverse effect on the patient depending upon its severity and complications. A severely high level of blood sugar may result in various symptoms like breathlessness. It may also lead to complications involving the circulatory system and the blood vessels. A severely low blood sugar level may lead to unconsciousness. So blood sugar level should be kept in proper control for control of diabetes. It is necessary to monitor blood sugar levels at regular intervals.


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