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4 RESULTS 

4.1 Flora 

A total of 250 plant taxa (including varieties and subspecies) from 58 families and 171 

genera were recorded from the survey area (Table 1, Appendix 5).  Included in the 

collection were 47 alien taxa.  Species representation was greatest among the 

Asteraceae (21), Papilionaceae (20), Myrtaceae (20), Proteaceae (17), Poaceae (13), 

Orchidaceae (12), Anthericaceae (11), Cyperaceae (10) and Mimosaceae (10).   



Table 1 

Statistics for plant taxa recorded from the ECU South West Campus survey 

area.   

No. Families 

58  


 

 

No. Genera 

171  

 

 



No. Taxa 

251  


 

 

No. Introduced Taxa 

47  

 

 



No. Native Taxa 

201  


 

 

other taxa (cultivated) 

2  

 

 



 

 

 



 

 

Speciose Families 

 

 

Speciose Genera 



ASTERACEAE 21 

 

Acacia  

10 

MYRTACEAE 20 



 

Leucopogon  

PAPILIONACEAE 20 



 

Lomandra  

PROTEACEAE 17 



 

Hibbertia  

POACEAE 13 



 

Drosera  

ORCHIDACEAE 12 



 

Stylidium  

ANTHERICACEAE 11 



 

Thysanotus  

CYPERACEAE 10 



 

Melaleuca 

MIMOSACEAE 10 



 

Caladenia  

ERICACEAE 9 



 

Pterostylis  

DASYPOGONACEAE 8   



Daviesia  

STYLIDIACEAE 5 



 

Banksia  

APIACEAE 5 



 

Lepidosperma  

DILLENIACEAE 5 



 

Eucalyptus  

DROSERACEAE 5 



 

Opercularia  

HAEMODORACEAE 5   



 

 

IRIDACEAE 5 



 

 

 



4.2 

Declared Rare and Priority Flora 

A desktop search for flora of conservation significance previously collected from the 

survey locality was undertaken utilising the EPBC (Federal) and DEC (State) 

databases.  There was one plant taxa identified from the Federal database, Diuris 



drummondii, listed as Vulnerable.  A total of ten taxa were identified from the State 

database search including one DRF, four Priority 3 flora and five Priority 4 flora (see 

Table 2).   


Flora & Vegetation Survey 

ECU South West Campus 

 

21/10/07 



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Following intensive sampling and ground truthing of the survey, one plant taxa of 

State conservation significance was recorded from three locations within the survey 

area;  Caladenia speciosa P4 (Table 3, Figure 2).  None of the plant taxa recorded 

were gazetted as Declared Rare Flora pursuant to subsection (2) of section 23F of the 



Wildlife Conservation Act (1950).  None of the taxa recorded are listed under the 

EPBC Act.   



Table 2 

Flora of conservation significance previously collected from the vicinity of 

the ECU South West Campus.   

SCC - State Conservation Code (Wildlife Conservation Act 1999) and DEC (2007) 

FCC – Federal Conservation Code (EPBC Act 1999) 

 

FAMILY 

Species 

SCC 

FCC 

Acacia flagelliformis 

4  


Aponogeton hexapetalus 

4  


Caladenia speciosa 

4  


Diuris drummondii 

R V 


Eucalyptus rudis ssp. cratyantha 

4  


Lasipetalum membranaceum 

3  


Platysace ramosissima 

3  


Pultenaea skinneri 

4  


Schoenus benthamii 

3  


Verticordia attenuata 

3  


Table 3 

Location of Priority 4 flora Caladenia speciosa within the ECU South West 

Campus.   

GDA94 

Easting Northing No. 

plants 

374538 6307240 

374411 6307035 



374373 6307025 



4.3

 

Vegetation 

Raw data from the fourteen sites assessed are presented as Appendix 6.   

Vegetation within the survey area consists of wetlands in the far west, a thin strip of 

‘sandy flats’ that support Corymbia calophylla, Banksia grandis and Banksia 



attenuata that rise into mid dune slopes and then upper slopes and hill crests 

(supporting tuart).  There are two vegetation associations on the ‘sandy flat’, partly 

due to prior tree clearing and disturbance from the old Rifle Range which has 

artificially created an open heathland.  The Tuart Woodland complexes have been 

separated into 'Tuart over mixed woodlands' and 'Tuart over mixed low forest 

dominated by peppie', which mainly occurs in deep dune swales in the far south and 

far north of the survey area.  On the east side of the dune system there is a localised 

area of hill slope vegetation supporting mixed low woodland, grading into the 

sandplains complex (jarrah-banksia).   


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The following ten vegetation complexes were described and mapped (Figure 2): 

1 EgEmCcBaAf 

Tuart Open Woodland over Jarrah – Marri - Banksia attenuata - Peppermint Low 

Woodland 

Hill Crests & Upper Hill Slopes 

Sites 2, 5, 6, 8 & 9 



Eucalyptus gomphocephala Open Woodland over Eucalyptus marginata ssp.  marginata, Corymbia 

calophylla, Agonis flexuosa, Banksia attenuata Low Woodland A over Agonis flexuosa, Banksia 

attenuata, Xylomelum occidentale Open Low Woodland B over Melaleuca thymoides, Xylomelum 

occidentale Open Low Scrub B over Macrozamia riedlei Open Dwarf Scrub C over Hibbertia hypericoides, 

Xanthorrhoea gracilis, Dasypogon bromeliifolius, Conostylis aculeata Low Heath D over *Briza maxima 

Very Open Low Grass over Daucus glochidiatus, *Ursinia anthemoides, *Hypochaeris glabra, 



Chamaescilla corymbosa Very Open Herbs 

 

 

2 EgEmCcBaAf 

Tuart - Marri Open Woodland over Peppermint – Jarrah – Marri - Banksia attenuata Low 

Open Forest (Peppermint dominated) 

Hill Swales (major) 

Sites 7 & 14 



Eucalyptus gomphocephala, Corymbia calophylla Open Woodland over Agonis flexuosa, Corymbia 

calophylla, Banksia attenuata, Eucalyptus marginata ssp.  marginata Low Forest A over Eucalyptus 

marginata  ssp.  marginata, Agonis flexuosa, Corymbia calophylla Low Woodland B over Diplolaena 

dampieri, Acacia cyclops, Agonis flexuosa Open Scrub over Macrozamia riedlei Open Dwarf Scrub C over 

Hibbertia hypericoides, Xanthorrhoea gracilis Dwarf Scrub D over *Briza maxima, *Briza minor, 

*Ehrharta calycina Open Low Grass over Hardenbergia comptoniana Very Open Climbers over *Romulea 

rosea, *Ursinia anthemoides, *Hypochaeris glabra, Chamaescilla corymbosa Open Herbs 

 

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3 EmCcBa 

Jarrah – Marri - Banksia attenuata Low Woodland 

Hill Slopes (south) 

Site 3, 4 & 10 



Corymbia calophylla, Eucalyptus marginata ssp. marginata, Banksia attenuata, Xylomelum occidentale 

Low Woodland A over Corymbia calophylla, Eucalyptus marginata ssp. marginata, Banksia attenuata, 



Xylomelum occidentale Open Low Woodland B over Allocasuarina humilis, Nuytsia floribunda Low Scrub 

A/B over Melaleuca thymoides, Macrozamia riedlei, Xanthorrhoea gracilis, Daviesia divaricata, 



Leucopogon racemulosus Open Dwarf Scrub C over Hibbertia hypericoides Low Heath D over *Briza 

maxima  Very Open Low Grass over Daucus glochidiatus, Drosera stoloifera, *Ursinia anthemoides, 

*Romulea rosea, *Hypochaeris glabra Very Open Herbs 

 

 

4 EmCcBaAf 

Marri Open Woodland over Jarrah – Marri - Banksia attenuata - Peppermint Low 

Woodland 

Hill Slopes (north) 

Site 1 


Corymbia calophylla Open Woodland over Banksia attenuata, Agonis flexuosa, Corymbia calophylla, 

Eucalyptus marginata ssp. marginata, Xylomelum occidentale Low Woodland A over Banksia attenuata, 

Agonis flexuosa, Corymbia calophylla, Eucalyptus marginata ssp. marginata Open Low Woodland B over 

Agonis flexuosa, Jacksonia furcellata Open Low Scrub B over Xanthorrhoea gracilis, Macrozamia riedlei 

Open Dwarf Scrub C over Hibbertia hypericoides, Stirlingia latifolia, Bossiaea eriocarpa Low Heath D 

over  Lepidosperma squamatum, Orthrosanthus laxus Very Open Low Sedges over *Briza maxima Open 

Low Grass over Daucus glochidiatus, *Ursinia anthemoides, *Romulea rosea Very Open Herbs 



 

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5 EmCcBa 

Jarrah - Marri Open Woodland over Jarrah – Marri - Banksia attenuata Low Woodland 

Hill Slopes (east) 

Releves O13 & R17 



Corymbia calophylla, Eucalyptus marginata ssp. marginata Open Woodland A over Corymbia calophylla, 

Eucalyptus marginata ssp. marginata, Banksia attenuata, Xylomelum occidentale Low Woodland B over 

Eucalyptus marginata ssp. marginata, Banksia attenuata Open Scrub over Xylomelum occidentale Open 

Low Scrub A over Melaleuca thymoides, Macrozamia riedlei Open Low Scrub B over Hibbertia 



hypericoides Low Heath D over Dasypogon bromeliifolius Very Open Low Sedges over Drosera 

erythrorhiza, *Romulea rosea, *Hypochaeris glabra Very Open Herbs 

 

 

6 EmBa 

Jarrah - Banksia attenuata Low Woodland 

Sandplain 

Site 13 


Eucalyptus marginata ssp. marginata, Banksia attenuata, Xylomelum occidentale Low Woodland A over 

Eucalyptus marginata ssp. marginata, Banksia attenuata, Xylomelum occidentale Open Low Woodland B 

over Melaleuca incana ssp. incana Open Scrub over Melaleuca thymoides, Melaleuca incana ssp. incana, 



Jacksonia horrida Open Low Scrub A over Melaleuca thymoides Low Scrub B over Melaleuca thymoides 

Dwarf Scrub C over Hibbertia hypericoides, Dasypogon bromeliifolius, Stirlingia latifolia Low Heath D 

over Daucus glochidiatus, *Hypochaeris glabra, *Ursinia anthemoides Very Open Herbs 

 


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7 CcMpBl 

Marri - Melaleuca preissiana - Banksia littorea Low Woodland 

Seasonally inundated dampland 

Sites 11 & 12 



Corymbia calophylla, Melaleuca preissiana, Banksia littorea Low Woodland A over Corymbia calophylla, 

Banksia littorea, Melaleuca preissiana Open Low Woodland B over Melaleuca incana ssp. incana, Acacia 

pulchella, Daviesia physodes Open Low Scrub A/B over Xanthorrhoea preissii Open Dwarf Scrub C over 

Baumea juncea, Lomandra odora, Juncus pallidus Dense Low Sedges 

 

 

8 PeAm 

Mixed heath (previously disturbed from old Rifle Range) 

Sandy flats 

Releve R15 



Pericalymma ellipticum, Adenanthos meisneri Heath B over Daviesia physodes, Platytheca galioides, 

Hypocalymma angustifolium, Xanthorrhoea preissii Dwarf Scrub C over Hypolaena exsulca, Baumea 

juncea, Dasypogon bromeliifolius Open Low Sedges 

 


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9 CcBaBg 

Marri Open Woodland over Banksia grandis - B. attenuata Low Woodland 

Sandy flats 

Releve R16 & CAL2 



Corymbia calophylla Open Woodland over Banksia attenuata, Banksia grandis Low Woodland A over 

Acacia pulchella, Daviesia physodes Open Low Scrub B over Platytheca galioides, Adenanthos meisneri, 

Bossiaea eriocarpa, Boronia dichotoma, Stirlingia latifolia Open Dwarf Scrub C over Baumea juncea, 

Xanthorrhoea gracilis Low Sedges 

 

 



10 Cleared 

Areas 

 

 

 

Vegetation condition over the larger survey area was rated as ‘Good’ to ‘Very Good’, 



with minor ground disturbance and non-aggressive weed species typically recorded 

amongst otherwise intact native vegetation (Figure 3).  ‘Degraded’ vegetation was 

primarily restricted to localised areas of ground disturbance that require minor 

management inputs to remedy.   



Flora & Vegetation Survey 

ECU South West Campus 

 

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INSERT 

Figure 2  Vegetation map for the ECU South West Campus showing location of 

rare flora.   

Flora & Vegetation Survey 

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INSERT 

Figure 3 

Vegetation condition map for the ECU South West Campus.   

Flora & Vegetation Survey 

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4.4 

Conservation Status of Tuart Communities Represented 

Tuart (Eucalyptus gomphocephala) occurs predominantly on the near coastal 

Quindalup and Spearwood Dunes over a 400 kilometre range from the Sabina River 

near Ludlow in the south to Jurien Bay in the north (Keighery et al. 2002).  In recent 

years the need to conserve tuart woodlands has been triggered by a growing 

awareness that:  

 

The physical extent of tuart dominated communities on the Swan Coastal Plain 



has been significantly reduced (by almost 65%) primarily in response to expansion 

of the State’s population (Hopkins et al. 2001); 

 

For many areas of retained tuart woodland, secondary impacts including grazing, 



altered fire regimes, management based on forest silviculture and past timber 

harvesting have reduced vegetation condition, and hence the conservation value 

of retained tuart stands; and 

 



Large numbers of tuart trees between Mandurah and Bunbury have suffered 

severe foliage and crown dieback since 1990 with no confirmed causal agent yet 

identified.   

While tuart itself is not considered threatened, some of the vegetation communities 

supporting tuart are under-represented in conservation reserves, or not adequately 

protected on private lands (Government of Western Australia 2002).  The 

conservation status of tuart communities described at the ECU South West Campus is 

reviewed below with respect to three separate references.   



4.4.1  Government of Western Australia 2003 

Fine-scale mapping of the present-day extent of tuart, canopy density and 

understorey condition has been completed using aerial photo interpretation, and 

results are documented in ‘An Atlas of Tuart Woodlands of the Swan Coastal Plain’ 

(Government of Western Australia 2003).  Consideration of the ECU South West 

Campus site confirms only a small proportion of tuart present within the southern 

limit of the current survey area has been mapped as supporting ‘low visible 

disturbance understorey’.  Areas supporting existing infrastructure or open canopy 

were inferred to have reduced understorey condition.   

4.4.2 Ecoscape 

2004 

The conservation status of remnant tuart woodland at the ECU South West Campus 

site was further investigated with reference to the publication ‘Tools for identifying 

indicative high conservation tuart woodlands’ (Ecoscape 2004).  Within this 

document, tuart occurrence and low disturbance understorey condition has been 

intersected with land categories, soil systems and rainfall zones to provide 

information on the size and location of areas of ‘indicative high conservation’ tuart 

woodlands (Ecoscape 2004).  In summary, is was found that tuart complexes 

occurring on uncommon soil systems and rainfall zones were more likely to have 

unique vegetation communities, and were therefore ranked as ‘indicative high 

conservation’ tuart woodlands.   

Primary criteria considered when determining conservation status included: 

 

The presence of low visible disturbance understorey; and 



 

Size of the tuart remnant. 



Secondary criteria considered were: 

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Representation on uncommon soil types; and 



 

Representation in uncommon rainfall zones.  



A large proportion of the tuart complex described at the ECU South West Campus 

supports low visible disturbance understorey, as confirmed by field vegetation 

condition assessments (condition assessed as ‘good’ or ‘very good’).  The total area 

of remnant tuart woodland within the survey area approximated 25 ha, with the 

major intact block situated in the southern half.  Existing infrastructure in the 

northern half of the survey area has directly reduced the total area of tuart, with 

secondary impacts reducing vegetation condition of dissected remnant vegetation 

(particularly with respect to the understorey component).  These areas have not 

been mapped as part of the ‘Tuart Atlas’.   

In respect to secondary criteria, the entire survey area occurs within the most 

common soil system (Spearwood) and within the most common rainfall zone (800-900 

mm).  The remnant must satisfy both primary criteria and at least one secondary 

criterion to be rated as Priority one ‘indicative high conservation’ tuart woodlands.  

The survey area is therefore at best rated as Priority two ‘indicative high 

conservation’ tuart woodlands.   

Consideration for further prioritisation can be made on the basis of (i) presence of 

threatened ecological communities (TEC’s) and/or (ii) presence of threatened flora 

and fauna.  There are no TEC’s recorded within the survey area, and rare flora was 

restricted to the Priority 4 flora Caladenia speciosa, which has been well collected in 

the surrounding locality.   



4.4.3  Gibson et al. 1994 

Gibson  et al. (1994) include vegetation of the survey area in Community type 21a 

‘Central Banksia attenuata – Eucalyptus marginata woodlands’, which is described as 

sometimes supporting Eucalyptus gomphocephala as the dominant or codominant.  

The complex occurs on both the Bassendean Dunes and the Spearwood system across 

the entire extent of the southern Swan Coastal Plain, and is determined by Gibson et 



al. (1994) to be ‘well reserved’ with a ‘low risk’ conservation status.   

4.4

 

Management Considerations to Maximise Biodiversity Conservation 

The ECU South West Campus is currently zoned ‘Educational’ with a sub zoning of 

‘Tertiary Education’.  Approximately 12 ha of the 46 ha site has already been 

developed with existing campus facilities.  Growth of the Campus in future years will 

require expansion of existing facilities, and hence the requirement to clear 

additional areas of native vegetation.  A number of management considerations 

relating to future expansion at the site are discussed below.   

4.4.1  Protection of Rare Flora and Fauna 

The Priority 4 flora Caladenia speciosa has been recorded at three locations within 

the survey area.  Priority 4 is the lowest level of conservation significance.  Where 

practicable, future development at the site should occur outside of the current 

identified range for Caladenia speciosa.  Alternatively, translocation of the orchid 

could be implemented to reestablish plants at alternative locations outside of 

planned development footprint, in situations where the current location is impacted.   


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4.4.2 Maintaining 

Connectivity 

Remnant vegetation at the ECU South West Campus site provides connectivity 

between adjacent blocks of native vegetation at Hay Park (west side of SW Highway) 

and Manea Park (east side of College Grove).  This link is important not only locally, 

but also on a regional scale, as it contributes to a larger east west alignment of 

remnant vegetation that stretches for over 7 km from the ocean to the Preston River.  

Future planning consideration should be given to identifying a retained corridor of 

vegetation along the southern boundary of the Campus, or alternatively, ensure that 

the scale of future development does not break vegetation connectivity within this 

zone.  An important consideration in this process will be the capacity of vegetation 

to survive threatening processes on the basis of the area retained, and associated 

requirement for active management to maintain ecological values.   





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