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Research and Post Graduate Department of Botany, St.Berchmans College, Changanacherry, Kerala, India.
and Natural Resources. The various phytochemicals present in the fruit of this plant were analysed using Liquid Chromatography
Mass Spectroscopy (LCMS) and their bio activities were predicted using Prediction of Activity Spectra for Substances (PASS). Plants
produce a variety of secondary metabolites that are not needed for the growth of plants but are essential for other uses such as
protection, pollination etc. The results showed the presence of numerous phytochemicals such as terpenoids, carotenoids, alkaloids,
carboxylic acids, and phenolic compounds such as flavanoids, other compounds such as coumarins, saponins, glycosides and sterols.
The activity spectra of compounds were predicted using the chemical formula reveals that the compounds present in pulp and seed
are active against numerous diseases. Many pharmaceutical industries use computer aided programs for the designing of new drugs
for diseases. The present study clearly shows the medicinal uses of the plant, signifies the consumption of raw fruit for preventing
diseases and will be helpful for pharmaceutical industries for the designing of new drugs for diseases. The work also emphasises the
need for conservation of the species.
Keywords: Secondary metabolites, phytochemicals, LCMS analysis, PASS, sickle cell anaemia, gaucher disease.
lants have been used as source of food and
medicine by man from the beginning. Effective
remedy of ailments with minimal side effects is
provided by use of plants. The use of herbal medicines in
India can be cited about 5000 years back. Recent studies
made by the WHO state that 80% of the world
populations rely on herbal medicines for their preliminary
healthcare and in developing countries its use may be
about 95%. Some countries like US show continuous
increase in its use each year.
Any part of the plant leaves,
or the plant as a whole may be used as medicine. The
medicinal properties of plants are due to the wide variety
of secondary metabolite like the flavanoids, alkaloids,
tannins, phenols, terpenoids etc, that are produced as an
intermediate or by product of the reactions of primary
metabolites. They are sometimes produced as response
to adverse environmental condition in particular stages of
development, in specialized cells. Some secondary
metabolites may also be species specific therefore these
phytochemicals are also very important for taxonomic
They may be used by plants for defense
allelopathic agents, UV protectants, and signal molecules
for nodule formation.
The secondary metabolites are not
range of chemical structures and biological reactions.
These bioactive compounds provide medicinal property
to a plant.
Therefore the identification and characterization of these
compounds in crude plant extracts are very essential,
which can further lead to isolation and purification so
that it may be of use in pharmaceutical industry.
Myrtaceae family with edible fruits. Van Rheed (1678 –
1703) has mentioned it as ‘njara’ in the Hortus
Malabaricus the first published work about the plants of
It is a small tree found in places where there is
It is categorised as Endangered under the Red List
the presence of alkaloids, flavanoids, phenols, tannins,
saponins, glycosides, triterpenoids, fats and fixed oils, the
leaves of this plant shows hypoglycemic activity on
alloxan induced diabetic mice and potent antioxidant
activity was shown by root extracts of this plant.
The tree bears black globose fruits which are edible. The
pink and purplish black on maturity. The fruit bears a
crown of persistent calyx. So far little study dealing with
its fruits have been reported. Therefore the study aims to
identify the different compounds present in the pulp and
seed of fruit of Syzygium caryophyllatum (L.) Alston by
conducting the LCMS and PASS analysis and also to study
its medicinal and nutraceutical properties.
high; bark thick, reddish-brown; branchlets terete. Leaves
simple, opposite, exstipulate; petiole up to 4 mm long,
stout, glabrous; lamina 3-8 x 1.3-3.5 cm, obovate or
obovate-oblong, base attenuate or acute, apex obtuse,
Analysis of Bioactive Compounds Present in Syzygium caryophyllatum (L.) Alston Fruit
obtusely acute or emarginate, margin entire, glabrous,
coriaceous, brown on drying, pellucid-dotted; lateral
nerves many, close, slender, prominent looped at the
margin forming intramarginal nerve. Flowers bisexual,
white, up to 5 mm across, in terminal corymbose cymes,
inflorescence branches moderately thick, ascending.
Calyx tube 2-2.5 mm long, turbinate, no thick disc. Petals
calyptrate. Stamens numerous, bent inwards at the
middle when in bud, 2.5-3.5 mm long. Ovary inferior, 2-
celled, ovules many; style 1; stigma simple. Fruit a berry,
up to 5 mm across globose, green then turns purplish
black when ripe.
Collection and authentication
The ripe fruits of Syzygium caryophyllatum (L.) Alston
were collected from various localities and these collected
samples were authenticated from the Regional
Herbarium Kerala (RHK) at S. B College, Changanacherry,
they were rapidly processed on the same day. The
collected fruits were rapidly washed under running tap
water to clean off dust and dirt particles. Wrinkled fruits
were discarded. The rest of the fruits were dried at room
temperature using an air blower. Fully dried fruits were
packed in polypropylene bags sealed and stored at -20
The pulp (fleshy part) along with its outer peel was
separated from the seed manually. The residue of the
pulp which was left on the seeds were washed off and the
seeds were taken. Both (pulp with peel and seeds) were
dried under hot – air oven and then ground into a fine
powder in a coffee grinder and stored in airtight
containers. 3 g of the pulp and the seed were separately
extracted using petroleum ether (60 – 80◦C) and
methanol sequentially using 30ml of the corresponding
solvent. The extracts were then dried and dissolved in
10ml petroleum ether and ethanol (HPLC Grade, Merck).
It was then filtered through 0.20mm membrane filter.
The extract was used for this analysis.
10µl of the filtered sample was then injected to the
manual injector using a micro syringe (1 - 20µl,
Shimadzu).The mobile phase used was water: methanol
(50: 50) in an isocratic mode. The column used was RP – C
– 18 (phenomenex). The separated compounds were then
ionized using APC method and using split mode (50: 50).
The flow rate was maintained to 2ml/mn with a
temperature 25± 2
C. The class VP integration software
analysis was Metwin – LS. The version of the library was
version 1.0 – 52.09.
The activity spectra of the phytochemical compounds
were predicted using the computer programme PASS
(Prediction of Activity Spectra for Substance).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
range of organic compounds synthesized by plants. Apart
from carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids
primary metabolites include phytosterols, amino acids
and organic acids. These have vital role in plant
metabolism such as photosynthesis, respiration, growth
and development whereas secondary metabolites that is
comparatively produced in higher concentration in some
species of plants is not used in plant metabolism rather
have other functions like protection from microbes,
attractants for pollination, allelopathic agents, UV
protectants, signal molecules etc. Secondary metabolites
are also used as waxes, gums, dyes, flavoring agents,
drugs, perfumes etc.
The primary metabolites present in the pulp and seed of
Fructose was detected in the pulp. The presence of
sucrose and deoxyribose was detected from seeds.
Amino acids present in pulp were asparagine and cystine
and serine was obtained from seed. Amino acid derivative
like Diaminobutyric acid was obtained from pulp. Amino
acid related compound (Betalins) like Betalamic acid was
present in pulp and Dopaxanthin was present in seed.
pulp and seed.
Alpha linolenic acid
Alpha licanic acid
Palmitic acid is the only fatty acid present in both pulp
were present in the pulp and alpha linolenic acid, alpha
licanic acid, decanoic acid and stearic acid were present in
The secondary metabolites are those that instigate more
curiosity among the researchers since they are protective
in function and lower the risk of most diseases. The
secondary metabolites that was present in the pulp and
seed of Syzygium caryophyllatum (L.) Alston are as
Terpenoids play a very important role in the growth,
development, reproduction and defense of plants. Its
presence gives plants fragrance.
Both pulp and seed
Beta citronellal and Friedelin were found in both seed and
Carotenoids give plants economical value in ornamental
garden. They are also used as food addictives. They play a
significant role in Vitamin A metabolism which is an
uncompromising factor for growth and development in
The pulp of Syzygium caryophyllatum (L.)
Very few alkaloids were present in pulp and seed.
Alkaloids usually provide bitter taste but it also has other
Nicotine and nornicotine were present in
Ethyl paramethoxy cinnamate
Simple phenol compounds like methyl phenol was
present in pulp and hydroquinone in the seed.
The flavonoids are the polyphenols with C
structure. They show very good antioxidant activity,
Quercetin methyl ester
More number of flavanoids were found in the seed.
They are organic compounds that are synthesized by
plants from the amino acid phenylalanine. Caffeic acid
cinnamaldehyde in seed.
Phenolic acids are of two types as derivatives of benzoic
acid and derivatives of cinnamic acid.
Table 5: Shows presence of phenolic acids
Parahydroxy benzoic acid
Caffeic acid is abundantly found in most fruits and
vegetables and ferulic acid is common in cereals.
Coumarins mainly occur in higher plants its concentration
being the highest in fruits followed by roots, stem and
inflammatory and many such activities.
Table 6: Coumarins present in the pulp and seed are
Coumarins such as Xanthotoxin, xanthotoxol and
Wedelolactone were present in seed. Xanthatoxin,
Xanthatoxol and scopoletin were present in pulp.
Saponins are compounds that form foams and act as
emulsifying agents. They have expectorant, anti-
inflammatory activity and can inhibit cholesterol
adsorption, besides they also have good hypertensive,
cardiac depressant properties, and insecticidal, antifungal
Apart from these other phytochemicals like Jambolin a
glycoside was present in pulp as well as seed. Ergosterol
was present in seed. Ergosterol is considered as
provitamin of calciferol.
The biological activity spectrum is defined as a
compounds intrinsic property depending on its structure
and physiochemical activity. It depends on nature of
compound such as structure and physicochemical
property, the sex, age and type of the target species and
also the mode and route of treatment. Various
comparisons and algorithms are used to suggest its
activity against specific target. Nowadays many of the
pharmaceutical industries are using Computer Aided Drug
Design for their new drug research and development, and
PASS has proven to be 300% more than the estimation by
Hypercholesterolemic, Choleretic, Sickle cell anaemia treatment, Cytoprotectant, Antihypoxic,
Antiseborrheic, Eye irritation, Fibrinolytic, Pulmonary hypertension treatment
Hypercholesterolemic, Choleretic, Cytoprotectant, Pulmonary hypertension treatment, Myocardial
ischemia treatment, Eye irritation, Fibrinolytic, Carminative, Vasodilator – cerebral, Sigma receptor
Creatininase inhibitor, Sickle cell anaemia treatment, Fibrinolytic, Antiseptic, Mucomembraneous
protector, Antiseborrheic, Antiinflammatory – intestine, Free radical scavenger, Coccolysin inhibitor,
Pitrilysin inhibitor, Non mutagenic – Salmonella, Cardioprotectant.
Sickle cell anaemia treatment, Fibrinolytic, Mucomembraneous protector, Antiseborrheic, Skin
disease treatment, Sclerosant, Carnosine synthesis inhibitor, Cholesterol synthesis inhibitor,
Cytoprotectant, Alopecia treatment, Eye irritation (inactive), antithrombotic, platelet adhesion
inhibitor, proline racemase inhibitor, acidifying agent gastric, Antimutagenic, erthropoietin,
Leucolysin inhibitor, fibrinolytic, antitoxic, metabolic disease treatment, corticosteroid side – chain
Vascular (peripheral) disease treatment, membrane integrity agonist, capillary fragility treatment,
mucomembraneous protector, chemoprotective.
Radio protector, dependence treatment, vascular (peripheral) disease treatment, amyotrophic
lateral sclerosis treatment, membrane integrity agonist, myocardial ischemia treatment.
Gaucher disease treatment, skin disease treatment, muco membraneous protector, lipid
metabolism inhibitor, antiseborrheic, antithrombotic, Pulmonary hypertension treatment, antiviral
(arbovirus), cytoprotectant, sickle cell anaemia treatment, eye irritation treatment, sclerosant,
platelet adhesion inhibitor, skin irritation, hypercholesterolemic, cholesterol synthesis inhibitor.
Hypercholesterolemic, hepatic disorder treatment, cardiovascular analeptic.
Proline racemase inhibitor, fibrinogen receptor antagonist, neuroprotector, convulsant, opoid
dependency treatment, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis treatment, fibrinolytic, acute neurologic
disorder treatment, gaucher disease treatment, dopamine release stimulant, urologic disorders
with edible fruits which is naturally distributed near
ponds and water bodies. In the present study the
phytochemical analysis of fruit and seed of Syzygium
Spectroscopy (LCMS) shows the presence of various
secondary metabolites. Terpenoids like beta citronellal
and friedelin, flavanoids such as Quercetin and Phenolic
acids such as ferulic acid were obtained from both pulp
and seed. It is seen that more carboxylic acid and
flavanoids compounds were obtained from seed. The
coumarins such as Xanthotoxin, xanthotoxol and
Wedelolactone were present in seed; xanthatoxin,
xanthatoxol and scopoletin in the pulp. Other
phytochemicals like acetyl oleonolic acid - saponin;
jambolin – glycoside were obtained from seed and pulp.
Very few alkaloids were obtained from the pulp and seed.
The medicinal property of the plant may be due to the
presence of these phytochemicals.
The Prediction of Activity Spectra for Substances of
selected compounds points out that they are active
against various diseases. Compounds such as Caffeic acid,
Palmitic acid, Gallic acid and Linoleic acid showed >70%
activity against sickle cell anaemia; along with these
mucomembraneous protector. Pipecolic acid and Linoleic
treatment. Pipecolic acid shows neuroprotector activity.
The study serves as a stepping stone for designing novel
drugs using this plant and can be recommended for use
after preclinical trial using animals and clinical trials using
humans. Even though the fruits are edible its
consumption is less, it may be due to small size of fruit or
lack of availability. Syzygium caryophyllatum is listed as
endangered species by IUCN it may be due to the
destruction of habitat of the species for urbanization and
industrialization. The results obtained from our study
shows that the plant has many significant compounds
that are of pharmaceutical importance and therefore its
conservation is very important.
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