ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES
The following information is provided to
assist authors of Species Impact
Statements, development and activity
proponents, and determining and consent
authorities, who are required to prepare
or review assessments of likely impacts
on threatened species pursuant to the
provisions of the Environmental
Planning and Assessment Act 1979.
These guidelines should be read in
conjunction with the NPWS Information
Circular No. 2: Threatened Species
Assessment under the EP&A Act: The ‘8
Part Test’ of significance (November
1996) and the species profile.
morphologically similar to the more
common S. australe and care should be
taken to correctly identify each species.
The leaves of S. australe are generally
more elliptic than S. paniculatum and the
fruit of S. paniculatum are a deeper
magenta colour than the reddish-pink
fruit of S. australe (Harden 1992).
Life cycle of the species
Changes to local catchment hydrologies
are likely to affect the lifecycle of the
species, in terms of the habitat conditions
for existing populations and in relation to
seed dispersal and recruitment. Similarly,
weed invasions will prevent seedlings
from reaching maturity and ultimately
result in a gradual ageing of the
population. Fire is likely to kill S.
individuals, and frequent
fires will lead to a decline in recruitment
and ultimately the loss of local
Development that is proposed adjacent to
populations of the species should
consider the lifecycle impacts of altered
hydrology and ability to manage weed
invasions and fire.
Buffer zones to protect the plant and its
habitat should be of sufficient size to
absorb any potential impacts (which will
be site specific) and allow some natural
expansion of the population.
Translocation of the species as a
development ameliorative measure is
generally not recommended given the
uncertainties associated with the ensuring
success of such a program.
There are two key threatening processes
listed in Schedule 3 of the TSC Act that
are relevant to S. paniculatum. These are:
disruption of life cycle processes in
plants and animals and loss of
vegetation structure and composition
High frequency fire resulting in the
Communities by Bitou Bush and
Invasion of Native Plant
Other threats to populations of S.
are likely to include: habitat
loss resulting from development;
vegetation clearing; grazing in close
proximity to creek lines causing root
damage, prevention of seedling
establishment and erosion; and weed
invasion (in particular Lantana). Habitat
fragmentation is likely to impact on the
fecundity of populations of S.
paniculatum, due to reduced population
numbers and opportunities for successful
Viable local population
A ‘local population’ of S. paniculatum
should be defined on a catchment basis.
That is, occurrences of the plant within
each catchment constitute a ‘local
population’. The rationale for this
approach is based on the likely dispersal
of seed being related to the riparian
habitats in which the plant occurs. For
those occurrences of the species not
occurring in riparian habitats, a ‘local
population’ should be defined following
Keith et al. (1997). That is, all
occurrences of the plant within a 1km
radius (where there is opportunity for
exchange of genetic material) should be
defined as constituting a ‘population’.
Following Keith et al. (1997),
occurrences of the species within that
1km radius inclusive are called
It should be assumed that each
population is viable regardless of its size,
until further assessment indicates
otherwise. Assessment of each local
population should include reference to
the number and locations of all
subpopulations. S. paniculatum is a long-
lived species with potentially large seed
dispersal areas, and thus even small
populations may be viable should the
conditions enable successful recruitment.
Significant area of habitat
Given the small size and isolated nature
of S. paniculatum populations, all areas
of known habitat are considered to be
significant for the species.
Isolation and fragmentation
Vegetation clearing for urban and
agricultural development has fragmented
populations of S. paniculatum across its
range. Populations of the species now
occur in isolated patches of remnant
vegetation, often along riparian corridors
and coastal littoral rainforests.
Management of isolated S. paniculatum
habitats should aim to maintain the
continuity of native vegetation and to
remove threats such as grazing.
Rehabilitation of riparian corridors
through weed removal and buffer
plantings should assist recruitment of the
occurs in the
Sydney Basin Bioregion and the lower
reaches of the NSW North Coast
Bioregion. Recent confirmed records of
the species indicate a current distribution
consisting of four broad meta-
Lower Hunter and Central Coast; and
Upper Hunter (Bulahdelah-Myall
Across this range, the species occupies a
narrow, linear, coastal distribution in
specific, restricted habitat types that
have been extensively cleared and/or
modified (ie, riparian corridors and
Limit of known distribution
The limits of Syzygium paniculatum’s
distribution are Booti Booti NP (northern
limit) south to Conjola State Forest
(southern limit). There are historical
(1947) but unconfirmed records of the
species west to the Blue Mountains.
Adequacy of representation in
Syzygium paniculatum is not likely to be
adequately represented in conservation
Critical habitat cannot be declared for
as it is not listed
in Schedule 1 of the TSC Act 1995
For Further Information contact
Threatened Species Unit Conservation Programs and Planning Division, Central Directorate NSW NPWS PO
Box 1967, Hurstville NSW 2220 Phone 02 9585 6678.
Harden, G. (ed) (1992) Flora of NSW Vol 2. NSW University Press.
Keith, D.A., Chalson, J.M. and Auld, T.D. (1997) Assessing the status of threatened plants:
a new methodology and an application of the vascular flora of NSW. Final report: Project
number 450. Commonwealth Endangered Species Program. Environmental Australia,
Biodiversity Group. Unpublished Report.
The NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service and the editor expressly disclaim all liability and responsibility to any person,
whether a purchaser or reader of this document or not, in respect of anything done or omitted to be done by any person in
reliance upon the contents of this document although every effort has been made to ensure that the information presented in
this document is accurate and up to dat