Melicope pallida (alani)



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Melicope pallida 

(alani) 

 

5-Year Review 

Summary and Evaluation 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 

Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office 

Honolulu, Hawaii 

 

 

 



5-YEAR REVIEW 

Species reviewed:  Melicope pallida (alani) 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 



 

1.0 GENERAL 

INFORMATION 

.......................................................................................... 



1.1  

Reviewers ....................................................................................................................... 1 

1.2 

Methodology used to complete the review: ................................................................. 1 

1.3 Background: 

.................................................................................................................. 1 

2.0 REVIEW 

ANALYSIS 

....................................................................................................... 



2.1 

Application of the 1996 Distinct Population Segment (DPS) policy ......................... 3 

2.2 Recovery 

Criteria 

.......................................................................................................... 4 

2.3 

Updated Information and Current Species Status .................................................... 5 

2.4  

Synthesis........................................................................................................................ .8 

3.0 RESULTS 

........................................................................................................................ 12 

3.3 Recommended 

Classification: 

.................................................................................... 

12 

3.3 

Listing and Reclassification Priority Number: ........................................................ 12 

4.0 

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE ACTIONS .................................................. 13 

5.0 REFERENCES 

................................................................................................................ 13 

Signature Page ............................................................................................................................. 15 

 

 

 

- 1 - 



5-YEAR REVIEW 

Melicope pallida / alani   

 

1.0 GENERAL 

INFORMATION 

 

1.1  

Reviewers  

 

Lead Regional Office:   

Region 1, Endangered Species Program, Division of Recovery, Jesse 

D’Elia, (503) 231-2071 

 

 



Lead Field Office:   

Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office, Loyal Mehrhoff, Field 

Supervisor, (808) 794-9400 

 

 



Cooperating Field Office(s):   

 N/A 


 

Cooperating Regional Office(s):   

N/A 


 

1.2

 

Methodology used to complete the review: 

 

This review was conducted by staff of the Pacific Islands Fish and 

Wildlife Office of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), 

beginning on April 29, 2008.  The review was based on the final critical 

habitat designation for Melicope pallida and other species from the 

islands of Oahu and Kauai (USFWS 2003a,b), as well as a review of 

current, available information.  The National Tropical Botanical Garden 

provided an initial draft of portions of the review and recommendations 

for conservation actions needed prior to the next five-year review.  The 

evaluation of Samuel Aruch, biological consultant, was reviewed by the 

Plant Recovery Coordinator.  The document was then reviewed by the 

Assistant Field Supervisor for Endangered Species and Acting Deputy 

Field Supervisor before submission to the Field Supervisor for approval. 

 

1.3 Background: 

 

 

1.3.1  Federal Register (FR) Notice citation announcing initiation 

of this review:   

USFWS.  2008.  Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; 

initiation of 5-year status reviews of 70 species in Idaho, Montana, 

Oregon, Washington, and the Pacific Islands.  Federal Register 

73(83):23264-23266. 


 

 

- 2 - 



 

1.3.2 Listing 

history 

 

Original Listing   



 

FR notice:  USFWS.  1994.  Endangered and threatened wildlife and 

plants; determination of endangered or threatened status for 24 plants 

from the island of Kauai, Hawaii; final rule.  Federal Register 

59(38):9304-9329. 



Date listed:  February 25, 1994 

Entity listed:  Species 

Classification:  Endangered 

 

Revised Listing, if applicable 



FR notice:  N/A 

Date listed:  N/A 

Entity listed:  N/A 

Classification:  N/A 

 

1.3.3



 

Associated rulemakings

 

USFWS.  2003a.  Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; final 



designation or nondesignation of critical habitat for 95 plant species 

from the islands of Kauai and Niihau, Hawaii; final rule.  Federal 

Register 68(39):9116-9479. 

 

USFWS.  2003b.  Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; final 



designation or nondesignation of critical habitat for 101 plant species 

from the island of Oahu, Hawaii; final rule.  Federal Register 

68(116):35949-35998.  

 

Critical habitat was designated for Melicope pallida in 2 units totaling 



453 hectares (1,118 acres) on the island of Kauai (USFWS 2003a).  

These designations includes habitat on state lands (USFWS 2003a).  

Critical habitat was designated for Melicope pallida in 5 units totaling 

1,321 hectares (3,265 acres) on the island of Oahu (USFWS 2003b).  

These designations includes habitat on state, private, and federal lands 

(USFWS 2003b).   

 

1.3.4 Review 

History: 

Species status review [FY 2009 Recovery Data Call (September 2009)]:  

Improving 

Recovery achieved: 

1 (0-25%) (FY 2007 Recovery Data Call – this was the last year this 

was reported) 


 

 

- 3 - 



 

1.3.5  Species’ Recovery Priority Number at start of this 5-year 

review:  



 



1.3.6  Current Recovery Plan or Outline  

Name of plan or outline:  USFWS.  Recovery plan for the Kauai plant 

cluster.  U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Portland, Oregon.  270 pages. 

 

Date issued:  September 20, 1995. 

Dates of previous revisions, if applicable:  N/A 

 

2.0 REVIEW 



ANALYSIS 

 

2.1 

Application of the 1996 Distinct Population Segment (DPS) policy 

 

2.1.1  Is the species under review a vertebrate? 

 _____Yes 

 __X__No 

 

2.1.2  Is the species under review listed as a DPS?   

 ____ 


Yes  

 __X_ No 



 

2.1.3  Was the DPS listed prior to 1996?   

____ Yes 

____ No 

 

2.1.3.1 Prior to this 5-year review, was the DPS classification 

reviewed to ensure it meets the 1996 policy standards?   

 ____ 

Yes 

 ____ 

No 

 

2.1.3.2 Does the DPS listing meet the discreteness and 

significance elements of the 1996 DPS policy?  

____ Yes 

____ No 

 

2.1.4  Is there relevant new information for this species regarding 

the application of the DPS policy?   

____ Yes 

__XNo 

 

2.2 Recovery 

Criteria 

 

 

- 4 - 



 

2.2.1  Does the species have a final, approved recovery plan 

containing objective, measurable criteria? 

__X_ Yes 

____ No  

 

2.2.2  Adequacy of recovery criteria. 



   

2.2.2.1 Do the recovery criteria reflect the best available and 

most up-to date information on the biology of the species and 

its habitat? 

 __XYes 

____ No  

 

2.2.2.2 Are all of the 5 listing factors that are relevant to the 



species addressed in the recovery criteria? 

__XYes 

____ No  

 

2.2.3  List the recovery criteria as they appear in the recovery 



plan, and discuss how each criterion has or has not been met, citing 

information: 

 

A synthesis of the threats (Factors A, C, D, and E) affecting this species 



is presented in section 2.4.  Factor B (overutilization for commercial, 

recreational, scientific, or educational purposes) is not known to be a 

threat to this species. 

 

Stabilizing, downlisting, and delisting objectives are provided in the 



recovery plan for the Kauai plant cluster (USFWS 1995), based on 

whether the species is an annual, a short-lived perennial (fewer than 10 

years), or a long-lived perennial.  Melicope pallida is a long-lived 

perennial, and to be considered stabilized, which is the first step in 

recovering the species, the taxon must be managed to control threats 

(e.g., fenced, weeding, etc.) and be represented in an ex situ (off-site) 

collection.  In addition, a minimum of three populations should be 

documented on islands where they now occur or occurred historically.  

Each of these populations must be naturally reproducing and increasing 

in number, with a minimum of 25 mature individuals per population. 

 

This recovery objective has been met, there are three populations with 



greater than 25 mature individuals. 

 


 

 

- 5 - 



For downlisting, a total of five to seven populations of Melicope pallida 

should be documented on islands where they now occur or occurred 

historically.  Each of these populations must be naturally reproducing, 

stable or increasing in number, and secure from threats, with a 

minimum of 100 mature individuals per population.  Each population 

should persist at this level for a minimum of five consecutive years 

before downlisting is considered. 

 

This recovery objective has not been met. 



 

For delisting, a total of eight to ten populations of Melicope pallida 

should be documented on islands where they now occur or occurred 

historically.  Each of these populations must be naturally reproducing, 

stable or increasing in number, and secure from threats, with 300 mature 

individuals per population for short-lived perennials.  Each population 

should persist at this level for a minimum of five consecutive years 

before delisting is considered.  

 

This recovery objective has not been met. 



 

2.3 

Updated Information and Current Species Status  

 

In addition to the status summary table below, information on the 

species’ status and threats was included in the final critical habitat rule 

referenced above in section 1.3.3 (“Associated Rulemakings”) and in 

section 2.4 (“Synthesis”) below, which also includes any new 

information about the status and threats of the species. 



 

 

 

- 6 - 



Table 1.  Status of Melicope pallida from listing through 5-year review

 

Date No. 



wild 

individuals  

No. 

outplanted 

Downlisting 

Criteria identified 

in Recovery Plan 

Downlisting 

Criteria 

Completed? 

1994 


(listing) 

<100 0 

All 


threats 

managed 


in all 5-7 populations 

No 


    Complete 

genetic 


storage 

No 


 

 

 



3 populations with 

300 mature 

individuals each 

No 


    Naturally 

reproducing, stable, 

and increasing in 

number 


Unknown 

 

 



 

Stable for five 

consecutive years 

Unknown 


1995 

(recovery 

plan) 

156 0 


All 

threats 


managed 

in all 5-7 populations 

No 

    Complete 



genetic 

storage 


Partially 

 

 



 

3 populations with 

300 mature 

individuals each 

No 

    Naturally 



reproducing, stable, 

and increasing in 

number 

Unknown 


 

 

 



Stable for five 

consecutive years 

Unknown 

2003 


(critical 

habitat) 

182 0 

All 


threats 

managed 


in all 5-7 populations 

No 


    Complete 

genetic 


storage 

Partially 

 

 

 



3 populations with 

300 mature 

individuals each 

No 


2008 (5-

year review) 

217-296 0 

All 


threats 

managed 


in all 5-7 populations 

No 


    Complete 

genetic 


Partially 

 

 

- 7 - 



Date No. 

wild 

individuals  

No. 

outplanted 

Downlisting 

Criteria identified 

in Recovery Plan 

Downlisting 

Criteria 

Completed? 

storage 


 

 

 



3 populations with 

300 mature 

individuals each 

No 


    Naturally 

reproducing, stable, 

and increasing in 

number 


Unknown 

 

 



 

Stable for five 

consecutive years 

Unknown 


 

2.3.1  Biology and Habitat 

 

2.3.1.1 New information on the species’ biology and life 

history:  

 

2.3.1.2 Abundance, population trends (e.g. increasing, 



decreasing, stable), demographic features (e.g., age 

structure, sex ratio, family size, birth rate, age at mortality, 

mortality rate, etc.), or demographic trends

 

2.3.1.3 Genetics, genetic variation, or trends in genetic 



variation (e.g., loss of genetic variation, genetic drift, 

inbreeding, etc.)

 

2.3.1.4 Taxonomic classification or changes in nomenclature



 

2.3.1.5 Spatial distribution, trends in spatial distribution (e.g. 

increasingly fragmented, increased numbers of corridors, 

etc.), or historic range (e.g. corrections to the historical 

range, change in distribution of the species’ within its 

historic range, etc.)

 

2.3.1.6 Habitat or ecosystem conditions (e.g., amount, 



distribution, and suitability of the habitat or ecosystem)

 

2.3.1.7 Other

 

2.3.2  Five-Factor Analysis (threats, conservation measures, and 

regulatory mechanisms)  

 


 

 

- 8 - 



2.3.2.1 Present or threatened destruction, modification or 

curtailment of its habitat or range:   

 

2.3.2.2 Overutilization for commercial, recreational, 

scientific, or educational purposes:   

 

2.3.2.3 Disease or predation:   



 

2.3.2.4 Inadequacy of existing regulatory mechanisms:   

 

2.3.2.5 Other natural or manmade factors affecting its 



continued existence:   

 

2.4

 

Synthesis  

 

Melicope pallida was historically known from the Waianae Mountains of Oahu 

from the base of Mount Kaala and near Palikea, within The Nature 

Conservancy of Hawaii’s Honouliuli Preserve, and along the western rim of 

Kalalau Valley on Kauai (USFWS 1995).  No living individuals of M. pallida 

have been observed on Oahu since 1970 nor has another collection been made 

on Kauai since 1952 (Bishop Museum Herbarium 2000).  Lorence and Flynn 

(1995) published the rediscovery of M. pallida on Kauai and reported it to be 

widespread within several Na Pali Coast valleys (Wood 2008).  In 1995, 

USFWS estimated there were 158 individuals at several locations on Kauai 

(USFWS 1995).

 

 



Currently, Melicope pallida is restricted to 7 valleys on northwestern Kauai 

with an estimated total of 217 to 296 individuals.  Locations include 

Awaawapuhi Valley (50 to 60 individuals); Hanakapiai Valley (6 individuals); 

Honopu Valley (50 to 60 individuals); Honopu Ridge

 

above Awaawapuhi 



Valley (5 individuals); Kalalau Valley (about 100 to 150 individuals); Koaie 

Canyon (five to ten individuals); Pohakuao (5 to 10 individuals); and 

Waiahuakua Valley (5 individuals) (Tangalin 2008; Wood 2008). 

 

 



In Awaawapuhi Valley, about 50 individuals of Melicope pallida are known in 

an area from 866 to 1,050 meters (2,840 to 3,100 feet) elevation.  In 

Hanakapiai, M. pallida occurs on the western side of the valley, on cliffs below 

Pohakea, at 457 meters (1,550 feet) elevation.  In Honopu, it occurs from 853 

meters (2,800 feet) at Honopu Rim, from 975 to 1,067 meters (3,200 to 3,500 

feet) elevation on the Honopu Trail, to 1,274 meters (4,180 feet) elevation in 

upper Honopu (Wood 2008).  

 

In Kalalau Valley, Melicope pallida grows along exposed ridges on the edge of 



cliff habitat on the northern side of the valley, east of Keanapuka Falls; on 

 

 

- 9 - 



north-facing mesic cliffs and slopes between the Puu o Kila and Kalalau 

lookouts, at 914 to 990 meters (3,000 to 3,248 feet) elevation; on the back walls 

of the valley below Pihea; on the slopes of the Kalahu region, down the 

dividing ridge between Honopu and Kalalau, on cliffs on the Kalalau side, 

about 200 to 300 meters (656 to 984 feet) east of the Navy plane crash debris 

site at 762 meters (2,500 feet) elevation; and on Alealau cliffs above 

Kaaalahina (Wood 2008). 

 

In Koaie Canyon, Melicope pallida grows along stream sides from 805 to 859 



meters (2,641 to 2,818 feet) elevation.  In Pohakuao’s hanging valley between 

Kalalau and Hanakoa, M. pallida grows at 400 to 500 meters (1,312 to 1,640 

feet) elevation.  In the Waiahuakua Valley, in the Hono o Na Pali Natural Area 

Reserve, M. pallida grows in the back of the valley by the main waterfall, on 

cliffs west of the main falls, at 457 meters (1,500 feet) elevation ).  In 1994, a 

single tree of M. pallida was seen in the upper Limahuli Valley, on the 

northeastern side of the ridge above Limahuli waterfall at 607 meters (1,991 

feet) elevation, but has not been relocated since (Wood 2008). 

 

The plant community associated with Melicope pallida in Awaawapuhi is 



Metrosideros polymorpha – Acacia koa mesic forest with Alphitonia ponderosa 

(kauila), Alyxia stellata (maile), Antidesma platyphyllum (hame), Carex wahuensis (no 

common name [NCN]), Dianella sandwicensis (uki uki), Coprosma waimeae (olena), 

Dicranopteris linearis (uluhe), Dodonaea viscosa (aalii), Doodia kunthiana 

(okupukupu), Kadua affinis (manono), Leptecophylla tameiameiae (pukiawe), 



Melicope anisata (mokihana), Melicope barbigera (alani), Myrsine alyxifolia (kolea), 

Pouteria sandwicensis (alaa), Pritchardia minor (loulu), Psychotria greenwelliae 

(kopiko), P. mariniana (kopiko), Scaevola procera (naupaka kuahiwi), and 



Tetraplasandra waimeae (ohe kikoola) (National Tropical Botanical Garden 2006; 

Wood 2008). 



 

The habitat in Hanakapiai Valley where Melicope pallida occurs is Diospyros 



sandwicensis (lama) mesic forest and cliff shrubland with associated species including 

Chamaesyce celastroides (akoko), Alphitonia ponderosa, Alyxia stellata, Artemisia 

australis (ahinahina), Bidens spp. (kookoolau), Bobea elatior (ahakea lau nui), 

Eragrostis variabilis (kawelu), Hibiscus kokio subsp. saintjohnianus (Kokia ula), 

Kadua affinis (manono), Leptecophylla tameiameiae, Metrosideros polymorpha (ohia), 

Pittosporum napaliensis (hoawa), Pritchardia napaliensis (loulu), Psychotria spp. 

(kopiko), Psydrax odorata (alahee), Pteralyxia kauaiensis (kaulu), Rauvolfia 



sandwicensis (hao), Syzygium sandwicensis (ohia ha), Tetraplasandra sp. (ohe), and 

Wilkesia gymnoxiphium (iliau) (National Tropical Botanical Garden 2006; Wood 

2008). 


 

The Honopu sites have Acacia koa – Metrosideros polymorpha montane mesic forest 

habitat and Metrosideros polymorpha – Dicranopteris linearis montane mesic forest 


 

 

- 10 - 



habitat with Alphitonia sp., Artemisia sp., Bobea brevipes (akahea lau nui), Boehmeria 

grandis (akolea), Carex spp. (NCN), Chamaesyce atrococca (akoko), Cocculus triloba 

(huehue), Coprosma waimeae, Cryptocarya sp., Dianella sandwicensis, Dodonaea 



viscosa, Kadua affinis, K. flynnii (NCN), K. knudsenii (NCN), Lepidium serra 

(anaunau), Leptecophylla tameiameiae, Lobelia yuccoides (panaunau), Lysimachia 



kalalauensis (NCN)



Melicope anisata, M. barbigera, Myrsine alyxifolia, Nestegis 



sandwicensis (olopua), Nototrichium divaricatum (kului), Pleomele aurea (hala pepe), 

Pouteria sandwicensis, Pritchardia minor, Psychotria mariniana, Tetraplasandra 

waimeae, and Wilkesia gymnoxiphium (National Tropical Botanical Garden 2006; 

Wood 2008). 

 

In Koaie Canyon, in Metrosideros polymorpha – Dicranopteris linearis transitional 



mesic to wet forest along stream walls in the back of the canyon Melicope pallida 

grows with other associated species, including Alyxia stellata, Boehmeria grandis, 



Carex spp., Claoxylon sandwicensis (laukea),

 

Coprosma spp., Cyrtandra spp

(haiwale), Dodonaea viscosa, Dubautia spp. (naenaena), Elaeocarpus bifidus (kalia), 

Embelia pacifica (kolioe), Freycinetia arborea (ie ie), Lepidium serra (anaunau), 

Machaerina angustifolia (uki), Nestegis sandwicensis, Perrottetia sandwicensis 

(olomea), Pipturus spp. (mamake), Pleomele aurea, Pouteria sandwicensisPsychotria 

spp., and Syzygium sandwicense (National Tropical Botanical Garden 2006; Tangalin 

2008; Wood 2008). 

 

On diverse mesic cliff and wet Metrosideros polymorpha – Cheirodendron sp. (olapa) 



montane forest communities on the northern side of Kalalau Valley, east of Keanapuka 

Falls, and on the ridge below and west of Pihea, Melicope pallida grows with various 

combinations of associated species including Acacia koa, Artemisia australis, Astelia 

argyrocoma, Bidens sandvicensisBobea sp., Boehmeria grandis, Broussaisia arguta 

(kanawao), Carex meyenii, Chamaesyce celastroides var. hanapepensis, C. eleanoriae 

(akoko), C. remyi (akoko), Cheirodendron spp., Dicranopteris linearis (uluhe), 

Diospyros sandwicensis, Diplazium sandwichianum (hoio), Dubautia spp., Eragrostis 

variabilis, Eurya sandwicensis (anini), Festuca sp. nov. (fescue), Freycinetia arborea, 

Gunnera kauaiensis (ape ape), Hibiscadelphus woodii (hau kuahiwi), Hillebrandia 

sandwicensis (aka aka awa), Ilex anomala (aiea), Kadua flynnii, Labordia waialealae 

(kamakahala lau lii), Lysimachia glutinosa (NCN), L. kalalauensis (NCN), Melicope 



peduncularis (alani), Myrsine lessertiana (kolea lau nui), M. linearifolia (kolea), 

Neraudia kauaiensis (NCN), Nototrichium divaricatum, Panicum lineale (NCN), 

Perrottetia, Pipturus kauaiensis, Poa mannii (NCN), Pouteria sandwicensis, 

Psychotria greenwelliae, P. mariniana, Santalum freycinetianum var. pyrularium 

(iliahi), Syzygium sandwicensis, Touchardia latifolia (olona), and Wilkesia 



gymnoxiphium (National Tropical Botanical Garden 2006; Wood 2008). 

  

The Metrosideros polymorpha – Diospyros sandwicensis lowland forest and cliff plant 

communities at Pohakuao include associated species Charpentiera densiflora (papala), 

Exocarpos luteolus (heau), Festuca sp. nov., Flueggea neowawraea (mehamehame), 


 

 

- 11 - 



Pteralyxia kauaiensis, Kadua flynnii, Kokia kauaiensis (kokio), Neraudia 

sandwicensis, Nototrichium divaricatum, and Santalum freycinetianum var. pyrularium 

(iliahi).  In Waiahuakua Valley, Melicope pallida grows in Diospyros sandwicensis 

mesic to Diospyros sandwicensis – Metrosideros polymorpha lowland mesic forest 

with Artemisia australis, Bidens forbesii (kookoolau), Chamaesyce spp., Cibotium 



nealiae (hapuu), Elaeocarpus bifidus, Freycinetia arborea, Santalum freycinetianum 

var. pyrularium (iliahi), Pipturus spp., Pisonia sp., Psychotria spp., and Rauvolfia 



sandwicensis (National Tropical Botanical Garden 2006; Wood 2008). 

 

Invasive introduced plant species that threaten Melicope pallida by competing 



for resources and modifying the habitat include Ageratum conyzoides 

(spreading mist flower), Blechnum appendiculatum (NCN), Bryophyllum 



pinnatum (airplant), Erigeron karvinskianus (daisy fleabane), Hedychium 

gardnerianum (kahili ginger), Lantana camara (lantana), Psidium guajava 

(common guava), Rubus argutus (blackberry), Sphaeropteris cooperi 

(Australian tree fern),

 

and Verbena littoralis (vervain) (Factor E) (National 



Tropical Botanical Garden 2006; Tangalin 2008; Wood 2008). 

 

Feral ungulates, including pigs (Sus scrofa), feral goats (Capra hircus), and 

mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), modify the habitat and damage plants 

(Factors A, C, and D) (National Tropical Botanical Garden 2006).  Pig sign and 

goats were observed in the Honopu area in 2008 (Tangalin 2008).  Other threats 

include landslides (Factor E); hurricanes (Factor E); and human disruption 

(Factor E) (National Tropical Botanical Garden 2006). 

 

Herbivory by rats (Rattus spp.) and flower damage by introduced nectar-



robbing passerine birds have both been reported (Factor C) (National Tropical 

Botanical Garden 2006; Wood 2008). 

 

Climate change may also pose a threat to Melicope pallida (Factors A and E).  



However, current climate change models do not allow us to predict specifically 

what those effects, and their extent, would be for this species. 

 

A risk of extinction from stochastic natural events is present, as Kauai has had 



several hurricanes in the last few decades (Factor E).  Warmer temperatures as 

a result of global warming could modify the climate at the elevations where this 

species presently grows (Factor E) (LaPointe 2005; U.S. Environmental 

Protection Agency 1998).  The loss of reproductive vigor as the result of 

limited numbers of existing individuals is another concern as numbers of 

individuals decline and the populations become more isolated (Factor E). 

 

Melicope species in general appear to be difficult to germinate, with many 

having undeveloped embryos.  In the field they are observed to have only a few 

good seeds.  Many capsules are empty or have only minute, undeveloped seeds 


 

 

- 12 - 



(Tangalin 2008)

.  


There has been very little success propagating Melicope 

pallida or other Melicope species (M. Tapati, National Tropical Botanical 

Garden, pers. comm. 2008; C. Walters, National Center for Genetic Resource 

Preservation, pers. comm. 2008).  The National Tropical Botanical Garden has 

112 seeds of Melicope pallida and 10 other types of propagules in storage 

(National Tropical Botanical Garden 2009). 

 

Melicope pallida remains in most of the areas where it was found when listed, 

at actually higher numbers.  This is attributable to more thorough surveys, and 

not to population growth.  Seedlings have not been reported, and there seem to 

be barriers to reproduction and/or regeneration, including low seed viability.  

Pollination has not been studied, but could be a factor.  Threats to the species 

and its habitats are worse than twenty years ago. 

 

The downlisting goals for this species have not been met (see Table 1), as no 



population has more than 100 mature individuals and all threats are not being 

managed.  Therefore, Melicope pallida meets the definition of endangered as it 

remains in danger of extinction throughout its range. 

 

3.0 RESULTS 

 

3.3

 

Recommended Classification:  

____ Downlist to Threatened 

 

____ Uplist to Endangered 

  ____ 


Delist  

   ____ 


Extinction 

   ____ 

Recovery 

 

 

 

____ Original data for classification in error 

 

 



__X__ No change is needed 

 

3.2  

New Recovery Priority Number: 

 

 

Brief Rationale:  

 

3.3

 

Listing and Reclassification Priority Number:   

 

 Reclassification 

(from 

Threatened to Endangered) Priority 

Number: ____ 

 Reclassification 

(from 

Endangered to Threatened) Priority 

Number: ____ 

 

Delisting (regardless of current classification) Priority Number: 

____ 

 

 



Brief Rationale:  

 

 

- 13 - 



 

4.0

 

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE ACTIONS  

 

 



Fence to exclude ungulates from wild populations. 

 



 

Weed around existing plants to remove competition from introduced invasive 

species, and hopefully increase the possibility of in situ regeneration. 

 



 

Collect seed from all populations for genetic storage, research, and propagation. 

 



 



Determine barriers to seed viability. 

 



 

Research methods of germination and propagation. 

 



 



Work with Hawaii Division of Forestry and Wildlife and Hawaii State Parks to 

initiate planning and contribute to implementation of ecosystem-level 

restoration and management to benefit this species.  

 

5.0 REFERENCES 

 

Bishop Museum Herbarium.  2000.  Melicope vouchers.  Bishop Museum, Honolulu, 



Hawaii.  44 pages.  Unpublished.   

 

LaPointe, D., T. Benning and C. Atkinson.  2005.  Avian malaria, climate change, and 



native birds of Hawaii.  Pages 317-321 in T. Lovejoy (editor), Climate change 

and biodiversity.  Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut.  440 pages. 

 

Lorence, D.H., and T. Flynn.  1995.  Contributions to the flora of Hawaii. III. New 



additions, range extensions, and rediscoveries of flowering plants.  Bishop 

Museum Occasional Papers, Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey 41:1-80. 

 

National Tropical Botanical Garden.  2006.  Living collections database.  National 



Tropical Botanical Garden, Kalaheo, Hawaii.  Unpublished. 

 

National Tropical Botanical Garden.  2009.  Report on controlled propagation of listed 



and candidate species, as designated under the U.S. Endangered Species Act.  

National Tropical Botanical Garden, Kalaheo, Hawaii.  Unpublished. 

 

Tangalin, N.  2008.  Melicope pallida.  National Tropical Botanical Garden, Kalaheo, 



Hawaii.  2 pages.  Unpublished. 

 

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Policy.  1998.  Climate change and 



Hawaii.  Available online at 

 

 

- 14 - 



UNQM/$File/hi_impct.pdf>.  Accessed 25 November 2008. 

 

[USFWS] U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  1994.  Endangered and threatened wildlife 



and plants; determination of endangered or threatened status for 24 plants from 

the island of Kauai, Hawaii; final rule.  Federal Register 59(38):9304-9329. 

 

[USFWS] U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  1995.  Recovery plan for the Kauai plant 



cluster.  U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Portland, Oregon.  270 pages. 

 

 



[USFWS] U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  2003a.  Endangered and threatened wildlife 

and plants; final designation or nondesignation of critical habitat for 95 plant 

species from the islands of Kauai and Niihau, Hawaii; final rule.  Federal 

Register 68(39):9116-9479. 

 

[USFWS] U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  2003b.  Endangered and threatened wildlife 



and plants; final designation or nondesignation of critical habitat for 101 plant 

species from the island of Oahu, Hawaii; final rule.  Federal Register 

68(116):35949-35998.  

 

Wood, K.R.  2008.  Notes on Melicope pallida (Hillebr.) T.G. Hartley & B.C. Stone 



(Rutaceae).  National Tropical Botanical Garden, Kalaheo, Hawaii.  5 pages.  

Unpublished. 

 

Personal Communications 

 

Clark, Margaret.  2008.  Seed Bank Manager, National Tropical Botanical Garden, 

Kalaheo, Hawaii.  Melicope pallida:  note to the record, dated November 28, 

2008. 


 

Tapati, M.  2008.  Micropropagation Laboratory Manager, National Tropical Botanical 

Garden, Kalaheo, Hawaii.  E-mail to Margaret Clark, National Tropical 

Botanical Garden, dated November 26, 2008.  Subject: Melicopes

 

Walters, Christina.  2008.  Lead Scientist, National Center for Genetic Resource 



Preservation, Fort Collins, Colorado.  E-mail to Margaret Clark, National 

Tropical Botanical Garden, dated November 29, 2008.  Subject: Melicopes



 


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