Ecological Restoration Project
2012 ‐ 2013
THRESHOLD ENVIRONMENTAL 2014
MONJEBUP NORTH ECOLOGICAL
Prepared by Justin Jonson
A project commissioned by Bush Heritage Australia
Information used in this report may be copied or reproduced for study, research or educational purposes,
subject to inclusion of acknowledgement of the source.
In undertaking this work, the author has made every effort to ensure the accuracy of the information reported.
Any conclusion drawn or recommendations made in the report and maps are done in good faith and the
author takes no responsibility for how this information is used subsequently by others and accepts no liability
whatsoever for a third party’s use of, or reliance upon, this specific report and associated maps.
Jonson, J. (2014) Monjebup North Ecological Restoration Report 2012‐2013, A project commissioned by Bush
Heritage Australia. Unpublished report. Threshold Environmental. Albany, Western Australia.
This project was funded by Bush Heritage Australia via Gondwana Link Landscape Manager Simon
2010, and provided strong support for Threshold Environmental to implement the 2012 and 2013
Craig Luscombe was the Seed Manager for Threshold Environmental over both years, identifying and
knowledge of the local flora and vegetation associations is far‐reaching and this is reflected in the
148 plant species included in the 2012/2013 project works. Special reference should be made to
Craig’s extensive knowledge of the Melaleuca genera, of which he identified 23 species, and where
he played a large role in getting those species into the seed mixes. Craig also prepared the mulch
mixes, collected serotinous species for the burn piles, and worked alongside Threshold staff to
spread and burn them respectively.
Lien Imbrechts was the Restoration Officer for Threshold Environmental over both years, providing
preparation of seed mixes, field support during implementation and post‐establishment monitoring,
and general project administration. Many long hours of field work in uncomfortable environmental
conditions were taken in stride across the two years, showing true commitment to the on‐ground
work of ecological restoration.
Special thanks also to Dylan Lehmann, Bill and Jane Thompson, Simon Smale, Amelia Luscombe,
Threshold Environmental to plant seedlings during this project.
Final thanks to Keith Bradby and Amanda Keesing of Gondwana Link, who provided both material
Following the development of the Monjebup North Ecological Restoration Plan in 2011, Threshold
Environmental was contracted to implement the Monjebup North Restoration Project in 2012 and
2013. In that time frame 240 hectares of best‐practice ecological restoration were established across
the northern section of the cleared land. A total of 148 plant species were included in this two‐year
restoration effort. These species were organised into 13 different vegetation systems matched to
soil type; in an effort to re‐establish vegetation communities reflecting the surrounding remnant
vegetation as best as possible. In addition to the direct‐seeding, 6,809 seedlings were planted in 203
project area. To further enhance the direct seeding and node plantings, a total of 2,857 Banksia
In the 2012 project area 824 Banksia caleyi seedlings were also planted in a 30 x 28 meter grid
density in all systems except the lower Yate swamp system (VegSys2.2). In the Yate Systems, 1,330
Eucalyptus occidentalis seedlings were planted at a 14 x 16 meter density in the ‘Yate Hi’‐areas
(VegSys2.1), and a 13 x 13 meter density in the ‘Yate Low’ areas (VegSys2.2). Across the 2012 area,
5.5 kilometres of 5‐meter wide graded passes (‘seams’) were strategically positioned on the contour.
On these graded seams, a selection of locally collected vegetation was deposited as chipped mulch
and 184 small piles of fire‐responsive serotinous vegetation were burnt in situ. In addition, 16
habitat debris piles were constructed for use by reptiles and small mammals. Permanent
monitoring plots have been established at 36 locations across the entire 2012/2013 project area to
assess the initial recruitment of plants after project implementation. Results indicate a consistent
and uniform recruitment in line with the project objectives.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
This report presents the technical information and initial results of the implementation of two years
of on‐ground ecological restoration work at Bush Heritage Australia’s Monjebup North Reserve.
Threshold Environmental Pty Ltd consolidated and improved information developed in the
Monjebup North Ecological Restoration Plan (Jonson 2011) and Monjebup North Vegetation
Assessment (Jonson 2011) to implement the most sophisticated revegetation program seen within
Gondwana Link to date. This report presents the background information underpinning two
successive seasons, which include 100 hectares in 2012 and 140 hectares in 2013.
The North‐Western paddock (110 hectares) of the Monjebup North property was allocated for
restoration in 2012. The Monjebup North Restoration Plan (Jonson 2011) served as a basis for the
design of a more detailed restoration map prior to project implementation. Three broadly defined
vegetation associations were initially identified in the Restoration Plan, and these were converted
into a more detailed layout. With map in hand, modifications were applied to maximise
heterogeneity of plant community composition and structure for the benefit of potential future use
and habitation by local fauna. This process resulted in the development of eight detail‐rich
vegetation restoration systems (Fig 1 and 2).
Figure 1. Restoration Map as per the Monjebup North Restoration Plan (Jonson 2011).
Figure 2. The 2012 operational map showing a modified layout of the revegetation systems.
These eight different vegetation systems are matched to their respective soil types, and were direct‐
Figure 3. Operational map of 2012 areas showing the tractor workings across the eight systems in situ. Access
‘seams’ (yellow lines) were established by two passes of the grader for total width of approximately 6 meters.
A total of 130 plant species were utilised in the 2012 project works. Full species lists for each
of restoration techniques were used, including broad‐acre direct‐seeding, manual direct‐seeding,
seedling planting, chipping and mulching, and in situ burn piles. All plant species were allocated to
each of the eight revegetation systems to reflect the natural composition of adjacent plant
assemblages as much as possible. This allows for the species to be matched to soil types, while also
providing the appropriate conditions for a) asynchronistic flowering, b) complex structural diversity
of vegetation forms, and c) representative diversity of different plant lifespan capacities (i.e. short
versus long lived species). The direct seeding was implemented from the 16
till the 23
Baeckia sp. 1
A total of 2,163 seedlings were used to establish 113 species‐specific ‘nodes’ across the 2012 area.
The distribution of these seedling nodes are illustrated in Figure 4 (Green Stars). The number of
seedlings planted in any given node ranged from 4 to 60, with an average count of 19 seedlings per
node. A summary of the seedling nodes is presented in Table 1a.
the site in 2012. The location and density of these patches are illustrated in Figure 4 (Yellow Stars). A
summary of the species used in the hand‐seeded patches is presented in Table 1b.
Tables 1a & 1b. Summary of seedling ‘nodes’ (a) and hand‐seeded Patches (b).
Wide‐spaced seedling planting approaches were also employed across the 2012 area. This included
hectares at an approximate 30 x 28 meter spacing. In addition, 824 Banksia caleyi seedlings were
also planted a similar grid‐like spacing density. This B. caleyi seedling grid was positioned
approximately 15 meters offset from the B. media seedling grid. The B. caleyi seedlings were also
allows for a very equal distribution of these keystone species across the entire 100 hectares.
For the Yate Systems (27.03 hectares in total), 1,330 Eucalyptus occidentalis seedlings were hand‐
planted to enable better control of stocking densities. For the ‘Yate Swamp Hi’ (VegSys2.1) areas,
seedlings were planted at a 14 x 16 meter spacing, for a target density of approximately 45 stems
per hectare. Densities were slightly increased in the ‘Yate Swamp Low’ (VegSys2.2) areas with
seedlings planted at approximately 13 x 13 meters for a resulting planting density of about 64 stems
Across the 2012 project area, 5.5 kilometres of 5 meter wide graded and ripped passes were
established on the contour in several locations. On these graded ‘seams’, locally collected vegetation
was applied as chipped mulch. In addition, 186 small piles of seed‐carrying branches selected from
fire‐responsive serotinous plant species were spread across the seams and burned in situ to
stimulate germination of the included species. The location and distribution of these burn piles is
shown in Figure 5.
Figure 5. The 2012 operational map showing the location of the 186 fire‐triggered serotinous burn piles
distributed along some of the contour graded seams.
Species used for the fire‐responsive serotinous species burn piles were Dryandra cirsioides, Dryandra
diversity within the revegetated areas, when no seedlings of these species had been pre‐ordered,
nor was seed available for inclusion within the direct‐seeding mixes. The technique used is depicted
in the photos in Figure 6. Although initial establishment from this technique did not seem
significantly encouraging, observations in year 2 have identified recruitment of some of the target
species including Dryandra cirsioides, Dryandra drummondii, Dryandra nervosa, Hakea
Figure 6. Photo montage showing several of the steps involved with the fire‐responsive serotinous vegetation
Lehmann (in background) tends to some of the burning piles.
Using the practice of re‐vegetation as the primary tool for an ecological restoration project is likely
populations. However, the absence of course woody debris within revegetated areas over the first
20 years presents substantial time lags in the provision of those critical habitat conditions (Munro et
al. 2010). In an effort to establish some form of immediate, yet long‐term, structural habitat
features, 16 ‘habitat debris piles’ were constructed across the site (Figure 7).
The intended objective of these wood‐and‐rock built structures is to support reptile and small
these efforts were experimental. While definitive projections regarding their anticipated
contribution to faunal use on the site are not possible, we can report their establishment and
existence on site as 16 additional built‐environment habitat treatments. Photos of the habitat debris
piles are shown in Appendix B.