Myrna G. Ballentes :: Alma B. Mohagan :: Victor P. Gapud Maria Catherine P. Espallardo :: Myrna O. Zarcilla



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Myrna G. Ballentes  ::  Alma B. Mohagan  ::  Victor P. Gapud 
Maria Catherine P. Espallardo  ::  Myrna O. Zarcilla 
Arthropod Faunal Diversity and Relevant  
Interrelationships of Critical Resources  
in Mt. Malindang, Misamis Occidental 

Arthropod Faunal Diversity and Relevant Interrelationships 
of Critical Resources in Mt. Malindang, Misamis Occidental 
Myrna G. Ballentes, Alma B. Mohagan, Victor P. Gapud 
Maria Catherine P. Espallardo, Myrna O. Zarcilla 
 
Biodiversity Research Programme (BRP) for Development in Mindanao: 
Focus on Mt. Malindang and Environs  

Funding for BRP is provided by the Netherlands Ministry for Development Cooperation (DGIS) through 
the Southeast Asian Regional Center for Graduate Study and Research in Agriculture (SEARCA). 
The Biodiversity Research Programme (BRP) for Development in Mindanao is a collaborative 
research programme on biodiversity management and conservation jointly undertaken by 
Filipino and Dutch researchers in Mt. Malindang and its environs, Misamis Occidental, Philippines. 
It is committed to undertake and promote participatory and interdisciplinary research that will 
promote sustainable use of biological resources, and effective decision-making on biodiversity 
conservation to improve livelihood and cultural opportunities.  
 
BRP aims to make biodiversity research more responsive to real-life problems and development 
needs of the local communities, by introducing a new mode of knowledge generation for 
biodiversity management and conservation, and to strengthen capacity for biodiversity research 
and decision-making by empowering the local research partners and other local stakeholders. 
Philippine Copyright 2006 by  
Southeast Asian Regional Center for Graduate Study and Research in Agriculture (SEARCA) 
Biodiversity Research Programme for Development in Mindanao: Focus on Mt. Malindang and Environs  
 
ISBN 971-560-125-1 
 
 
Wildlife Gratuitous Permit No. 2005-01 for the collection of wild faunal specimens for taxonomic 
purposes, issued by DENR-Region X, Cagayan de Oro City on 4 January 2005.   
 
 
 
 
Any views presented in this publication are solely of the authors and do not necessarily 
represent those of SEARCA, SEAMEO, or any of the member governments of SEAMEO.   
 
 

Arthropod Faunal Diversity and Relevant Interrelationships of Critical Resources in Mt. Malindang
iii
Table of Contents
List of Tables
List of Figures
List of Appendix Tables
Acknowledgment
Abstract
Introduction
Review of Literature
Rationale
Objectives
Methodology
Site Selection
Establishment of Sampling Plots
Sampling Procedure
Threatened Faunal Species
Biodiversity Indices
Socioeconomic-cultural Activities and Biological
Properties of the Ecosystem
Formulation of Recommendations for Increasing
Awareness on Biological Diversity and Conservation
Results and Discussion
Arthropod Composition
Endemic Arthropods
Arthropod Species Richness and Diversity
Arthropod Species Similarity
Trophic Guild Composition
Arthropod Fauna Resource Utilization
Indigenous Knowledge on Arthropod Fauna
Conservation Strategies
Summary
Conclusions
Recommendations
Literature Cited
APPENDICES
?
iv
iv
v
viii
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8
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15
15
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32
33
 34
 35

Technical Report
iv
Tables
1
Vegetation types of arthropod fauna study in Mt. Malindang
Range Natural Park (MMRNP)
2
Arthropod composition of Mt. Malindang Range Natural Park (MMRNP)
3
Endemic arthropod species of Mt. Malindang Range Natural Park
(MMRNP)
4
Mt. Malindang endemic arthropods and their associated
endemic host plants
5
Species richness and diversity at different vegetation types of
arthropod fauna in Mt. Malindang Range Natural Park (MMRNP)
6
Species richness and diversity at various research sites of
arthropod fauna in Mt. Malindang Range Natural Park (MMRNP)
7
Trophic guilds of selected arthropods in Mt. Malindang Range
Natural Park (MMRNP)
Figures
1
Proportional representation of the arthropod groups of Mt. Malindang
Range Natural Park (MMRNP) with a total of 741 species
2
Philippine endemic dragonfly, Heteronaias heterodoxa (Selys)
3
Mindanao endemic Devadatta podolestoides basilanensis Laidlaw
(Amphipterygidae)
4
Greater Mindanao endemic Risiocnemis (Igneocnemis) flammea
(Selys) (Platycnemididae)
5
Philippine endemic tetrigidDiotarus verrucifer Stal
6
Philippine endemic tettigoniid, Tympanoptera sp. nr. philippina Hebard
7
Mindanao endemic tetrigid, Misythus sp. nr. jubatus Hebard
8
Greater Mindanao endemic trigonopterygid, Systella philippinensis (Walker)
9
Mindanao endemic tettigoniid, Anthracites sp. nr. major Hebard
10
Mindanao endemic tettigoniid, Morsimus sp. nr. serratus Beier
11
Mindanao endemic/MMRNP endemic phyliid (leaf insect), Phyllium sp.
12
Mindanao endemic treehopper, Emphusis bakeri Funkhouser
13
MMRNP endemic curculionids
14
Philippine endemic papilionids
15
Mindanao endemic hesperiid, Choaspes plateni adhara Mabille
16
Mindanao endemic pierid, Delias henningia ochreopicta Butler
17
MMRNP endemic nymphalid, Parantica dannatii malindangensis
Treadaway
18
MMRNP endemic pierid, Delias diaphana basilisae Schroeder & Treadaway
19
Species diversity of arthropod fauna per vegetation type
in Mt. Malindang Range Natural Park (MMRNP)
20
Species diversity of arthropod fauna per site in Mt. Malindang
Range Natural Park (MMRNP)
21
Community similarity matrix of arthropod fauna per vegetation using
Pearson’s Index of Similarity
22
Correspondence analysis of  arthropod fauna per sites
23
Phytophagous species of Orthoptera
24
Phytophagous species of Hemiptera
25
Phytophagous species of Coleoptera
26
Phytophagous species of Lepidoptera
27
Predatory species of Mantodea and Coleoptera
28
Predatory species of Hymenoptera and Araneida
6
9
9
10
17
18
23
11
11
11
12
13
13
13
13
13
13
14
14
14
16
16
16
16
16
19
20
21
22
25
26
27
28
29
30

Arthropod Faunal Diversity and Relevant Interrelationships of Critical Resources in Mt. Malindang
v
29
Pollinator species of Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera
30
Scavengers/Fungivorous species of Coleoptera
31
Xyloborous species of Coleoptera
Appendix Tables
1
Odonata species at different vegetation types in Mt. Malindang
Range Natural Park (MMRNP)
2
Ephemeroptera species at different vegetation types in
Mt. Malindang Range Natural Park (MMRNP)
3
Blattodea species at different vegetation types in Mt. Malindang
Range Natural Park (MMRNP)
4
Dermaptera species at different vegetation types in Mt. Malindang
Range Natural Park (MMRNP)
5
Isoptera species at different vegetation types in Mt. Malindang
Range Natural Park (MMRNP)
6
Orthoptera species at different vegetation types in Mt. Malindang
Range Natural Park (MMRNP)
7
Phasmatodea species at different vegetation types in Mt. Malindang
Range Natural Park (MMRNP)
8
Mantodea species at different vegetation types in Mt. Malindang
Range Natural Park (MMRNP)
9
Hemiptera species at different vegetation types in Mt. Malindang
Range Natural Park (MMRNP)
10
Neuroptera species at different vegetation types in Mt. Malindang
Range Natural Park (MMRNP)
11
Coleoptera  species at different vegetation types in Mt. Malindang
Natural Park (MMRNP)
12
Diptera species at different vegetation types in Mt. Malindang Range
Natural Park (MMRNP)
13
Lepidoptera species at different vegetation types in Mt. Malindang
Range Natural Park (MMRNP)
14
Hymenoptera species at different vegetation types in Mt. Malindang
Range Natural Park (MMRNP)
15
Araneida (Spider) species at different vegetation types in Mt. Malindang
Range Natural Park (MMRNP)
16
Other arthropod species at different vegetation types in Mt. Malindang
Range Natural Park (MMRNP)
17
Endemic species of Odonata in Mt. Malindang Range Natural Park
(MMRNP)
18
Endemic species of Orthoptera in Mt. Malindang Range Natural Park
(MMRNP)
19
Endemic species of Phasmatodea in Mt. Malindang Range Natural
Park (MMRNP)
20
Endemic species of Hemiptera in Mt. Malindang Range Natural Park
(MMRNP)
21
Endemic species of Coleoptera in Mt. Malindang Range Natural Park
(MMRNP)
22
Endemic species of Lepidoptera in Mt. Malindang Range Natural Park
(MMRNP)
23
Mt. Malindang endemic species of arthropod fauna per vegetation
24
Mt. Malindang endemic species of arthropod fauna per site in the
forest ecosystem
30
31
31
37
39
39
40
40
41
43
44
45
50
50
60
62
64
67
69
70
71
72
73
74
76
77
80

Technical Report
vi
25
Mt. Malindang endemic species of arthropod fauna per site
in the agroecosystem
26
Mt. Malindang endemic arthropods and their associated host plants
27
Distribution range and associated host plants of Odonata species in
Mt. Malindang Range Natural Park (MMRNP)
28
Distribution range and associated host plants of Ephemeroptera
species in Mt. Malindang Range Natural Park (MMRNP)
29
Distribution range and associated host plants of Blattodea species in
Mt. Malindang Range Natural Park (MMRNP)
30
Distribution range and associated host plants of Dermaptera species
in Mt. Malindang Range Natural Park (MMRNP)
31
Distribution range and associated host plants of Orthoptera species
in Mt. Malindang Range Natural Park (MMRNP)
32
Distribution range and associated host plants of Phasmatodea species
in Mt. Malindang Range Natural Park (MMRNP)
33
Distribution range and associated host plants of Mantodea species in
Mt. Malindang Range Natural Park (MMRNP)
34
Distribution range and associated host plants of Hemiptera species
in Mt. Malindang Range Natural Park (MMRNP)
35
Distribution range and associated host plants of Neuroptera species
in Mt. Malindang Range Natural Park (MMRNP)
36
Distribution range and associated host plants of Coleoptera species
in Mt. Malindang Range Natural Park (MMRNP)
37
Distribution range and associated host plants of Diptera species in
Mt. Malindang Range Natural Park (MMRNP)
38
Distribution range and associated host plants of Lepidoptera species
in Mt. Malindang Range Natural Park (MMRNP)
39
Distribution range and associated host plants of Hymenoptera species
in Mt. Malindang Range Natural Park (MMRNP)
40
Distribution range and associated host plants of Araneida species
in Mt. Malindang Range Natural Park (MMRNP)
41
Distribution range and associated host plants of other arthropod
species in Mt. Malindang National Park (MMRNP)
42
Trophic guilds of selected arthropods in Mt. Malindang Range Natural
Park (MMRNP)
43
Trophic guild of Odonata per vegetation type of Mt. Malindang Range
Natural Park (MMRNP)
44
Trophic guild of selected Orthoptera per vegetation type of
Mt. Malindang Range Natural Park (MMRNP)
45
Trophic guild of Phasmatodea per vegetation type of Mt. Malindang
Range Natural Park (MMRNP)
46
Trophic guild of Mantodea per vegetation type of Mt. Malindang
Range Natural Park (MMRNP)
47
Trophic guild of selected Hemiptera per vegetation type of
Mt. Malindang Range Natural Park (MMRNP)
48
Trophic guild of Coleoptera per vegetation type of Mt. Malindang
Range Natural Park (MMRNP)
49
Trophic guild of Lepidoptera per vegetation type of Mt. Malindang
Range Natural Park (MMRNP)
50
Trophic guild of Hymenoptera per vegetation type of Mt. Malindang
Range Natural Park (MMRNP)
51
Trophic guild of ants per vegetation type of Mt. Malindang Range
Natural Park (MMRNP)
83
87
91
92
93
93
94
97
98
99
105
106
116
119
122
126
129
130
136
138
139
140
141
146
157
160
163

Arthropod Faunal Diversity and Relevant Interrelationships of Critical Resources in Mt. Malindang
vii
52
Trophic guild of Araneida (Spiders) per vegetation type of Mt. Malindang
Range Natural Park (MMRNP)
53
Trophic guild of other arthropods per vegetation type of Mt. Malindang
Range Natural Park (MMRNP)
164
166

Acknowledgment
Technical Report
The arthropod faunal diversity team expresses sincere thanks to the Netherlands Ministry for
Development Cooperation (DGIS) through SEARCA for the financial support; to the Joint Programme
Committee (JPC) for the well-administered biodiversity program; to the National Support  Secretariat
(NSS) and Site Coordinating Office (SCO) personnel for their guidance and coordination; to the
President of Central Mindanao University (CMU), Dr. Mardonio M. Lao and the administration for
the support and concern to the researchers; to the Philippine Working Group (PWG) for their
comments and suggestions; to Dr. Ireneo I. Lit, Jr. for the identification of the arthropods belonging
to group Phasmatodea (walking sticks), Formicidae (ants), Araneida (spiders), and some of the
Hymenoptera (bees and wasps) species; to the Project Leaders of the Terrestrial Ecosystem
Master Project, Dr. Jose B. Arances and Prof. Edgardo C. Aranico for their support and distinguished
ideas; to the local researchers and laborers who provided their time, effort, and technical assistance
during fieldworks in collecting arthropod faunal specimens; and to the provincial and municipal
officials of Misamis Occidental especially the barangay captains and members of the local community
of the study sites for the protection and accommodation extended to the researchers during the
conduct of the study.

1
Arthropod Faunal Diversity and Relevant Interrelationships of Critical Resources in Mt. Malindang
An assessment of arthropod diversity and
analysis of the interrelationships with other
resources were conducted in 10 barangays in
Oroquieta City, Don Victoriano, Lopez Jaena,
and Calamba, Misamis Occidental from June 2003
to May 2005.
The current inventory of Mt. Malindang
arthropods includes 741 species in 340 genera,
135 families, 21 orders, and 5 classes. The most
speciose orders, the Coleoptera, Hemiptera,
Hymenoptera, Diptera, and Araneida account
for 78.37 percent of all the species.
Arthropod species diversity is generally higher
in forest ecosystems than in agroecosystems.
When treated per vegetation and per site,
diversity is highest in the mixed dipterocarp
forest of Peniel, Lopez Jaena, with 82 restricted
species (60% beetles) out of 316 species.
In terms of species composition, three major
clusters of similarity among vegetation types
are discernible: a) five agroecosystem sites in
Gandawan, Mansawan, Lake Duminagat,
Mamalad, and Mialen, with Gandawan and
Mansawan having the most similar arthropods;
b) montane-mossy forest and agrocereal grass-
dominated type and almaciga forest in Sebucal;
and c) mixed lowland dipterocarp-plantation
forests, agrocereal, agroforest, and mixed
dipterocarp forest. Three vegetation types
appeared to show little species similarities among
each other or with any of the three clusters,
Abstract
namely, the lowland dipterocarp forest (Mialen),
submontane dipterocarp forest (Mt. Capole),
and agrocereal grass-dominated system (Peniel).
In terms of proportional representation of the
trophic guilds of the selected taxa,
phytophagous occupies the biggest proportion,
followed by the predaceous, pollinators,
parasitoids, scavengers, xyloborous, and ant
species.
Some species of arthropods are utilized in various
ways. The honeybee, Apis cerana, produces
honey that is popularly sold in the market today.
Some consumers even prefer buying bottled
honey with beehives submerged in it. Other
arthropods like crabs, termites, and the larvae
and adults of coconut beetles are utilized as
food. Termites and naiads of Odonata are used
as fish baits, while ants act as biocontrol agents
for cabbage worms. Indigenous knowledge on
arthropod species is very scarce and limited
only to common uses of honey, butterfly color
symbols, “weather forecasting” by kalong
(crabs), ritual for tree blooms for honey foraging,
and predation of a vespid wasp, Ropalidia sp.
on the larvae of diamondback moth.
Out of 67 (mostly curculionid beetles) endemic
arthropod species, at least 21 are associated
with 18 endemic host plants in Mt. Malindang,
a situation urging immediate conservation
efforts.

2
Technical Report
The arthropods are known for their great
importance in the living world. Aside from their
socioeconomic significance, they have essential
roles within ecosystems. Despite their
performance of these substantial functions,
conservation studies on the arthropod fauna
aspects of Mt. Malindang are not yet available.
Introduction
Arthropods are the major invertebrate life forms
which far outnumber all other terrestrial animals.
The most spectacular variation has been within
the insects, constituting 75 percent of all
animals (Daly et al. 1998; Triplehorn and Johnson
2005). Coleoptera (beetles) - the largest insect
order - comprise almost 40 percent of the
described insects (Gullan and Cranston 2000),
while Curculionidae - one of the beetle families
- constitute 5 percent of all animal species
(Brusca and Brusca 2003).
The current inventory of Philippine insects
includes about 21,000 species in 6,185 genera
and 499 families, with an overall endemism of
69.8 percent. Of these, the neuropteroids
(beetles, twisted-winged flies, antlions,
lacewings, owlflies) account for 35.7 percent
of the total insect species, followed by the
panorpoids (flies, fleas, butterflies, moths,
caddisflies) - 29.3 percent, Hymenoptera (ants,
bees, wasps) - 14.3 percent, the hemipteroids
(barklice, thrips, lice, planthoppers, leafhoppers,
cicadas, true bugs) - 14.2 percent, the
orthopteroids (grasshoppers, katydids, crickets,
pygmy locusts, preying mantis, stick insects,
earwigs, stoneflies, termites, roaches,
webspinners) - 4.8 pecent, the palaeopterans
(mayflies, damselflies, dragonflies) - 1.5 percent,
and the rest comprise 0.25 percent
(Gapud 2005).
Selected groups of Philippine insects
demonstrate high species richness and high
levels of endemism (Gapud 2005): damselflies
(186 spp), 85.5 percent endemism;
pachyrrynchine weevils (352 spp), 95 percent
Review of Literature
endemism; butterflies and skippers (890 spp,
900 subspecies), 39.3 percent endemism;
Rhagovelia (Veliidae, water bugs, 60 spp), many
island endemics; caddisflies (Trichoptera, 319
spp), 96 percent endemism; stick and leaf
insects (207 spp), 86.5 percent endemism; and
Henosepilachna (Coccinellid beetles, 20 spp),
55 percent endemism (Bielawski 1965).
Approximately half the species of insects are
phytophagous. However, the impact of insect
feeding is checked by natural enemies and
ameliorated by varied plant defenses. Not all
relationships, though, are injurious to plants.
About 80 percent of the known flowering plants
owe their dispersal to pollination by insects
(Lawrence 2004; Daly et al. 1998). A good
number of arthropod groups are among the
principal predators of other invertebrates.
Consequently, they are major components in
the diets of many terrestrial animals. Thus,
arthropods play a very crucial role in food webs
of practically all ecosystems (Brusca and Brusca
2003).
The Curculionids referred to as weevils have
41,000 species which are phytophagous as
adults and larvae. They probably utilize almost
monocotyledon and dicotyledon families, as well
as various gymnosperms, ferns, and cycads.
Adults feed mainly on young, tender leaves or
shoots, flowers, pollen, and fruits. They are
usually polyphagous and may feed on an
extremely wide range of hosts in unrelated
families, and often in forest litter, although their
biology is still a matter of speculation (Madge
et al. 2000).
An inventory of the various aspects of
arthropods, especially the entomofauna may
show the unique position of Mt. Malindang, as
well as the significant relationship of these living
creatures to vegetation zones, elevational
range, and formulation of participatory
conservation strategies.

3
Arthropod Faunal Diversity and Relevant Interrelationships of Critical Resources in Mt. Malindang
The pollinators ensure full harvest and seed
production from many agricultural crops including
many orchard fruits, nuts, clovers, vegetables,
and cotton (Triplehorn and Johnson 2005). They
are essential components of the habitats and
ecosystems that many wild animals rely on for
food and shelter (Pollinator Declines 2001).
Dragonflies and damselflies are not only known
for their predatory role but most of them are
sensitive to pollution and favor a wide range of
microhabitats. They indicate water quality and
since these species prey on mosquitoes, their
presence implies lesser mosquito population
(Olber et al. 2000). Local faunal composition
may be strongly affected by any change in water
flow, turbidity, or aquatic or waterside
vegetation. Inland fishermen identify dragonfly
larvae as “mud eyes” and use them as baits
while the adults are a minor food item in some
countries (Trueman and Row 2001).
The parasitic Hymenoptera are a highly
successful and important group of insects
comprising probably over a million species.
Despite the vast amount of research that has
been carried out on the group over the last 100
years or so, there are still many unexplained
aspects of their increasing demand for biological
methods for pest control and their possible use
as natural enemies. Parasitic wasps are
tremendously important in research, on pollution
dynamics and on host-parasite interaction
(Quicke 2003).
According to Perlman and Paskowitz (1998), a
new focus on intensive study of as many species
as possible in limited areas, rather than coming
up with the traditional haphazard description of
new species one or few at a time may enable
biologists to understand in detail how speciose
tropical insects are, their pattern of distribution,
and how they interact with other ecosystems
to achieve a reasonably comprehensive level of
knowledge.
Agriculture, especially monoculture has affected
the natural biodiversity through the simplification
of habitats and ecosystems. As a result, the
loss of floristic and structured diversity leads
to the reduction of faunal heterogeneity. It is
in this direction that strategies could be useful
in restoring or at least improving local species
diversity, in terms of flora and fauna (Altieri
1991 as cited by Ceniza 1995). The key is to
identify the type of biodiversity that is desirable
to maintain and or enhance in order to carry
out ecological services, and then to determine
the best practices that will encourage the
desired biodiversity components. The role of
agroecologists should be to encourage those
agricultural practices that increase the
abundance and diversity of above- and below-
ground organisms, which in turn provide key
ecological services to agroecosystems (Altieri
and Nicholls 2005).

4
Technical Report
The general objective of the study was to
develop a better understanding of the landscape
and management of the critical arthropod faunal
resources in Mt. Malindang through assessment
of the existing arthropod diversity resource and
analysis of the significant interrelationships of
the arthropod fauna with other resources in
the area.
The specific objectives of the study were to:
(1) identify the arthropods in the forest and
agroecosystems in Mt. Malindang; (2)
determine the richness and endemism of the
arthropod faunal species; (3)  identify the
biodiversity parameters for designing appropriate
conservation and management schemes of
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