Myrna G. Ballentes :: Alma B. Mohagan :: Victor P. Gapud Maria Catherine P. Espallardo :: Myrna O. Zarcilla



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Objectives
critical resources; (4) assess the impact of
socioeconomic-cultural activities on the
arthropod biodiversity resource use; (5)
harmonize indigenous knowledge system (IKS)
in designing monitoring system for arthropod
diversity resource use and conservation
practices; (6) organize a network of
stakeholders in various communities for the
implementation of scientifically harmonized IKS
monitoring and conservation practices; (7)
promote awareness on arthropod resource
diversity and conservation; and (8) develop
additional integrated development and
biodiversity conservation strategies in local
biodiversity conservation for local communities.
This study was geared towards knowledge
generation using the participatory approach to
create a better understanding of the diversity
and availability of critical arthropod faunal
resources in Mt. Malindang. These critical
resources include the economically important,
threatened, and abundant species. Efforts were
directed on analysis of the interactions of the
multifarious factors that affect and influence
Rationale
these resources. An assessment of the scientific
and indigenous knowledge systems on
biodiversity conservation was also conducted.
The ultimate goal was to identify, recommend
and develop concrete strategies to enhance
the capability of the local communities and other
stakeholders towards the conservation and
sound management of Mt. Malindang’s
biodiversity resources.

5
Arthropod Faunal Diversity and Relevant Interrelationships of Critical Resources in Mt. Malindang
Site selection
Seventeen sites with 10 subsites were
established as research areas for the arthropod
fauna study (Table 1). The different sites were
located within the barangays of Lake Duminagat,
Gandawan, and Mansawan of Don Victoriano;
Old Liboron, Sebucal, Mialen, Toliyok, and Bunga
of Oroquieta City; Peniel of Lopez Jaena; and
Mamalad of Calamba, Misamis Occidental.
The sites were categorized according to
vegetation types with partial reference to
altitude. North Peak at altitudes of 1,800-2,185
meters above sea level (masl) and Mt. Ginlajan
at 1,700-1,900 masl are mossy forests.
Mt. Ulohan sa Dapitan at 1,450-1,700 masl and
Mt. Pungol at 1,400-1,600 masl are montane
forests. Old Liboron at altitudes of 1,200-1,400
masl is an almaciga forest. Mt. Capole at 900-
1,100 masl is a submontane dipterocarp forest.
Sites 11 in Peniel and 16 in Mamalad at altitudes
of 450-900 masl are mixed dipterocarp forests.
Sites 13 in Mialen and 16a in Mamalad at altitudes
ranging from 220 to 500 masl are lowland
dipterocarp forests. Site 15 in Toliyok at 220-
450 masl is a mixed lowland dipterocarp forest.
Sites 11a in Peniel and 19 in Bunga at altitudes
of 120-900 masl are plantations or degraded
forests.
Ten subsites (north and south exposures) were
established at the research sites of North Peak,
Mt. Ulohan sa Dapitan, Mt. Capole, site 13 in
Mialen, and site 15 in Toliyok.
The other sites located in barangays Lake
Duminagat, Mansawan, Gandawan, Sebucal,
Mialen, Toliyok, Bunga, Peniel, and Mamalad at
altitudes of ±1,000 masl were categorized as
agroecosystems which were either planted  to
vegetables, cereals or are agroforests and grass-
dominated fallowed areas.
Establishment of Sampling Plots
Sampling plots with a dimension of 20 x 20 m
along the N-S transect were established at every
250 m change in elevation and 500 m horizontal
distance between plots using GPS or altimeter.
Based on elevation gradients, the south or north
Methodology
slope exposure had two sample plots along the
N-S transect, representing center plots. One
sample plot on each side of the center plot at
the distance of 500 m was prepared. A total of
six sample plots were, therefore, established.
Sampling Procedure
Visual SamplingIn every 20 x 20 m plot, one
1 x 1 m quadrat was established at the upper
right corner of the main plot. However, if this
quadrat was not an ideal site, another site within
the plot was selected. The plants in this quadrat
were examined for the presence of arthropods.
Visual sampling started from the lower to the
upper part of the plants. Sweep nets were used
for collecting flying insects.
Arthropods were counted and recorded
according to species. Samples of each species
were taken as voucher specimens.
Sweep Net Sampling.  For grasslands and
agroecosystems, systematic sweeps were
performed in two intersecting diagonal strips
extending from end to end of each 20 x 20 m
plot. Catches were sorted, counted, and
recorded. Samples were taken as voucher
specimens.
Opportunistic SamplingWithin the 20 x 20 m
forest plots, opportunistic sampling was done.
Vertical 250 x 10 m transects between center
plots were also utilized for this sampling. Catches
were sorted, counted, and recorded. Samples
were taken as voucher specimens.
Threatened Faunal Species
Information of species occurrence and resource
use were obtained through key informant
interviews and focus group discussions (FGD).
These information were needed to validate the
data gathered from the field and to verify species
that might not have been encountered during
actual sampling. A list of threatened species
based on sampling results as well as endemic,
economically and culturally important species
was generated after the conduct of field
assessment, semi-structured interviews, and

Table 1.  Vegetation types of arthropod fauna study in Mt. Malindang Range Natural Park (MMRNP).
Legend:
(1,2): 1- North Exposure,     2 - South Exposure
Vegetation  Types
         Location
      Altitude
          Site/
      (masl)
        Subsite
North Peak, Lake  Duminagat,
Don Victoriano
Mt. Ginlajan, Lake Duminagat
Don Victoriano
Mt. Ulohan sa Dapitan, Lake
Duminagat, Don Victoriano
Mt. Pungol, Gandawan,
    
 
Don Victoriano
Old Liboron, Oroquieta City
Mt. Capole, Sebucal, Oroquieta City
Peniel, Lopez Jaena
Mamalad, Calamba
Mialen, Oroquieta City
Mamalad, Calamba
Toliyok, Oroquieta City
Peniel, Lopez Jaena
Bunga, Oroquieta City
Lake Duminagat, Don Victoriano;
Gandawan,  Don Victoriano;
Mansawan, Don Victoriano;
Sebucal, Oroquieta City; Peniel,
Lopez Jaena; Mialen, Oroquieta
City
Sebucal, Oroquieta City; Peniel, Lopez
Jaena; Mialen, Oroquieta City;
Toliyok, Oroquieta City; Mamalad,
Calamba
Mialen, Oroquieta City; Toliyok,
Oroquieta City; Bunga, Oroquieta
City
Lake Duminagat, Don Victoriano;
Gandawan, Don Victoriano;
Mansawan, Don Victoriano
Sebucal, Oroquieta City; Peniel, Lopez
Jaena
1,800-2,185
1,700-1,900
1,450-1,700
1,400-1,600
1,200-1,400
900-1,100
450-900
220-500
220-450
120-900
> 1,000
< 1,000
< 1,000
> 1, 000
< 1,000
Mossy Forest
Montane Forest
Almaciga Forest
Submontane Dipterocarp
Forest
Mixed Dipterocarp Forest
Lowland Dipterocarp
Forest
Mixed Lowland
Dipterocarp Forest
Plantation and Degraded
Forest
Agroecosystem
Vegetable
Cereals
Agroforestry
Grass-dominated
fallowed areas
1/(1,2)
2
3/(1,2)
4
9
5/(1,2)
11
16
13/(1,2)
16a
15/(1,2)
11a
19
6; 7; 8;
10; 12 and
14
10a;12a;
14a; 17 and
18
14b; 17a and
20
6a; 7a and
8a
10b and 12b
6
Technical Report

FGD. The data generated was used in
formulating mitigating measures to minimize or
eliminate unsustainable resource utilization
practices.
Biodiversity Indices
Data analysis includes the computations of
diversity indices to evaluate diversity of
arthropod taxa within sites and to assess
diversity of the landscape as a whole.
For each of the sampling site, which represented
an ecosystem, the following arthropod
biodiversity parameters were considered:
Species Richness. Species richness refers to
the actual number of species as a direct
measurement.
Species Diversity. Species diversity refers to
the number (species richness) and relative
abundance of species in a biological community
(Campbell  et al. 2000). Shannon’s index of
diversity (H’) measures the average degree of
‘uncertainty’ in predicting to what species an
individual chosen at random from a collection
of S species and N individuals belong. Shannon’s
index of diversity was computed using the
formula:
       H’= -{(ni/n) ln (ni/n)}
Where:
n
i
 = the number of individuals belonging
to the i
th
 of S of species in the
sample
n = the total number of individuals in
the sample
Pearson’s Index of Similarity (S).  The
Pearson’s Index of Similarity (S) is a clustering
analysis, measuring the degree to which the
species composition is alike or different between
and among sites.
Correspondence Analysis.  Correspondence
analysis is a type of ordination to determine
community similarity, which uses reciprocal
averaging to determine axis values. It is used
to describe data consisting counts.
Socioeconomic-cultural Activities
and Biological Properties of the
Ecosystem
Workshops with the BRP socioeconomic group
were conducted to integrate the findings and
relate the socioeconomic data, which were
derived from objectives 1, 2, and 3 of the
arthropod fauna survey. Consultations with the
local community were likewise conducted to
validate the data gathered from the field.
Formulation of Recommendations for
Increasing Awareness on Biological
Diversity and Conservation
A package of recommendations that contained
suggested specific information, education and
communication (IEC) materials (e.g., flyers and
posters), as well as set of strategies or schemes
for the conservation and management of critical
resources were prepared. These
recommendations were based on field sampling
results and information which were obtained
through structured interviews and FGDs.
Data gathered especially on threatened and
endemic species shall be transported for GIS
mapping featuring the need for faunal
conservation in selected sites.
7
Arthropod Faunal Diversity and Relevant Interrelationships of Critical Resources in Mt. Malindang

8
Technical Report
Arthropod Composition
The various arthropod taxa of Mt. Malindang
Range Natural Park (MMRNP) are shown in Table
2 and Figure 1. Seven hundred forty-one
species representing five arthropod classes are
recorded. The insects comprise the biggest bulk
with 14 orders, namely, Odonata,
Ephemeroptera, Blattodea, Dermaptera,
Isoptera, Orthoptera, Phasmatodea, Mantodea,
Hemiptera, Neuroptera, Coleoptera, Diptera,
Lepidoptera, and Hymenoptera, while the
Arachnida are represented by Acarina (mites),
Araneida (spiders), Phalangida (daddy long legs),
and Scorpionida (scorpions). Other classes
include Crustacea (crabs), Chilopoda
(centipedes), and Diplopoda (millipedes).
The most speciose taxa which account 78.37
percent are the Coleoptera (beetles) with 258
species, Hemiptera (bugs, hoppers, cicadas,
etc.) with 157 species, Hymenoptera (bees,
wasps, and ants) with 62 species, Diptera (true
flies) with 53 species, and Araneida (spiders)
with 51 species.
The Coleoptera constitute 34.86 percent of the
arthropod species in Mt. Malindang. The
Hemiptera ranked second, 21.08 percent,
followed by Hymenoptera (8.38%), Diptera
(7.16%), and Araneida (6.89%).
The remarkable proportion of Coleoptera in Mt.
Malindang is undisputable just like in any
Philippine arthropod inventory (Baltazar 2001;
Gapud et al. 2001; Ceniza 1995) and on any
worldwide inventory study (Daly et al. 1998;
Gullan and Cranston 2000; Brusca and Brusca
2003). Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, and
Hemiptera may interchange ranks from second
to fifth in various arthropod assessment studies.
However, in this study in Mt. Malindang,
Lepidoptera ranked seventh since most moths
were not included and it was represented by
butterflies and skippers only.
The orders Orthoptera (grasshoppers, katydids,
crickets), Lepidoptera (butterflies and skippers),
Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies),
Phasmatodea (stick and leaf insects), Mantodea
(preying mantis), and Blattodea (cockroaches)
Results and Discussion
have corresponding ranks of sixth to eleventh
representing proportions ranging from 5.14
percent for Orthoptera to 1.62 percent for
Blattodea. A small proportion of the pie chart
(0.68%) is represented by two species each of
Dermaptera (earwigs) and Neuroptera
(lacewings), and one species of Ephemeroptera
(mayflies) and Isoptera (termites).
The other arthropods which comprise only 0.84
percent of the pie chart include one species
each of Phalangida (phalangids), Acarina (mites),
Scorpionida (scorpions), Crustacea (crabs),
Chilopoda (centipedes), and Diplopoda
(millipedes).
Endemic Arthropods
The current identification of Malindang arthropod
species is ongoing and may take a considerable
period to complete, considering that the study
of the Malindang components is the first
initiative. While current estimates of endemic
species show a total of 17 Philippine endemics,
23 Mindanao endemics, and 67 MMRNP
endemics, of which 41 species are beetles
(Table 3), many more species of arthropods
remain to be discovered and described. Out of
the 67 endemic arthropod species, at least 21
species are associated with endemic host plants
(Table 4).
Out of the 28 species of Odonata (damselflies
and dragonflies), six are Philippine endemics and
seven are Mindanao endemics. The Philippine
endemics include the dragonflies, Heteronaias
heterodoxa (Selys) (Corduliidae) (Figure 2);
Heliogomphus bakeri Laidlaw (Gomphidae),
and Diplacina braueri (Selys) (Libellulidae), as
well as, the damselfies, Vestalis melania Selys
(Calopterygidae),  Rhinocypha turconii Selys
(Chlorocyphidae), and Prodasineura integra
(Selys) (Protoneuridae).
The Mindanao endemic Odonatans are all
damselflies which include Devadatta
podolestoides basilanensis Laidlaw
(Amphipterygidae) (Figure 3), Cyrano angustior
Hämäläinen (Chlorocyphidae), Rhinocypha 
dorsosanguinea Lieftinck (Chlorocyphidae), and
three species of Platycnemididae represented

9
Arthropod Faunal Diversity and Relevant Interrelationships of Critical Resources in Mt. Malindang
Table 2.  
Arthropod composition of Mt. Malindang Range Natural Park (MMRNP).
Order 
Families 
Genera 
Number of Species 
Percentage (%) 
Class Insecta 
 
 
 
 
1. Odonata 
11 
21 
28 
3.78 
2. Ephemeroptera 



0.14 
3. Blattodea 


12 
1.62 
4. Dermaptera 



0.27 
5. Isoptera 



0.14 
6. Orthoptera 

33 
38 
5.14 
7. Phasmatodea 

17 
24 
3.24 
8. Mantodea 


13 
1.76 
9. Hemiptera 
30 
64 
156 
21.08 
10. Neuroptera 



0.27 
11. Coleoptera 
22 
86 
258 
34.86 
12. Diptera 
11 
12 
53 
7.16 
13. Lepidoptera 

25 
34 
4.59 
14. Hymenoptera 
23 
47 
62 
8.38 
Class Arachnida 
 
 
 
 
15. Acarina 



0.14 
16. Araneida 

16 
51 
6.89 
17. Phalangida 



0.14 
18. 
Scorpionida 1 
1 1  0.14 
Class Crustacea 
 
 
 
 
19. Crabs 



0.14 
Class Chilopoda 
 
 
 
 
20. Centipede 



0.14 
Class Diplopoda 
 
 
 
 
21. Millipede 



0.14 
TOTAL 135 
340 
741 
100 
 
Number of Endemic Species 
Taxa Number 
of 
Species 
Philippine endemics 
Mindanao endemics 
MMRNP endemics 
1. Odonata 
28 
6 7 0 
2. Ephemeroptera 
1 - 
-  - 
3. Blattodea 
12 
- - - 
4. Dermaptera 

- - - 
5. Isoptera 

- - - 
6. Orthoptera 
38 
4 6 0 
7. Phasmatodea 
24 
- - 
24 
8. Mantodea 
13 
- - - 
9. Hemiptera 
156 
3 1 0 
10. Neuroptera 

- - - 
11. Coleoptera 
258 
0 3 
41 
12. Diptera 
53 
- - - 
13. Lepidoptera 
34 
4 6 2 
14. Hymenoptera 
62 
- - - 
15. Spiders 
51 
- - - 
16. 
 
Other 6 - - - 
TOTAL 
741 
17 23 67 
 
Table 3.  Endemic arthropod species of Mt. Malindang Range Natural Park (MMRNP).
1
 includes phalangids, mites, scorpion, centipedes, millipedes and crabs

10
Technical Report
Associated Host Plants 
MMRNP 
Endemic Arthropod 
Local name 
Scientific name 
COLEOPTERA 
Curculionidae 
Gymnetrinae   
Alcidodes sp. 1 
 
 
 
Salumay 
 
 
 
Macaranga dipterocarpifolia* 
 
Entiminae: Pachrrhynchini 
Metapocyrtus sp. 1 
 
Bintuko 
 
Melicope monophylla** 
 
Metapocyrtus sp. 3 
Hantutungaw 
Astrocalyx calycina** 
 
Metapocyrtus sp. 6 
Karupay  
Babakag 
Pinanga insignis** 
Ascarina philippinensis** 
 
Metapocyrtus sp. 7 
Danlugan 
Shorea contorta* 
 
Metepocyrtus sp. 12 
 
Babasa 
Babakag 
Polyosma philippinensis** 
Ascarina philippinensis** 
 
Pachyrrhynchus sp. 1 
 
Lalago pino 
Karupay 
Silangka 
Cyrtandra umbellifera** 
Pinanga insignis** 
Impatiens montalbanica** 
 
Pachyrrhynchus sp. 3 
Lalalago dako 
Cyrtandra cumingii** 
 
Pachyrrhynchus sp. 5 
Gantaw 
Cyathea apoensis** 
 
Cryptorrynchinae 
Odosyllis sp. 1 
 
Tatanak 
 
Gardenia longiflora** 
 
Tragopus sp. 
 
Gantaw 
Balangong lagwis 
Cyathea apoensis** 
Saurauria latiflora** 
 
Otiorrhynchinae sp. 1 
Hantutungaw 
Astrocalyx calycina** 
 
Otiorrhychinae sp. 2 
Tagima 
Schefflera alverezii** 
 
PHASMATODEA              
Aschiphasmatidae 
Aschiphasmatinae 
Aschiphasmatini 
Orthomeria sp. 1 
 
 
 
 
Gantaw 
 
 
 
 
Cyathea apoensis** 
 
Diapheromeridae sp. 1 
 
Kalingag 
Lalago pino 
Danlugan 
Cinnamomum mercadoi* 
Cyrtandra umbellifera** 
Shorea contorta* 
 
Lonchodes sp. 1 
Babakag 
Ascarina philippinensis** 
 
Lonchodes sp. 3 
Buyo-buyo 
Piper catubiguensis** 
 
Necrosciinae 
 
Karupay  
Baraas 
Babakag 
Pinanga insignis** 
Freycinetia multiflora Merr.** 
Ascarina philippinensis** 
 
Necrosciinae sp. 1 
Gantaw 
Cyathea apoensis** 
 
Heteropterygidae 
Obriminae 
Obrimini sp. 1 
 
 
Gantaw 
 
 
Cyathea apoensis** 
 
Euobrimus sp. Babakag 
Lalago dako 
Ascarina philippinensis** 
Cyrtandra cumingii** 
 
 
Table 4. 
Mt. Malindang endemic arthropods and their associated endemic host plants.
* - identified both endemic and threatened host plants by the BRP flora study
** - identified endemic host plants by the BRP flora study

11
Arthropod Faunal Diversity and Relevant Interrelationships of Critical Resources in Mt. Malindang
Figure 1.  Proportional representation of the arthropod groups of Mt. Malindang Range Natural
Park (MMRNP) with a total of 741 species.
Figure 2.  Philippine endemic dragonfly,
Heteronaias heterodoxa (Selys),
Corduliidae.
Figure 3. Mindanao endemic Devadatta
podolestoides basilanensis Laidlaw
(Amphipterygidae).

12
Technical Report
Figure 4. Greater Mindanao endemic
Risiocnemis flammea (Selys)
(Platycnemididae).
by  Coeliccia dinoceras Laidlaw, Risiocnemis
(R.) appendiculata (Brauer),  and  Risiocnemis
(Igneocnemis) flammea (Selys) (Figure 4).
Damselflies in Mindanao are 28 percent endemics
while 40 percent are Philippine endemics. The
low endemism of damselflies in contrast to the
findings of Gapud 2005 might be attributed to
sampling site stations where sites were
established at least 50 m away from water
tributaries/bodies. Majority of endemic
damselflies are residents of forested streams
and brooks especially the endemic genus
Risiocnemis (Gapud 2005).
The Orthopteran endemic species include  four
Philippine and six Mindanao endemic species.
The Philippine endemic species include Melicodes
tenebrosa  (Walker) (Acrididae), Diotarus
verrucifer Stal (Tetrigidae) (Figure 5) and the
two species of Tettigoniidae, Segestes sp. nr.
vittaticeps  Stal (Mecopodinae), and
Tympanoptera sp. nr. philippina (Hebard)
(Pseudophyllinae) (Figure 6).
Out of the six Mindanao endemic Orthopterans,
four are Tettigoniidae and one species each for
Tetrigidae,  Misythus sp. nr. jubatus  Hebard
(Figure 7), and Trigonopterygidae, Systella
philippinensis  (Walker) (Figure 8). The
Tettigoniidae include Anthracites sp. nr. major 
Hebard (Conocephalinae) (Figure 9), Xiphidiopsis
drepanophra Hebard and X. gemmicula Hebard
(Meconematinae), and Morsimus  sp. nr.
serratus Beier (Pseudophyllinae) (Figure 10).
The 24 Mindanao or MMRNP endemic species of
Phasmatodea are enumerated in Appendix Table
19. Orthomeria sp. 1 represents Aschiphasmatidae;
Euobrimus sp. for Heteroptergygidae; Phyllium sp.
for Phyllidae (Figure 11); the three species
Phobaeticus sp., Pharnacia(?) sp. and Baculum
sp. represent  Phasmatidae; and the six species,
Lonchodini sp. 1, Lonchodes sp., Necrosciinae sp.,
Asceles sp., Marmessoidea sp., and Necroscia sp.
represent Diapheromeridae. Phasmatodea in
Mindanao/MMRNP are all endemics. All species
remain undescribed.
Out of 156 Hemiptera species of MMRNP, only
three reduviid species are Philippine endemics
which include Ischnobaena macerrima Stal,
Euagoras plagiatus and Veleda brevispines Stal
(Appendix Table 20). One treehopper, Emphusis
bakeri Funkhouser (Membracidae) (Figure 12)
is Mindanao endemic. No species is recorded as
MMRNP endemic.
From a total of 258 Coleoptera species of MMRNP,
three are Mindano endemics and 41 are MMRNP
endemics (Appendix Table 21). The Mindanao
endemic species include Xenocerus striatus
Jordan, Anthribidae; Nupserha sp.,
Cerambycidae; and Mimoplacia diversenotata
von Breuning, Cerambycidae. The 41 MMRNP
endemic species are all Curculionidae (weevils)
distributed as follows: two species of Alcidodes
(Figure 13 A), two Rhynchophorinae, 14
Metapocyrtus (Figure 13 B-E), six species of
Pachyrrhynchus  (Figure 13 F-I), and
Otiorrhynchinae, two Odosyllis, and one species
each of Tragopus, Calidiopsis, Paepalosomus,
Nauphaeus, and Eugnathus. The other four
weevil species are undetermined.
The 41 species of Curculionidae in MMRNP are
all considered endemics. This confirms the
assessment of Gapud (2005) where the
pachyrrynchine weevils are specifically over 95
percent endemics. Although the Malindang
pachyrrhynchines remain undescribed, all are
likely to be endemic to Mindanao.
The 12 endemic butterflies (Lepidoptera) are
categorized into four Philippine endemics, six
Mindanao endemics, and two MMRNP endemics

13
Arthropod Faunal Diversity and Relevant Interrelationships of Critical Resources in Mt. Malindang
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