Myrna G. Ballentes :: Alma B. Mohagan :: Victor P. Gapud Maria Catherine P. Espallardo :: Myrna O. Zarcilla



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Figure 5. Philippine endemic tetrigidDiotarus
verrucifer Stal.
Figure 6.  Philippine endemic tettigoniid,
Tympanoptera sp. nr. philippina
Hebard.
Figure 7.  Mindanao endemic tetrigid,
Misythus sp. nr. jubatus Hebard.
Figure 8.  Greater Mindanao endemic
trigonopterygid, 
Systella
philippinensis 
(Walker).
Figure 9.  Mindanao endemic tettigoniid,
Anthracites sp. nr. major Hebard.
Figure 10.  Mindanao endemic tettigoniid,
Morsimus sp. nr. serratus Beier.

14
Technical Report
Figure 12.  Mindanao endemic treehopper,
Emphusis bakeri Funkhouser.
A
B
    C
D
E
    F
G
H
     I
Figure 13.   MMRNP endemic curculionids: AAlcidodes sp.,  BMetapocyrtus sp. 1,
C. Metapocyrtus sp. 3,  DMetapocyrtus sp. 7,  EMetapocyrtus sp. 11,
FPachyrrhynchus sp. 2GPachyrrhynchus sp. 4, HPachyrrhynchus sp. 5,
I Pachyrrhynchus sp. 6.
Figure 11.  Mindanao/MMRNP
endemic phyliid
(leaf insect),
Phyllium  sp.

15
Arthropod Faunal Diversity and Relevant Interrelationships of Critical Resources in Mt. Malindang
(Appendix Table 22). The Philippine endemics
include Athyma maenus semperi (Nymphalidae)
and three Papilionidae species, Menelaides
hystaspes (Figure 14 A), M. rumanzovia
rumanzovia (Figure 14 B), and Troides magellanus.
The Mindanao endemic subspecies include
Choaspes plateni adhara (Hesperiidae) (Figure 15),
Mycalesis ita imeldae (Nymphalidae), and four
subspecies of Pieridae, Delias baracasa baracasa,
D.  henningia  ochreopicta (Figure 16), Eurema
hiurai hiurai, and E. sarilata sarilata. The two MMRNP
endemic subspecies are Parantica dannatti
malindangensis (Nymphalidae) (Figure 17), and
Delias diaphana basilisae (Pieridae) (Figure 18).
Arthropod Species Richness and
Diversity
Arthropods in Mt. Malindang have varied richness
and diversity values as presented per
vegetation (Table 5 and Figure 19). The
arthropods in the forest vegetation types are
generally more diverse than the agroecosystem
communities. Higher arthropod diversity indices
in forest vegetation types may be attributed to
the plant architecture in these types which
provide more ecological niches suitable for the
establishment of arthropods than the relatively
simple set up within agroecosystem communities.
The arthropods are most diverse (355 species,
H’=2.397) in the mixed dipterocarp forest. This
is followed by the arthropods in the mossy forest
(169 species, H’=2.015) and plantation or
degraded forest (136 species, H’=2.002). The
lowest arthropod species inventory of 30 species
with corresponding lowest diversity value of
1.252 is observed in the agro-cereal community.
The mixed dipterocarp forest is a patch of the
remaining natural forest. Its complex structure
may have largely contributed to the high
arthropod species richness and diversity. The
low diversity of arthropods in the agro-cereal
community might have been influenced by the
simplicity of vegetation structure in
monocultured cereals. 
When treated per site (Table 6 and Figure 20),
the arthropods in Peniel mixed dipterocarp forest
has the richest (316 species) and the most
diverse (H’=2.348) arthropods while the agro-
cereal community in Sebucal has the least
diverse (H’=0.949) arthropods.
Arthropod Species Similarity
Comparison of similarities of arthropod fauna
among vegetation types is presented in Figure
21. Arthropod fauna are grouped into three main
clusters with three outgroups.
The largest cluster is composed of
agroecosystem communities. The vegetable-
grass-dominated communities of Gandawan,
Mansawan, and Lake Duminagat have the
closest similarity of arthropods. Gandawan and
Mansawan have a similarity coefficient of 0.59,
while Lake Duminagat has a coefficient of 0.35.
The proximity of these sites may have
contributed to the similarity of the species. The
arthropods of the agroforest of Mamalad
compared to the agroforest-cereal of Mialen
have low similarity but their connection to the
Mansawan-Gandawan-Lake Duminagat sub-
cluster might be due to the presence of common
hosts or alternate hosts in these areas.
The second cluster of arthropod species shows
the similarity of the species among the mossy,
montane and almaciga forests and agro-cereal-
grass-dominated communities. The similarity
coefficient of 0.5 between the mossy and
montane forests as regards species composition
indicates proximity of these sites, while the
similarity between the agro-cereal-grass-
dominated community and the almaciga forest
of both Sebucal sites might be due to the
presence of almaciga patches near the agro-
cereal-grass-dominated communities. The
connectivity of these four sites might be due
to the more or less equal densities of phalangids
recorded in these sites.
The similarities among the mixed lowland
dipterocarp of Toliyok and Mamalad, plantation
forest of Bunga and Peniel and the agroforest–
cereal communities of Toliyok are depicted in
the third cluster. These similarities manifested
proximity of these areas.
The lowland dipterocarp forest (Mialen),
submontane dipterocarp forest (Mt. Capole),
and agrocereal-grass-dominated community are
considered outgroups as they appear to show
little species similarities among each other or
with any of the three clusters.

16
Technical Report
Figure 14.  Philippine endemic papilionids: A. Menelaides hystaspes (C & R Felder),
B. Menelaides rumanzovia rumanzovia (Eschscholtz).
A
B
Figure 15.  Mindanao endemic hesperiid,
Choaspes plateni adhara Mabille.
Figure 16.  Mindanao endemic pierid, Delias
henningia ochreopicta Butler.
Figure 17. MMRNP endemic nymphalid,
Parantica dannatii malindangensis
Treadaway.
 Figure 18. MMRNP endemic pierid, Delias
diaphana basilisae Schroeder &
Treadaway.

17
Arthropod Faunal Diversity and Relevant Interrelationships of Critical Resources in Mt. Malindang
Table 5. Species richness and species diversity at different vegetation types of arthropod fauna
in Mt. Malindang Range Natural Park (MMRNP).
Vegetation Types 
Location 
Total 
Individuals 
Species 
Richness 
Species 
Diversity 
1.  Mossy Forest 
North Peak 
Mt. Ginlajan 
529 169 2.015 
2.  Montane Forest 
Mt. Ulohan sa Dapitan 
Mt. Pungol 
478 122 1.857 
3.  Almaciga Forest 
Old Liboron 
132 
54 
1.529 
4.  Submontane Dipterocarp Forest 
Mt. Capole 
312 
108 
1.569 
5.  Mixed Dipterocarp Forest 
Peniel 
Mamalad 
842 355 2.397 
6.  Lowland Dipterocarp Forest 
Mialen 
Mamalad 
486 138 1.726 
7.  Mixed Lowland Dipterocarp Forest 
Toliyok 
195 
115 
1.91 
8.  Plantation and Degraded Forest 
Peniel 
Bunga 
279 136 2.002 
9. Agroecosystem 
a. Vegetable 
 
 
 
 
 
 
b. Cereals 
 
 
 
 
 
c. Agroforest 
 
 
 
d. Grass-dominated 
Fallowed 
Areas 
 
 
Lake Duminagat 
Gandawan 
Mansawan 
Sebucal 
Mialen 
Peniel 
 
Sebucal 
Mialen 
Toliyok 
Peniel 
Mamalad 
 
Mialen 
Toliyok 
Bunga 
 
Lake Duminagat 
Gandawan 
Mansawan 
Sebucal 
Peniel 
 
 
791 
 
 
 
 
 
 
124 
 
 
 
 
 
71 
 
 
 
 
447 
 
97 
 
 
 
 
 
 
30 
 
 
 
 
 
40 
 
 
 
 
81 
 
1.483 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1.252 
 
 
 
 
 
1.497 
 
 
 
 
1.626 
 

18
Technical Report
Table 6.  Species richness and diversity at various research sites of arthropod fauna in
Mt. Malindang Range Natural Park (MMRNP).
Vegetation Types 
Location 
Total 
Individuals 
Species 
Richness 
Species 
Diversity 
North Peak 
274 
106 
1.819 
1. Mossy 
Forest 
Mt. Ginlajan 
255 
113 
1.887 
Mt. Ulohan sa Dapitan 
361 
101 
1.773 
2. Montane 
Forest 
Mt. Pungol 
117 
53 
1.611 
3.  Almaciga Forest 
Old Liboron 
132 
54 
1.529 
4.  Submontane Dipterocarp Forest 
Mt. Capole 
312 
108 
1.569 
Peniel 731 
316 
2.348 
5.  Mixed Dipterocarp Forest 
Mamalad 111 
79 
1.826 
Mialen 318 
117 
1.609 
6.  Lowland Dipterocarp Forest 
Mamalad 168 
40 
1.302 
7.  Mixed Lowland Dipterocarp Forest 
Toliyok 
195 
115 
1.906 
Peniel 97 
60 
1.7 
8.  Plantation and Degraded Forest 
Bunga 182 
85 
1.781 
 
 
 
 
Lake Duminagat 
751 
131 
1.791 
Gandawan 1500 
168 
1.814 
Mansawan 1912 
158 
1.591 
Sebucal 47 
17 
1.162 
Mialen 50 
21 
1.206 
9. Agroecosystem 
a. Vegetable 
Peniel 484 
84 
1.337 
Sebucal 72 
23 
0.949 
Mialen 41 
23 
1.293 
Toliyok 25 
17 
1.187 
Peniel 44 
29 
1.395 
b. Cereals 
Mamalad 440 
58 
1.436 
Mialen 62 
33 
1.417 
Toliyok 107 
53 
1.6 
c. Agroforestry 
Bunga 45 
33 
1.474 
Lake Duminagat 
1136 
129 
1.631 
Gandawan 406 
103 
1.787 
Mansawan 510 
104 
1.79 
Sebucal 142 
42 
1.513 
d. Grass–dominated 
Fallowed Areas 
Peniel 41 
29 
1.411 
 

19
Arthropod Faunal Diversity and Relevant Interrelationships of Critical Resources in Mt. Malindang
A more or less similar grouping of vegetation
types is observed when correspondence analysis
is used to determine similarity of species
composition (Figure 22). The agroecosystem
communitities except the agroforest form one
group. The mossy, montane, almaciga, and
submontane dipterocarp forests form another
group, while the third group is composed of
other forests and the agroforest communities.
Trophic Guild Composition
Table 7 presents the number of species per
trophic guild of each vegetation type.
Knowledge on the biology of Mt. Malindang
arthropod species is limited so the assignment
of guilds was based largely on the known biology
of a few species.
Approximately half of the species of arthropods
are phytophagous (Figures 23-26), 26 percent
Figure 19. Species diversity of arthropod fauna per vegetation of  Mt. Malindang Range Natural
Park (MMRNP).
are predaceous (Figures 27-28), 7 percent are
pollinators (Figure 29), 6 percent are parasitoids,
5 percent are scavengers (Figure 30), 3 percent
are xyloborous (Figure 31), and 3 percent are
ants. Daly et al. (1998) referred to this view of
phytophagous proportion as related to the other
guilds. The relationships of the phytophagous
species with their associated host plants are
partially dealt with and less efforts were spent
on determining the functional relationships
between specific predators and preys,
parasitoids and hosts, pollinators and flowers,
and other relationships. The ants have a diverse
range and combination of feeding habits (Daly
et al. 1998; Stork 1991 as cited by Ceniza 1995)
so they are lumped as one guild.
The mixed dipterocarp forest has the most
number of phytophagous (136), predaceous
(216), xyloborous (7), and ant (15) species.
The mossy forest has the most number of

20
Technical Report
Figure 20. Species diversity of arthropod fauna per site in Mt. Malindang Range Natural Park
(MMRNP).
Legend:
Sites:  Forest ecosystem
Agroecosystem
 
Mossy Forest
Vegetable
1 - North Peak
6  - Lake Duminagat
2 - Mt. Ginlajan
7  - Gandawan
 Montane Forest
8  - Mansawan
3 - Mt. Ulohan sa Dapitan
10 - Sebucal
4 - Mt. Pungol
14 - Mialen
Almaciga Forest
12 - Peniel
9 - Old Liboron
Cereals
Submontane Dipterocarp Forest
10a - Sebucal
5 - Mt. Capole
14a - Mialen
Mixed Dipterocarp Forest
17  - Toliyok
11 - Peniel
12a - Peniel
16 - Mamalad
18  - Mamalad
Lowland Dipterocarp Forest
Agroforestry
13 - Mialen
14b - Mialen
16a - Mamalad
17a - Toliyok
Mixed Lowland Dipterocarp Forest
20  - Bunga
15 - Toliyok
Grass-dominated fallowed areas
Plantation and Degraded Forest
6a  - Lake Duminagat
11a - Peniel
7a  - Gandawan
19 - Bunga
8a  - Mansawan
10b - Sebucal
12b - Peniel

21
Arthropod Faunal Diversity and Relevant Interrelationships of Critical Resources in Mt. Malindang
Figure 21. Community similarity matrix of arthropod fauna per vegetation using Pearson’s
Index of Similarity.
   
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
0 2
0
0 2
0
0 6
0 8
1
Submontane dipterocarp forest
AgroCer Grass-dominated Peniel (12)
Lowland dipterocarp Mialen (13)
AgroFro Mamalad (18)
AgroCer Agrofor Mialen (14)
AgroVeg Grass-dominated Gandawan
AgroVeg Grass-dominated Mansawan
Montane Ulohan sa Dapitan (3) Sitio Pungol
Mossy North Peak (1) Mt. Ginlajan (2)
Agro-Cer Grass-dominated Sebucal (10)
Almaciga Sebucal
Mixed dipterocarp Peniel (11a)
Mixed lowland dipterocarp Toliyok (15) Mamalad
Plantation Bunga (19) Peniel (11)
AgroCer Agrofor Toliyok (17)
AgroVeg Grass-dominated Lake Duminagat
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
pollinator species (21), agro-vegetable
community has 25 parasitoid species while the
agro-grass-dominated fallowed community has
the most number of scavengers/fungivorous (40)
species. 
Arthropod Fauna Resource Utilization
Arthropod fauna are largely represented in
almost all types of ecosystems. However, due
to their inconspicuousness - most of them are
not easily recognized - they were treated with
less importance. Research on the utilization of
arthropod fauna in Mt. Malindang has shown
that these small creatures of varied forms are
equally important as the other organisms in the
ecosystem.
The honeybee, Apis cerana is well known for
its honey. The male household members in Lake
Duminagat, Mansawan, Sebucal, and Peniel are
tasked to collect honey for family consumption,
especially as medicine for children. If the harvest
is about 5-6 bottles of honey per beehive, some
are sold at 100-150 pesos per bottle of
350 ml.
Some beehives containing the larvae are also
collected and eaten. In some cases, the larvae
are also used to feed chickens, especially the
roosters for agility and endurance (as
pampaisog) during cockfighting.
Termites, kalong (crabs), and coconut beetles
are utilized as food and source of protein in
Burgos, Lopez Jaena. Usually, the larvae and
adults of coconut beetles are toasted for viand
during mealtime. 
The naiads of the Odonata, termites and ants
are economically important, too. The naiads
called kadang-kadang as well as termites are
used as baits in fishing. The ants although
recognized as playing variable roles in the
ecosystem are utilized by vegetable farmers in
cabbage-growing sites as control agents against
worms (bitay-bitay). To attract the ants, they
spread coconut sapal on cabbage plants.

22
Technical Report
Legend:
Sites:  Forest ecosystem
Agroecosystem
Mossy Forest
Vegetable
1 - North Peak
6 - Lake Duminagat
2 - Mt. Ginlajan
7 - Gandawan
Montane Forest
8 - Mansawan
3 - Mt. Ulohan sa Dapitan
10 - Sebucal
4 - Mt. Pungol
14 - Mialen
Almaciga Forest
12 - Peniel
9 - Old Liboron
Cereals
Submontane Dipterocarp Forest
10a - Sebucal
5 - Mt. Capole
14a - Mialen
Mixed Dipterocarp Forest
17 - Toliyok
11 - Peniel
12a - Peniel
16 - Mamalad
18 - Mamalad
Lowland Dipterocarp Forest
Agroforestry
13 - Mialen
14b - Mialen
16a - Mamalad
17a - Toliyok
Mixed Lowland Dipterocarp Forest
20 - Bunga
15 - Toliyok
Grass-dominated Fallowed Areas
Plantation and Degraded Forest
6a - Lake Duminagat
11a - Peniel
7a - Gandawan
19 - Bunga
8a - Mansawan
10b - Sebucal
12b - Peniel
Figure  22.  Correspondence analysis of arthropod fauna per site.

23
Arthropod Faunal Diversity and Relevant Interrelationships of Critical Resources in Mt. Malindang
Table 7.  Trophic guilds of selected arthropods in Mt. Malindang Range Natural Park (MMRNP).
Trophic Guild/
Selected Taxa
Number of Species
Mossy
Forest
77
112
21
4
10
5
0
229
Montane
Forest
58
79
18
4
4
3
1
167
Almaciga
Forest
28
36
5
2
0
1
1
73
Submontane
Dipterocarp
Forest
50
71
16
3
4
4
0
148
Mixed
Dipterocarp
Forest
137
215
11
17
6
7
15
408
Lowland
Diptero-
carp
Forest
30
68
4
4
2
2
12
122
Mixed
Lowland
Diptero-
carp
Forest
29
62
1
2
4
1
10
109
Plantation
and
Degraded
Forest
45
85
8
1
3
3
13
158
Vegetable
102
174
12
25
6
4
9
332
Cereals
35
69
5
15
1
1
5
131
Phytophagous
Predaceous
Pollinators
Parasitoids
Scavengers/
Fungivorous
Xyloborous
Ants
TOTAL
Agroforestry
22
53
4
3
0
1
12
95
Grass-
dominated
Fallowed
Areas
71
189
16
17
40
3
5
341

24
Technical Report
Indigenous Knowledge on Arthropod
Fauna
Indigenous knowledge on arthropod fauna is very
scanty that even their common names are
unknown to many.
To some, knowledge of the arthropod fauna is
limited only to the metamorphosis of butterflies
or dragonflies, or honeybees as source of the
precious honey. In some areas, fighting cock
growers utilize the protein-rich bee larvae as
feed additive.
It has been a belief among native folks that a
red butterfly hovering around the house signals
war or trouble, while a white butterfly symbolizes
a coming wedding. A brown butterfly means
money, and a black one hints death.
In areas where kalongs (crabs) are found, the
locals believe that when these kalongs come
out of their habitat and seen on elevated areas,
it foretells a coming rain. The vespid wasp,
Ropalidia sp. was observed preying on the larvae
of diamondback mothPlutella xylostella.
Blooming of a certain flower is believed to
indicate honey production. If this flower fails to
bloom, the people in the locality perform a ritual
that is said to enhance the blooming of the
flower.
Conservation Strategies
Researchers were faced with the challenge of
identifying and determining the number of
threatened arthropod species of Mt. Malindang.
The work on the classification of threatened
species with high economic value like
honeybees, crabs, and other endemic species,
especially those who feed on endemic host
plants was done.
A serious challenge for arthropod researchers
is to determine what and how many arthropod
species of Mt. Malindang are considered
threatened. The population of the honeybees
is threatened with indiscriminate harvesting of
beehives to obtain honey and larvae of bees.
The same threat is faced by the native crabs
which are also harvested haphazardly for food.
Endemic arthropods, especially the curculionids
(beetles) and walking sticks are threatened
when associated host plants are not conserved.
While the collection of the basic information on
threatened arthropod species remains important,
initiatives to protect the identified threatened
species must be given high priority. There must
be a balance between conservation of plants
and vertebrates, which attract public sympathy,
and the protection of MMRNP where threatened
species of arthropod are still abundant. Every
stakeholder may play an important role in the
conservation of arthropod habitats. In view of
this, arthropod researchers have strong support
for any conservation measures for plants and
vertebrates. Meanwhile, with the knowledge that
management initiatives are targeted to help
preserve certain plant and vertebrate species
in the park, the local people and development
managers should be informed of the threatened
arthropod species within. A continuous
monitoring for the population of the threatened
arthropod species must be implemented. 

25
Arthropod Faunal Diversity and Relevant Interrelationships of Critical Resources in Mt. Malindang
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