Myrna G. Ballentes :: Alma B. Mohagan :: Victor P. Gapud Maria Catherine P. Espallardo :: Myrna O. Zarcilla



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Some  Phytophagous Species
Orthoptera:  grasshoppers
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
Figure 23. Phytophagous species of Orthoptera. Acrididae: A. Stenocatantops splendens, B.
Melicodes tenebrosa, C. Aiolopus thalassinus tamulus, D. Gesonula mundata  zonocera,
E. Oxya hyla intricata, F. Cranaella sp.Pyrgomorphidae: G. Attractomorpha psittacina.

26
Technical Report
Some Phytophagous Species
Hemiptera: true bugs
Figure 24.  Phytophagous species of Hemiptera. Acanthosomatidae: A. Sastragala sp.;
Coreidae: B. Homoeocerus immaculatus, C. 
Prionolomia
 expansa; Cydnidae:
D. 
Macroscytus
 
subaeneus; Pentatomidae: E. 
Alcimocoris 
lineolatus, F. Carbula
trabifera, G. Dalsira marginata, H. Hoplistodera convexa, I. Vitellus sp.;
Plataspidae: J. Brachyplatys deplanatus; Tessaratomidae: K. Pygoplatys sp.
                    A                                   B                                      C
  D
                    E                                   F                                      G
  H
               I
J                                        K

27
Arthropod Faunal Diversity and Relevant Interrelationships of Critical Resources in Mt. Malindang
Some Phytophagous Species
Coleoptera: beetles
Figure 25.  Phytophagous species of Coleoptera. Brenthidae: A. undet sp.; Chrysomelidae:
Cassidinae: B. Aspidomorpha miliaris; Hispinae: C. Agonita sp., D. Wallaceana sp.,
E. Promecotheca sp., F. Callispa sp.; Coccinellidae: G. Henosepilachna boisduvali,
H. Henosepilachna sp.; Elateridae: I. 
undet sp., J. Paracalais
 
sp.; Lagriidae: K. 
undet
sp., L. undet
. sp.; Scrabaeidae: M. Leucopholis sp., N. Anomala sp.
             A
 B
   C
  D
  E
F
G
 
 
H
 
 
I
 
J
 K
L                                   M
N

28
Technical Report
Some  Phytophagous Species
Lepidoptera: butterflies
A
B
C
D
E
F
Figure 26. Phytophagous species of Lepidoptera. Hesperiidae: A. Taractocera luzonensis
luzonensis; Nymphalidae: B. Athyma 
maenas s
emperi, C. Lexias panopus miscus,
D. Polyura 
athamas acuta;
 Papilionidae: E. Troides 
rhadamantus;
 Pieridae: F.
Eurema hecabe.

29
Arthropod Faunal Diversity and Relevant Interrelationships of Critical Resources in Mt. Malindang
Some Predaceous Species
Mantodea: preying mantis
Figure  27.  Predatory species. Mantodea: Mantidae: A. Deroplatyinae, undet sp.; 
Mantinae:
B. undet sp., C. undet sp., D. undet sp.; Coleoptera: Coccinellidae: E. Cheilomenes
sexmaculatus, F. Coccinella transversalis, G. Coccinella sp. 3, H. 
Harmonia sp.
;
Cicindelidae: I. Therates fasciatus, J. Tricondyla cyanipes elongata; Lampyridae:
K. undet sp.; Lycidae: L. undet sp.; M. undet sp.
     A
    B
C
D
Coleoptera: beetles
     E                                 F                                     G                                  H
              I                             J                              K
 L
M

30
Technical Report
Some Predaceous Species
Hymenoptera: wasps          
                                     
   Araneida: spiders
Figure 28. Predatory species of Hymenoptera. Vespidae: a.
 Ropalidia
 sp; Araneida: B. 
Nephila
 sp.
Some Pollinator Species
Hymenoptera: bees
A                                               B                                                 C
D
   E
           F
Lepidoptera: butterflies
Figure 29. Pollinator species.  Hymenoptera: Apidae: A. Apis cerana, B. Apis dorsata; Anthophoridae:
C. Xylocopa sp.; Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: D. Danaus 
melanippus
 edmondii, E. Ideopsis
gaura glaphyra; Pieridae: F. Eurema alitha alitha.
           B
           A

31
Arthropod Faunal Diversity and Relevant Interrelationships of Critical Resources in Mt. Malindang
Some Scavengers/Fungivorous Species
Coleoptera: beetles
A
B
  C
        D
        E
Figure 30.  Scavengers/Fungivorous species of Coleoptera. Lucanidae: A. Dorcus sp.,
B. 
Prosopocoilus
 romeoi; Passalidae: C. 
undet
 sp.; Scarabaeidae: D. Taeniodera sp.,
E. Cetoniinae sp. 1.
Some Xyloborous Species
Coleoptera: beetles (long-horned beetles)
Figure 31.  Xyloborous species of Coleoptera. Cerambycidae: A. Asthates sp., B. Cereopsius sp.,
C. Pelargoderus near alcanor, D. Glenea beatrix, E. Mimoplacia diversenotata.
A                           B                               C
   D
E

32
Technical Report
The arthropod fauna study was conducted in
10 barangays in the municipalities of Don
Victoriano, Lopez Jaena and Calamba, and the
City of Oroquieta. The sites were categorized
into vegetation types like mossy, montane,
almaciga, submontane dipterocarp, mixed
dipterocarp, lowland dipterocarp, mixed lowland
dipterocarp and plantation or degraded forests,
and the agroecosystem which includes the agro-
forest, vegetable, cereals, and grass-dominated
fallowed communities. 
The study was conducted to attain the following
objectives: (1) to identify the arthropod faunal
species in the forest and agroecosystems in
Mt. Malindang, (2) to determine the arthropod
faunal species richness and endemism, (3) to
identify the biodiversity parameters for designing
appropriate conservation and management
schemes of critical resources, (4) to assess
the impact of socioeconomic-cultural activities
on the arthropod biodiversity resource use, (5)
to harmonize indigenous knowledge system (IKS)
in designing monitoring system for arthropod
diversity resource use and conservation
practices, (6) to organize a network of
stakeholders in various communities for the
implementation of scientifically harmonized IKS
monitoring and conservation practices, (7) to
promote awareness on arthropod resource
diversity and conservation, and (8) to develop
additional integrated development and
biodiversity conservation strategies in local
biodiversity conservation for local communities.
Arthropods have variable responses to weather
and often highly seasonal, making it difficult to
determine if the variation of the population
obtained from the different sites was due to
sampling variation or part of the normal
fluctuation. Nonetheless, in collaboration with
the other studies under the BRP Terrestrial
Ecosystem Master Project (TEMP), especially
the flora group, methodologies were revised/
improved from time to time to obtain a more or
less accurate and unbiased picture of the
arthropod composition and population in the
sites. The location of the 1 x 1 m quadrat for
example, was no longer established strictly at
the upper right corner of the 20 x 20 m plot but
Summary
at any ideal site within the plot. An ideal quadrat
is the site which somewhat represents the
features of the entire plot.
Among the other employed local controls was
the visual counting of the arthropods within
the quadrat ahead of the vegetation sampling
of the flora group to minimize escape of active
species. The systematic sweep net sampling
was somehow standardized since it was carried
out by the same personnel. The collaborative
efforts of the members of the flora group in the
familiarization of arthropods had increased input
to the data, especially in the opportunistic and
transect walk sampling.
A total of 741 arthropod species in 340 genera,
135 families, 21 orders, and 5 classes were
inventoried. The 5 classes include Insecta,
Arachnida, Crustacea, Diplopoda, and Chilopoda.
The Class Insecta made up the biggest bulk of
arthropods with Orders Coleoptera (beetles and
weevils), Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, and
Araneida comprising 78.37 percent of the
species.
Arthropod species diversity was higher in the
forest ecosystem than in the agroecosystem.
When treated per vegetation and per site,
diversity was highest in the mixed dipterocarp
forest, specifically at Peniel, Lopez Jaena with
82 restricted species (60% beetles) out of 316
species.
In terms of species composition, three major
clusters of similarity among vegetation types
are discernible: a) five agroecosystem sites in
Gandawan, Mansawan, Lake Duminagat,
Mamalad, and Mialen with arthropods most
similar between Gandawan and Mansawan; b)
montane-mossy forest and agrocereal grass-
dominated type and almaciga forest in Sebucal;
and c) mixed lowland dipterocarp-plantation
forests, agrocereal agroforest, and mixed
dipterocarp forest. Three vegetation types
appeared to show little species similarities among
each other or with any of the three clusters,
namely, the lowland dipterocarp forest (Mialen),
submontane dipterocarp forest (Mt. Capole),
and agrocereal grass-dominated system (Peniel).

33
Arthropod Faunal Diversity and Relevant Interrelationships of Critical Resources in Mt. Malindang
The following conclusions are drawn from the
results of the study:

With the voluminous arthropod species in
Mt. Malindang, some species are still
undescribed and unidentified.

An estimate of 741 arthropod species in this
current inventory ignores the canopy and
litter arthropod species, therefore, more
species are yet to be accounted. The
association of endemic arthropod species
with endemic host plants show coexistence
of these organisms.
Conclusions

The generally higher arthropod species
diversity in forest ecosystems (specifically
the mixed dipterocarp forest) than in the
agroecosystem is a manifestation of higher
habitat and food resource diversity in the
forest. There is no established pattern
between diversity and altitude. The
proximity of vegetation types provides higher
percentage similarity of arthropod species.

Knowledge on arthropod resource use is
minimal and is limited to species with direct
economic importance like honeybees and
crabs. Arthropods, especially insects, are
generally viewed as destructive organisms.
Proportional representation of the trophic guilds
of the selected taxa indicated biggest proportion
of the phytophagous, followed by the
predaceous, pollinators, ants, parasitoids,
scavengers, and xyloborous species.
The honeybee, Apis cerana is a well-known
source of honey. Other arthropods providing
direct benefits include larvae and adults of
coconut beetle as food, termites and naiads of
Odonata as fish baits, and ants as “biocontrol
agents” (as an attractant) against cabbage
worms.
Bits of indigenous knowledge on arthropods were
gathered. A few examples include uses of honey,
butterfly color symbols, “weather forecasting”
by kalong (crab), and ritual for tree blooms for
honeybee foraging, and predation of a vespid
wasp, Ropalidia sp. on the larvae of diamondback
moth. 
An over all species endemism was assessed at
9 percent. Out of 67 (mostly curculionid beetles)
endemic arthropod species, at least 21 species
are associated with 18 endemic host plants,
indicating urgency of conservation efforts. These
endemic species are probably new species and
new records, which remain undescribed.

The following recommendations are provided:

Taxonomic identification of the still
unidentified species is necessary. It is
suggested that further study along this
aspect should be conducted to have a more
detailed inquiry of all the species of the
different groups.

More collection efforts should be exerted to
obtain year round samples of arthropods
which should include canopy and litter
arthropod species. Promotion of life history
studies of selected groups for biodiversity
conservation is also recommended.
Conservation of endemic host plants is
necessary to conserve endemic arthropods
as well.
Recommendations

Species diversity should be maintained or
increased, taking into consideration, the
plant architecture in the area. Structurally
complex plants support more species due
to greater diversity of habitat and food
resource.

Information dissemination regarding
arthropod resource use is recommended.
Posters, brochures, films, exhibits, and other
IEC materials should be developed for
awareness campaigns on the importance of
arthropods and biodiversity. These materials
should also include information on the current
status of economic species, endemic
species, beneficial and destructive species
of arthropods in Mt. Malindang Range
Natural Park. 
34
Technical Report

Altieri, M.A. and C.I. Nicholls. 2005. Designing species-rich, pest-suppressive agroecosystem through
habitat management. http://agroeco.org/brasil/materials/designing_species.htm.
Baltazar, C.R. 2001. Directions of systematic entomology in the Philippines. In: I.R. Lit, Jr. 2004.
Documenting biodiversity minus the most diverse group?: The status, problems and prospects
of arthropod taxonomy and taxonomists in the Philippines. Research reports for the National
Institute for the Environmental Studies, Japan 175: 262-270.
Bielawski, R. 1965. A review of the Philippine species of the genus Henosepilachna Li & Cook (Coleoptera,
Coccinellidae). Pol. Pismo ent., Wroclaw 35: 535-553, figs.
Brusca, R.C. and G.J. Brusca. 2003. Invertebrates. 2
nd
 ed. Sinower Associates, Inc., USA. 
Campbell, N.A., J.B. Reece, and L.G. Mitchell. 2000. Biology. Pearson Education Asia, Singapore. 1175
pp.
Ceniza, M.J.C. 1995. Arthropod abundance and diversity in different ecosystems of Mount Pangasugan,
Baybay, Leyte, Philippines with special reference to the Coleoptera and Hymenoptera fauna.
PLITS 13 (3).
Daly, H.V., J.T. Doyen, and A.H. Purcell III. 1998. Introduction to Insect Biology and Diversity. 2
nd
 ed.
Oxford University Press, USA.
Gapud, V.P. 2005. The status of insect biodiversity in the Philippines. Samu’t-sari 4(1):2-5.
Gapud, V.P., A.T. Barrion, V.J. Calilung, L.A. Corpuz-Raros, I.L. Lit Jr., H. Zettel, and O. Zamora. 2001.
Status report: Biodiversity of Philippine arthropoda. The Arthropod Working Group for the
DENR-PAWB-UP CIDS-FPE Biodiversity Conservation Priority Setting Project. 52 pp.
Gullan, R.J. and P.S. Cranston. 2000. The insects. An outline of Entomology. 2
nd
 ed. Blackwen Science
Ltd., Oxford. 476 pp.
Lawrence, L. 2004. Arthropods: The glue of habitat and the role of insects and arthropods. CSIRO
Environmental Research, Australia. http://www.szdocent.org/ff/f-arth3.htm.
Madge, R., M. Cox, R. Booth, T.G. Vazirani, and E.A.J. Duffy. 2000. Coleoptera: Guide to insects of
importance to man. International Institute of Entomology, UK.
Olber, R.M., K.R. Venator, and A.M. Wothington. 2000. Pursuit and inception in dragonflies. Journal of
Physiology. Sensory Neural and Behavior Physiology. 186: 155-162.
Perlman, D.L. and D. Paskowitz. 1998. Conservation and biodiversity of insects. In: W.L. Romoser and
J.G. Stoffolano. 1998. The Science of Entomology. WCB/McGraw-Hill, USA.
Pollinator Declines. 2001. 
http://pollinator.nbii.gov/declines.html.
Quicke, D.L.G. 2003. Parasitic wasps. http://www.wkap.nl/prod/blo-42-583350-xalises.
Triplehorn, C.A. and N.F. Johnson. 2005. Borror and Delong’s introduction to the study of insects. 7
th
ed. Thomson Learning, USA.
Literature Cited
35
Arthropod Faunal Diversity and Relevant Interrelationships of Critical Resources in Mt. Malindang

36
Technical Report
Trueman, J.W.H. and R.J. Row. 2001. Odonata: Dragonflies and damselflies. http://tolweb.org/
tree?group= odonata&contgroup=pterygota.

37
Arthropod Faunal Diversity and Relevant Interrelationships of Critical Resources in Mt. Malindang
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
Anisoptera
Aesnidae
Tetracanthagyna  sp.
nr.  brunnea
Corduliidae
Heteronaias
heterodoxa
Gomphidae
Heliogomphus
bakeri
Libellulidae
Crocothemis
servilia
Diplacina braueri
Diplacodes trivialis
Nannophya
pygmea
Neurothemis
ramburii
Neurothemis
terminata
Orthetrum
pruinosum clelia
Orthetrum sabina
Plantala flavescens
Rhyothemis  sp.
Thrithemis aurora
Thrithemis festiva
Zygoptera
Amphipterygidae
Devadatta
podolestoides
basilanensus
2
1
2
Appendix Table 1.  Odonata species at different vegetation types in Mt. Malindang Range Natural Park (MMRNP).
1
1
2
8
100
1
2
2
1
100
1
1
1
2
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
Species
Mossy
Forest
Montane
Forest
Almaciga
Forest
Submontane
Dipterocarp
 Forest
Lowland
Dipterocarp
 Forest
Mixed
Dipterocarp
 Forest
Mixed
Lowland
Dipterocarp
 Forest
Spp.
No.
1
4
1
1
1
2
Plantation
and
Degraded
 Forest
Agro-
ecosystem

38
Technical Report
Appendix Table 1  continued...
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
Calopterygidae
Vestalis melania
Chlorocyphidae
Cyrano angustior
Rhinocypha
dorsosanguinea
Rhinocypha turconii
Coenagrionidae
Pseudagrion
pilidorsum
Pseudagrion  sp.
Euphaeidae
Euphaea amphicyana
Platycnemididae
Coeliccia
dinoceras
Risiocnemis
appendiculata
Risiocnemis
(Igneocnemis)
flammea
Risiocnemis
(Igneocnemis) sp.
Protoneuridae
Prodasineura integra
TOTAL
SPECIES
DIVERSITY
1
6
0.577
2
0.301
110
0.152
1
1
3
2
113
0.255
1
1
2
1
4
1
1
1
23
1.152
1
1
2
7
0.759
1
2
2
10
0.639
1
1
7
0.759
0
0
Species
Mossy
Forest
Montane
Forest
Almaciga
Forest
Submontane
Dipterocarp
 Forest
Lowland
Dipterocarp
 Forest
Mixed
Dipterocarp
 Forest
Mixed
Lowland
Dipterocarp
 Forest
Plantation
and
degraded
 Forest
Agro-
ecosystem
Spp.
No.

39
Arthropod Faunal Diversity and Relevant Interrelationships of Critical Resources in Mt. Malindang
Species
Mossy
Forest
Montane
Forest
Almaciga
Forest
Submontane
Dipterocarp
 Forest
Lowland
Dipterocarp
 Forest
Mixed
Dipterocarp
 Forest
Mixed
Lowland
Dipterocarp
 Forest
Plantation
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