Myrtaceae, a new species from Cofre de Perote volcano slopes in Veracruz, México



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Phytotaxa 286 (4): 291–296

http://www.mapress.com/j/pt/

Copyright © 2016 Magnolia Press

Article

PHYTOTAXA

ISSN 1179-3155 (print edition)

ISSN 1179-3163 (online edition)

Accepted by Marcos Sobral: 2 Oct. 2016; published: 5 Dec. 2016

http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.286.4.8



291

Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Eugenia naraveana (Myrtaceae), a new species from Cofre de Perote volcano 

slopes in Veracruz, México

MIGUEL CHÁZARO-BASÁÑEZ¹ & ANTONIO FRANCISCO-GUTIÉRREZ²



¹ Universidad Veracruzana, Facultad de Biología, Laboratorio de Vida Silvestre, Circuito Universitario Gonzalo Aguirre Beltrán s/n, 

Zona Universitaria, 91000, Xalapa, Veracruz, México. E-mail: chazaro55@hotmail.com

² Instituto de Ecología A.C., Red de Biodiversidad y Sistemática, Carretera Antigua a Coatepec 351, El Haya, 91070, Xalapa, Veracruz, 

México. E-mail: antoniofco52@gmail.com

Abstract

The new species Eugenia naraveana is described and illustrated here. It is only known at the windward slopes of Cofre de 

Perote volcano, and it grows in the upper tropical montane cloud forest. Its closest relatives are Eugenia sotoesparzae and 

Eugenia mexicana, but they differ from the new species because they grow in tropical perennial forests and coastal dunes, in 

addition to the differences in their morphological structures. This new species breaks the typical altitude range of Eugenia in 

Veracruz, Mexico, being registered above 2,100 up to 2,600 meters.

Key words: Acajete, Coatepec, endemic species, Flora of Veracruz

Resumen

La nueva especie Eugenia naraveana es descrita e ilustrada aquí. Sólo se conoce en las colinas de barlovento del volcán 

Cofre de Perote, creciendo en el bosque mesófilo superior. Sus congéneres más estrechamente relacionados son Eugenia 

sotoesparzae y Eugenia mexicana, pero difieren de la nueva especie porque crecen en el bosque tropical perennifolio y en 

dunas costeras, además de las diferencias en sus estructuras morfológicas. Esta nueva especie rompe el rango altitudinal 

típico de Eugenia en Veracruz, México, siendo registrada por encima de los 2,100 hasta los 2,600 metros.

Palabras clave: Acajete, Coatepec, especie endémica, Flora de Veracruz



Introduction

Eugenia P.Micheli ex Linnaeus (1753a: 470) is placed in tribe Myrteae, and is the largest Neotropical genus of 

Myrtaceae, with ca. 1,100 species recognized (Mazine et al. 2014, WCSP 2016), far away from the 2,000 species 

mentioned by Sánchez-Vindas (1990). Their distribution covers from Southern México through Central America until 

Uruguay & Argentina (Mazine et al. 2014, van der Merwe et al. 2005). México has 80 species of Eugenia (Monroy-

Ortiz & Monroy 2006) and the revision of the Flora of Veracruz state, in Eastern Mexico, registered 25 species, eight 

of them endemic for this state (Sánchez-Vindas 1990).

 

Recently, some species of Eugenia have been described for the states of Hidalgo, Querétaro (Sánchez-Chávez 



& Zamudio 2016) and Chiapas in Mexico, besides of the large number of species described by Barrie (2005) for 

Mesoamerica.

 

The Cofre de Perote volcano is located in western Veracruz, and its eastern slopes harbors various zones of 



undisturbed cloud forest. The new species was found in the upper montane cloud forest proposed by Williams-Linera 

et al. (2013). It is a remarkable date because the cloud forest is highly endangered by human activities and remains 

only approximately less than 10% of its original area (Williams-Linera et al. 2002).

 

During field trips carried by M. Cházaro, Luis Tapia and Patricia Hernández in 1987 along the windward slopes of 



Cofre de Perote volcano, was collected a species of Eugenia that does not coincide with the previously documented.

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Material and methods

Material from CICY, ENCB, MEXU and XAL herbaria were examined (acronyms according to Thiers 2016). 

Morphological analysis was performed in flowers and fruits preserved in 50% ethanol for drawings. Additionally, 

measurements were made of dried herbarium specimens using stereoscopic microscope at XAL herbarium. After 

morphological analysis and comparison with related species the specimens were assigned into a new species.

Taxonomy

Eugenia naraveana Cházaro & Franc.Gut. sp. nov. Figures 1 and 2; map 1.

FIGURE 1. Eugenia naraveana: A. habit, B. flower, C. fruit, D. hypanthium, E. quadrangular staminal disc with sepals and style, F. petal, 

G. floral bud. Illustration by A. Francisco (A from Cházaro & Hernández 4676, XAL —paratype; B, D, E, F, G from A. Francisco et al



110, XAL —holotype; C from Cházaro et al. 10735, XAL —paratype). 

Eugenia naraveana is most similar to E. sotoesparzae P.E. Sánchez (Sánchez Vindas 1986: 139) and E. mexicana Steudel (1840: 603); 

it can be distinguished from E. sotoesparzae by its smaller leaves up to 9.5 cm (up to 14.2 cm in E. sotoesparzae), quadrangular 

staminal disc (circular in E. sotoesparzae), fruits up to 3.4 cm wide (up to 2.3 cm in E. sotoesparzae) and its altitude of 2,100 up 

to 2,600 meters (0 up to 50 meters in E. sotoesparzae), and it is distinguished from E. mexicana by its inflorescence (fascicle vs. 



EUGENIA NARAVEANA (MYRTACEAE)

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raceme in E. mexicana), larger fruits to 4.3 × 3.4 cm (up to 2.5 × 2.7 cm in E. mexicana) and quadrangular staminal disc (circular in 



E. mexicana).

Type:—MEXICO. Veracruz: Coatepec, Tierra Grande en el camino hacia La Yerbabuena, 19º30’35.90”, –97º02’59.94”, 2462 m, 16 April 

2016, fl., A. Francisco 110, M. Cházaro, H. Narave, A. Lobato & E. García. (holotype XAL!; isotypes CHAPA!, CICY!, CORU!, 

ENCB!, MEXU!, WTU!).



FIGURE 2Eugenia naraveana: A. Inflorescence with mature flowers and floral buds, B. Fruit and seeds, C. Immature fruits, D. Leaves, 

E. Bark behind moss covering. Photographs A, B, D & E: A. Francisco, C: J.L. Ramírez-Pacheco.



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Trees, 8–10 m tall, trunk very branched, bark striated, yellowish to pink. Leaves oblong-elliptic to elliptic or rarely 

lanceolate, 5.7–11.6 × 2.2–5.5 cm, subcoriaceous, glabrous in both surfaces, apex acute to obtuse or rarely shortly 

acuminate; base decurrent; midvein lightly impressed to canaliculate in upper surface and prominent in lower surface; 

lateral veins 7–13 at each side, leaving the midvein at angles of 60–70º; marginal vein 2–5 mm from the margin, bright 

green. Inflorescence 1–2 axillary fascicles per node, 15–18 mm long. Pedicels cylindrical 6–12 × 1–2.6 mm, bracteoles 

ovate, 0.1–0.13 × 0.67–0.15 cm, glabrous, bright green. Flowers 3–16 per fascicle, verticillate; floral buds globose 

4.5–6 × 3–4.5 mm; flowers anthesis with pleasant fragrance citric-like scent; sepals 4, ovate-deltoid, 3–4.1 × 2.8–3.4 

mm, apex obtuse, glabrous and persistent, bright green with red margin when immature; petals 4, orbicular, 4.6–9 × 

8.7–9 mm, apex obtuse, white, with circular glandules, glabrous; hypanthium campanulate to slightly infundibuliform, 

2.6–3.4 × 4–4.2 mm, pubescent with few strigose hairs; staminal disc quadrangular, 3–5 mm wide, glabrous; stamens 

70–131, 4.6–5.7 mm long, anthers 0.85–1 × 0.4–0.45 mm; ovary bilocular, 8–13 ovules, each 0.4–0.5 × 0.3–0.35 mm; 

style 7.5–9.7 × 0.4–0.5 mm. Fruit a subglobose drupe, 1.1–4.3 × 0.9–3.4 cm, yellowish to orange when immature and 

red to dark purple when mature, with 1 or rarely 2 spheroid seeds. 

FIGURE 3Eugenia naraveana: Distribution map.

 

Geographic distribution & ecology:—Only known in a few sites in Acajete and Coatepec counties in the southern 

slopes of Cofre de Perote volcano at central Veracruz, in eastern Mexico. This species occurs in the upper tropical montane 

cloud forest with Symplocos longipes Lundell (1986: 123), S. coccinea Bonpland (1808: 185) (Symplocaceae), Drimys 



granadensis Linnaeus filius (1781[1782]: 269) (Winteraceae), Weinmannia intermedia Schlechtendal & Chamisso 

(1830: 555) (Cunoniaceae), species of Quercus Linnaeus (1753b: 994) (Fagaceae), Ptelea trifoliata Linnaeus (1753a: 

118) (Rutaceae), and with abundant epiphytic plants as Oreopanax flaccidus Marchal (1879: 84) (Araliaceae), Senecio 

parasiticus Hemsley (1881: 244) (Asteraceae), Aporocactus flagelliformis Linnaeus (1753a: 467) Lemaire (1860: 68) 

(Cactaceae), Tillandsia violacea Baker (1887a: 279), T. gymnobotrya Baker (1887b: 243) (Bromeliaceae), Cochlioda 



rosea Lindley (1844: 151) Bentham (1881: 327) and Prosthechea vitellina Lindley (1831: 97) W.E. Higgins (1997: 381) 

EUGENIA NARAVEANA (MYRTACEAE)

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(Orchidaceae), etc. The unusual altitude range where it was found from 2,100 to 2,600 m elev. is much higher than the 

previously reported maximum elevation for the species of Eugenia of Veracruz, which is 1,800 meters (Sánchez-Vindas 

1990), besides the other morphological characters from congeners of Veracruz, which are compared in Table 1.

 

Phenology:—Flowers are recorded from April, fruits from September to December.

 

Vernacular names:—“Guayabo” (Macario Córdova-Cortina, pers. comm., 2015). 

 

Etymology:—It is a pleasure to name this new species in honor to Héctor Narave-Flores, a Mexican botanist 

pioneer in the floristic research of Cofre de Perote volcano during 1980 decade, publishing the unique botanical study 

for this area (Narave 1985). He also made contributions to the Flora of Veracruz with the taxonomic treatments of 

Junglandaceae (Narave 1983), Turneraceae (Gama et al. 1985) and Pinaceae (Narave & Taylor 1997).



TABLE 1. Comparison of morphological features of E. naraveana and the most similar species of the genus from Veracruz 

State, Mexico.



E. naraveana

E. sotoesparzae

E. mexicana

Leaf length

5.7–9.5 cm

4.1–14.2 cm

5.5–14.5 cm

Leaf shape

lanceolate to elliptic or oblong-

elliptic


elliptic to ovate

elliptic to ovate-elliptic

Inflorescence 

fascicle


umbella or fascicle

raceme robust

Flowers per inflorescence 

3–16 


2–8

1–8


Disc shape 

quadrangular

circular

circular


Disc size

4–4.2 mm per side

3.5–5.2 mm ø

3–4 mm ø


Stamens

Fruit length

131

1.1–4.3 cm



150–180

1.3–4 cm


125–150

1.3–2.5 cm

Fruit diameter

0.9–3.4 cm

0.9–2.3 cm

1.2–2.7 cm

Habitat

Cloud forest



Coastal dunes

Tropical rain forest

Altitude

2100–2600 m

0–50 m

150–1300 m



 

Paratypes:—MÉXICO. Veracruz: Coatepec, Cerro Huilotepec, entre Mesa de Los Laureles y Tierra Blanca 

[Tierra Grande], 2600 m, 19 April 1987 (fl.), Cházaro & Hernández 4676 (WIS, XAL!); Coatepec, Cerro Huilotepec, 

entre Mesa de Los Laureles y Tierra Blanca [Tierra Grande], 27 December 1987 (fr.), Cházaro et al. 5276 (WIS, 

XAL!); Acajete, Cuchuluyapan, alrededor de la cascada El Capote, 2 km N de El Zapotal, 2100 m, 26 September 

2010 (fr.), Cházaro et al. 9898 (ENCB!, IBUG!, IEB!, CHAPA!, MEXU!, XAL!); Coatepec, Mesa de los Laureles, 08 

October 2014 (fr.), Cházaro et al. 10735 (XAL!, XALU!, CORU!, CICY!, CHAPA!); Acajete, El Encinal II, Ejido San 

Pedro Buenavista, 2,500 m, 21 October 2012, fr., I. Cortés-Flores 50 (CHAPA!, CICY!, ENCB!, MEXU!, XAL!).

Acknowledgments

Thanks to Patricia Hernández, José Luis Tapia-Muñoz, and Silvia Hernández-A. for helping and companionship in the 

field trips in 1987, and Ángel Morales, from Acajete, Veracruz, for field guidance during the botanical explorations 

carried it out in 2010 to 2012, and Macario Córdova-Cortina, Jerónimo Vázquez-Ramírez, Isauro Cortés-Flores and 

José Luis Ramírez-Pacheco in 2015. We are grateful to Sergio Avendaño-Reyes of XAL Herbarium for permission to 

measure the species, and Dr. Domingo Canales, chief of the Biology-Agropecuarial Area, Universidad Veracruzana, at 

Xalapa, Veracruz, for academic and logistic support. Thanks to Erick Tenorio-Osorio for graphical assistance. Miguel 

Cházaro thanks the SNI-CONACYT for financial support and José Rangel for ease the transportation to type locality. 

Antonio Francisco thanks the CONACYT´s 587420 MsC scholarship.

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