Myzus persicae

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Sungryung Kim, Hongseok Oh, Woon-Seok Yeo. Analysis of alkanethiolates on gold with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-fl ight mass spectrometry. J. Korean Soc. Appl. Biol. Chem. 58(1):1-8

Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been effectively utilized in the analysis of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold, which comprise a broad range of research activities at interfaces, including chip-based sensors, various assay and drug delivery systems, and basic cell research. This review provides an overview of the most recent literatures regarding the use of MALDI-TOF MS as a tool for the surface analysis of SAMs on gold, with a particular focus on bioanalytical applications. Several seminal papers are also briefly discussed.

Ji-Yeon Yang, Sang-Min Lee, Hoi-Seon Lee. Phototactic behavior 6: behavioral responses of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) to light-emitting diodes. J. Korean Soc. Appl. Biol. Chem. 58(1):9-12

The behavioral responses of Myzus persicae adults to light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were evaluated under optimal conditions (luminance intensities, light exposure times, and specific wavelengths). Based on the attraction rate (%) of M. persicae adults under optimal conditions, the green LED (520 ± 5 nm) showed the highest potential attraction rate (85.3 %), followed by the blue (470 ± 10 nm, 75.0 %), yellow (590 ± 5 nm, 73.7 %), and red LED (625 ± 10 nm, 69.7 %). The green LED (520 ± 5 nm) was approximately 1.4 times (61.7 %) more attractive than that of a black light bulb, which served as the positive control. In conclusion, the green LED (520 ± 5 nm) was suitable for attracting M. persicae adults under optimal conditions (40 lx and 120 min).

Yeonjoong Yong, Soon Young Shin, Yearam Jung, Hyeryoung Jung, Seunghyun Ahn, Youhoon Chong, Yoongho Lim. Flavonoids activating adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase. J. Korean Soc. Appl. Biol. Chem. 58(1):13-19

Eighteen flavonoids were tested as adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activators. The AMPK activation induced by kaempferide was 1.75 times better than the value obtained at 100 % AMPK phosphorylation. Western blotting analysis of kaempferide demonstrated that it increased the phosphorylation of AMPK in vitro. In silico docking results carried out to elucidate the binding mode between kaempferide and AMPK showed the docking pose of kaempferide in the binding site of AMPK was similar to that of the substrate contained in the crystallographic structure of AMPK. Flavonoids, including kaempferide, are promising potential AMPK activators.

Da Yeon Kim, So-Hyun Kim, Hye Min Ahn, Sa Rang Lim, Junsang Oh, Seulgi Choi,

Hong-Jin Le, Joong-Hyuck Auh, Hyung-Kyoon Choi. Differentiation of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) fruit cultivars by GC–MS-based metabolic profiling. J. Korean Soc. Appl. Biol. Chem. 58(1):21-28

Highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) are cultivated worldwide for their fruit with unique taste and potential health benefits. Blueray, Bluecrop, and Spartan are prominent among the various blueberry cultivars. We performed gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–

MS)-based metabolic profiling to differentiate the fruits of these three cultivars, and built an optimal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model to separate them. Amino acids, fatty acids, organic acids, phenolic compounds, and sugars were identified in the fruits. The

optimized PLS-DA model for different cultivars of the fruits was obtained by selecting variables based on a variable importance in the projection (VIP) cut-off value of 1.0. Caffeic acid, aspartic acid, acetic acid, threonolactone, inositol, xylose, glucoside, linolenic acid, mannose, altrose, glycine alanine, and valine were found to be relevant and contributing compounds for differentiating cultivars. In addition, a hierarchical cluster analyses dendrogram pattern was correlated with the PLS-DA. This study suggested that GC–Msbased metabolic profiling coupled with multivariate statistical analysis could be used to differentiate the fruits of three major highbush blueberry cultivars.

Dong Uk Kim, Hee Jung Kim, Yu Seok Jeong, Han Beur Na, Young-Lok Cha, Bon-Cheol Koo, Jungho Kim, Han Dae Yun, Jung-Kul Lee, Hoon Kim. Enhanced saccharification of reed and rice straws by the addition of β-1,3-1,4-glucanase with broad substrate specificity and calcium Ion. J. Korean Soc. Appl. Biol. Chem. 58(1):29-33

The possibility of using additive enzymes to improve the saccharification of lignocellulosic substrates with commercial cellulolytic enzymes was studied. Reed (Phragmites communis) and rice (Oryza sativa) straw powders were pretreated with NaOH/steam via a hightemperature

explosion system. The saccharification of untreated reed and rice straw powders by commercial

enzymes (Celluclast 1.5 L + Novozym 188) was not significantly increased by the addition of xylanases (Xyn10J, XynX), a cellulase (Cel6H), and a β-1,3-1,4-glucanase (BGlc8H) with broad substrate specificity. The saccharification of the pretreated reed and rice straw powders by the

commercial enzymes was increased by 10.4 and 4.8 %, respectively, by the addition of BGlc8H. In the presence of Ca2+ and BGlc8H, the saccharification of the pretreated reed and rice straw powders by the commercial enzymes was increased by 18.5 and 11.7 %, respectively. No such

effect of Ca2+ was observed with Xyn10J, XynX, or Cel6H. The results suggest that the enzymatic conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to reducing sugars could be enhanced by certain additive enzymes such as b-1,3-1,4-glucanase, and that the enhancement could further be increased by Ca2+.

Kee Sung Kyung , Ki Chang Ahn, Jeong Wook Kwon, Yong Pil Lee, Eun Young Lee, Yun Jeong Kim, Fritz Führ, Jae Koo Lee. Long-term fate of the herbicide mefenacet in a rice-grown lysimeter over a period of 6 consecutive years. J. Korean Soc. Appl. Biol. Chem. 58(1):35-43

To show the long-term fate of the herbicide mefenacet in rice paddies, [aniline-14C]mefenacet was applied to a lysimeter of loamy soil with a depth of 1 m, and rice plants were cultivated for 6 consecutive years according to the conventional methods in Korea. Mineralization of [14C] mefenacet to 14CO2 and volatilization from the soil surface were 12.01 and 0.02 %, respectively, of the originally applied amount during the first 23 weeks following application. Throughout the 6-year period, the total proportion of 14C-radioactivity that leached through the lysimeter soil was 0.778 % of the original radioactivity. The total 14C-radioactivity absorbed and translocated by rice plants throughout the 6 years was 2.46 % of the applied 14C. Measurement of the 14C-radioactivity distributed in each part of the rice plant (the straw, the ears without rice grain, the chaff, and the brown rice grain) indicated that the amount of 14C in straw was 25.87 times higher than that in brown rice grain over the 6 years. The 14C-radioactivity remaining in the soil layer after 6 years was 44.58 % of that applied, 91.45 % of which was distributed in the upper 0–20-cm layer. These results strongly indicate that mefenacet moved downward very slowly and more than half of the herbicide applied was released into the air, mainly through mineralization to CO2 in soil during the experimental period.

J. K. Kim, E. C. Shin, H. G. Park. Fructooligosaccharides decreased the ability of probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 to adhere to co-cultures of human intestinal cell lines. J. Korean Soc. Appl. Biol. Chem. 58(1):45-52

In the present study, we investigated effects of prebiotic fructooligosaccharides (FOS) on the ability of Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN), a probiotic bacterial strain, to adhere to co-cultures of human intestinal cells (Caco-2 and HT29-MTX). For the bacterial adhesion assay, the co-cultures were seeded together at a ratio of 3:1 and then incubated EcN in the presence of various prebiotics including FOS. To eliminate possible bias, both manual and automated cell counting methods were utilized. In results, FOS significantly suppressed the adhesion abilities of probiotic EcN to the co-cultures. Taken altogether, we carefully suggest that an unbalanced supplementation of prebiotics may adversely impact on gut microflora; hence, further investigations are warranted in regards to such unexpected adverse effects and responsible mechanisms on colonization of probiotics in the gastrointestinal tract utilizing in vivo models.

Soyoung Lee, Han-Seung Shin. Effect of lotus seed and seedpod extracts on oxidative stability against lard during storage. J. Korean Soc. Appl. Biol. Chem. 58(1):53-60

The total phenolic and total proanthocyanidin contents of six kinds of seed and seedpod extracts of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertner) were investigated. The inhibitory effects of the edible extracts including 80 % ethanol and water from lotus seeds (LS) and lotus seedpods (LSP) against lard were evaluated by determining acid value, peroxide value, and TBARS during storage at 10 °C for 14 days. Total phenolic contents of the LS water, LSP water, and LS 80 % ethanol extracts were 469.175, 313.842, and 359.008 mg CE/g dry weight, and the proanthocyanidin contents of the LSP water, LSP 80 % ethanol, and LS 80 % ethanol were 76.526, 68.526, and 40.896 mg CE/g dry weight at a concentration of 1.0 mg/mL, respectively. In a storage stability test, the LSP water fraction provided the antioxidant effect against lard. The high lipid oxidation inhibition effect of the LSP water fraction might be useful as a natural antioxidant in food.

Young Hwa Kim, Jae Woong Lee, Sungwook Chae, Sang Ho Moon, Eui Jeong Do, Seung Eun Oh, Gui Jun Zhang, Mi Young Lee. Development of a PCR-based assay to differentiate Cervus elaphus sibiricus from Cervus antlers. J. Korean Soc. Appl. Biol. Chem. 58(1):61-66

Deer antlers (Cervi Parvum Cornu) are reported to possess various pharmacological properties, including anti-infective, anti-arthritic, anti-allergic, and anti-endometriotic properties, and are credited with reversing memory impairment. To determine the global distribution of Cervus subspecies by analyzing antlers, 166 samples of Cervus subspecies antlers were collected from Russia, Canada, China, New Zealand, and Korea. The respective deer subspecies were identified by amplifying the D-loop region of mitochondrial DNA isolated from the antler samples. On the basis of the mitochondrial DNA sequence, a C. elaphus sibiricus-specific primer was developed that differentiates C. e. sibiricus from four C. e. subspecies (C. e. manitobensisC. e. nelsoniC. e. canadensis, and C. e. bactrianus), C. elaphus, and C. nippon. This was confirmed using agarose gel electrophoresis. This primer set produced a specific 396-bp fragment that amplified only C. e. sibiricus in antler samples. A 468-bp fragment derived from the cytochrome b gene was used as the internal control to verify the success of amplification in all samples. This method may assist in rapid and effective differentiation between products from Cervus species and other deer products.

In Hee Cho. Volatile compounds of ginseng (Panaxsp.): a review. J. Korean Soc. Appl. Biol. Chem. 58(1):67-75

The compositions of ginseng volatiles and their differences therein based on the species, cultivation age, and cultivation method are reviewed in this paper. Some sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (e.g., β-panasinsene, α-panasinsene, α-neoclovene, β-neoclovene, bicyclogermacrene, β-farnesene, aromadendrene, and (E)-caryophyllene) and sesquiterpene alcohols (e.g., (+)-spathulenol, ginsenol, panasinsenol A, and panasinsenol B) were reportedly the main volatile compounds of ginseng. The differences between ginseng species were mainly associated with sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and monoterpenes, such as α-selinene, α-terpinolene, β-bisabolene, β-phellandrene, β-sesquiphellandrene, zingiberene, germacrene D, limonene, α-gurjunene, (E)-caryophyllene, δ-cadinene, (E)-β-farnesene, α-humulene, bicyclogermacrene, longiborn-8-ene, β-neoclovene, and (+)-spathulenol. Also, the amounts of α-cadinol, α-bisabolol, thujopsene, and n-hexadecanoic acid significantly increased with the cultivation ages. Moreover, aromadendrene, calarene, β-panasinsene, (E)-caryophyllene, α-neoclovene, and α-farnensene contributed to the discrimination among ginsengs cultivated using different methods.

Soon Young Shin , Yeonjoong Yong , Dae Sun Hong, Da Hyun Lee, Da Young Lee, Young Han Lee. Identification of flavonoids from Eriodictyon californicum and their cytotoxicity against HCT116 colon cancer cells. J. Korean Soc. Appl. Biol. Chem. 58(1):77-81

The extract of Eriodictyon californicum has been widely used as an essential emollient, and as an anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antifungal agent. In this study, antitumor effects of E. californicum were evaluated against HCT116 human colon cancer cells. Treatment with the ethyl acetate extract of E. californicum (EEC) inhibited the short-term viability and long-term clonogenicity of HCT116 cells. We identified several flavonoids, including rosmarinic acid and luteolin, from the EEC by using high-performance liquid chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance. Luteolin inhibited clonogenicity, activated caspase-7, and induced apoptosis of HCT116 cells. These findings suggest that EEC contains bioactive flavonoids that exhibit antitumor activities.

Nak-Bum Song, Ji-Hyun Lee, Kyung Bin Song. Preparation of perilla seed meal protein composite films containing various essential oils and their application in sausage packaging. J. Korean Soc. Appl. Biol. Chem. 58(1):83-90

Perilla seed meal protein (PSMP) was extracted from perilla seed oil residue, and its composite films were developed using different amounts of red algae (RA) to prepare edible films. The PSMP composite film that contained 3 % RA had the highest tensile strength (11.52 MPa) and the lowest water vapor permeability (1.82 × 109 g m/m2 s Pa). The incorporation of clove oil into the PSMP composite film had the highest antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes. Pork sausages packaged with the composite films containing clove oil showed antimicrobial and antioxidative activities during storage at 4 °C. The composite film containing 1.2 % clove oil reduced the microbial growth by 1.24 log CFU/g compared to the control, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and peroxide values were reduced by 40 and 37 %, respectively. These results suggest that the PSMP/RA composite film containing 1.2 % clove oil can be utilized in sausage packaging.

Chinaka O. Nwaehujor , Rita I. Udegbunam, Julius O. Ode, Sunday O. Udegbunam. Analgesic anti-inflammatory anti-pyretic activities of Garcinia hydroxybiflavanonol (GB1) from Garcinia kola. J. Korean Soc. Appl. Biol. Chem. 58(1):91-96

This study was conducted to evaluate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-pyretic effects of GB1, a hydroxybiflavanonol of Garcinia kola. The analgesic effect was studied using acetic acid-induced writhing and tail withdrawal tests. Its anti-inflammatory effect was studied using carrageenan-induced paw edema and adjuvant-induced arthritis tests. Brewer’s yeast-induced pyrexia test was used to evaluate the anti-pyretic effect of GB1. GB1 reduced writhing induced by 0.6 % acetic acid. The number of writhing in 40- and 80-mg/kg GB1-treated groups were significantly lower than writhing in mice treated with distilled water. After 15-min latency period following oral GB1 (40 and 80 mg/kg), there was significant increase in tail withdrawal time compared to control rats. The tail withdrawal time at 30, 45, and 60 min were significantly prolonged in GB1 (20, 40, and 80 mg/kg) treated mice. GB1 (20, 40, and 80 mg/kg) groups had significantly lower paw volumes at 2 and 3 h post carrageenan injection. Also paw volume were significantly lower in GB1 (40 and 80 mg/kg) groups at 18 h post arthritis induction. By day 30 paw volumes of all GB1 groups were significantly lower than paw volume of control group. Rectal temperatures of GB1 (80 mg/kg)-treated group were significantly lower at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 h post brewer’s yeast injection compared to rectal temperatures of control and 20-mg/kg GB1 groups. These finding shows that GB1 may serve as an alternative to NSAIDs in clinical practice.

Hyun Ho Noh, Dae Kyu Kim, Eun Young Lee, Moon Ik Chang, Moo Hyeog Im, Young Deuk Lee, Kee Sung Kyung. Effects of oven drying on pesticide residues in field-grown chili peppers. J. Korean Soc. Appl. Biol. Chem. 58(1):97-104

The effects of drying on nine pesticides (chlorfenapyr, clothianidin, diethofencarb, folpet, imidacloprid, indoxacarb, methomyl, methoxyfenozide, and tetraconazole) in chili peppers were studied. The mean concentration factor calculated from weight reduction after drying by water loss was 5.28 for field 1 and 5.41 for field 2 (n = 10). Processing factors for pesticide residues in/on chili peppers after drying were 2.45–5.14 for field 1 and 1.71–4.53 for field 2, indicating that pesticide residues remaining in/on chili peppers were concentrated by usual drying process for pepper powder. The reduction factors reflecting net loss of pesticide residues during drying were 0.50–0.98 for field 1 and 0.44–0.98 for field 2. Drying caused a large reduction (37–49 %) in clothianidin, diethofencarb, imidacloprid, and tetraconazole; moderate reductions (16 and 22 %) in methomyl and methoxyfenozide; while did not affect the levels of chlorfenapyr, folpet, and indoxacarb (using conservative higher reduction factors from the two field trials).

Soon Young Shin, Mi So Lee, Da Hyun Lee, Da Young Lee, Dongsoo Koh, Young Han Lee. The synthetic compound 2′-hydroxy-2,4,6′-trimethoxychalcone overcomes P-glycoprotein-mediated multi-drug resistance in drug-resistant uterine sarcoma MES-SA/DX5 cells. J. Korean Soc. Appl. Biol. Chem. 58(1):105-109

The antitumor activity of a novel synthetic chalcone derivative, 2′-hydroxy-2,4,6′-trimethoxychalcone (1H3MC), was evaluated using the multi-drug-resistant human uterine sarcoma MES-SA/Dx5 cells. Treatment with 1H3MC reduced P-glycoprotein expression in a time-dependent manner and inhibited MES-SA/Dx5 cell proliferation. Cisplatin alone had no effect on cell viability, but combined treatment with cisplatin and 1H3MC exhibited synergistic cytotoxicity. Furthermore, the combination of cisplatin and 1H3MC synergistically cleaved both caspase-3 and its substrate protein, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, which resulted in the fragmentation of genomic DNA, a hallmark of apoptosis. These results suggest that 1H3MC is a promising adjuvant agent for overcoming P-glycoprotein-mediated multi-drug resistance in cancer cells.

Chao Chen , Yumei Wang , Chun Su , Xinqing Zhao , Ming Li, Xiaowei Meng, Yingyu Jin, Seung-Hwan Yang, Yushu Ma, Dongzhi Wei, Joo-Won Suh. Antifungal activity of Streptomycesalbidoflavus L131 against the leaf mold pathogen Passalora fulva involves membrane leakage and oxidative damage. J. Korean Soc. Appl. Biol. Chem. 58(1):111-119

Passalora fulva (or Fulvia fulva) is the causal microorganism of tomato leaf mold, the outbreak of which occurs worldwide in greenhouse especially when humidity is high. However, studies on antifungal agents of P. fulva are still very limited. In this study, a marine-derived Streptomycesalbidoflavus strain L131 showing potent inhibitory activities against P. fulva was identified and characterized. The active antifungal components were obtained, and studies on the antifungal mechanisms of the crude extract showed that the antifungal metabolites of L131 caused damage of hyphae and spore development, as well as plasma membrane of P. fulva. In addition, accumulation of endogenous reactive oxygen species of the leaf pathogen was also observed after treatment by culture extracts of L131. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the studies of the antifungal mechanisms against P. fulva, which benefit further development of biocontrol agent against tomato leaf mold disease.
Jun-Hwan Park, Hoi-Seon Lee. Antimicrobial activities of 1,2-dihydroxyanthraquinone derivatives against food-borne bacteria. J. Korean Soc. Appl. Biol. Chem. 58(1):121-125

The antimicrobial activities of materials derived from Cassia obtusifolia seeds were evaluated against the seven food-borne bacteria. The active constituent of C. obtusifolia seeds was isolated using various chromatographic techniques and characterized as 1,2-dihydroxyanthraquinone (alizarin). The purified alizarin exhibited weak activity against Bacillus cereus (clean zone diameter, 11.0 mm), and moderate activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis (17.5 mm) and Salmonella enterica (16.2 mm) at 2.0 mg/disc. When compared with alizarin analogues, alizarin-3-methyliminodiacetic acid exhibited the strongest antimicrobial activity against B. cereusS. intermediusS. epidermidis, and S. enterica at 2.0 mg/disc, whereas the other analogues exhibited no antimicrobial activity against the seven food-borne bacteria. Taken together, these results indicate that alizarin isolated from C. obtusifolia seeds and its structural analogues may be useful as natural preservatives.

Bou-Hee Kang, Kenneth Racicot, Sarah J. Pilkenton, Young-In Kwon, Emmanouil Apostolidis. Blueberry extract inhibits carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes and these inhibitory activities are not proanthocyanidin dependent. J. Korean Soc. Appl. Biol. Chem. 58(1):127-136

This study investigates the carbohydrate-hydrolyzing inhibitory potential of blueberry extract on carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes and evaluates if the inhibitory activity is proanthocyanidin (PAC) or lower molecular weight phenolic dependent. Freeze-dried blueberry powder was extracted using acetone and subjected to C18 extraction (BAE). Low-molecular weight phenolics (BAE-LMW) and PACs (BAE-PAC) were separated from BAE with gel filtration chromatography using LH-20 column. Total phenolic content, PAC content, and phenolic profiles using HPLC, as well as rat α-glucosidase, sucrase, and maltase inhibitory activities, were determined for all samples. The rat alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity of BAE (IC50 0.390 mg/mL TP basis) was enhanced in BAE-LMW (IC500.242 mg/mL TP basis) and reduced in BAE-PAC (IC50 0.915 mg/mL TP basis). Similar trends were observed with maltase and sucrase inhibitory activities. Our findings suggest that blueberry acetone extract has inhibitory activity on carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes and this effect is dependent on LMWs rather than PAC.

Jung Yeon Kim, Ji Yeon Choi, Chang Yong Yoon, Sooyeul Cho, Woo Seong Kim, Jung Ah Do. LC–MS/MS monitoring of 22 illegal antihistamine compounds in health food products from the Korean market. J. Korean Soc. Appl. Biol. Chem. 58(1):137-147

With the increasing popularity of dietary supplements, a critical analysis of safety issues concerning their use has become imperative. Despite several regulations and laws being in place, there have been several instances of adulterated health food-induced accidents. Therefore, in light of the growing seriousness of this problem, we attempted to detect the presence of 22 antihistamines in health foods sold in South Korea. 117 samples, representative of the various types of health foods, were screened by liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC–ESI–MS/MS). The limit of detections (LODs) and limit of quantifications (LOQs) of the instrument ranged from 0.0003 to 0.3 μg/mL and from 0.0009 to 0.6 μg/mL, respectively. The LODs and LOQs of the method ranged from 0.006 to 6.0 μg/mL and from 0.018 to 12.0 μg/mL, respectively. The calibration curve was linear with R 2 between 0.997 and 0.999. The mean recovery efficiency ranged from 89.7 to 111.8 %. On applying our method to screen 117 commercially available samples, we found that 116 samples were not detected targeted compounds and one sample contained diphenhydramine component.

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