Perennial Crop Species by Climate Type



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Perennial Crop Species by Climate Type


An online supplement to The Carbon Farming Solution by Eric Toensmeier

This should be considered a first step in selecting species for a given region. As noted in the text, always begin by investigating the native species of the region in question. This should be no means be considered a definitive list. Nor does it cover perennial fruits, vegetables, timber, pasture, and other important categories.

Many of these species will undoubtedly perform well outside of the ranges posted here – notably in tropical highlands and Mediterranean climates, in which species from warm temperate and subtropical climates often, but not always, thrive. I’ve only included species in these categories when in cases of documented proof or personal observation.

In contrast others will perform well in only a sub-range of the climates where they are listed. For example, some can handle only the warmer or colder portions of a given climate, or only the wetter end of semi-arid for example. Note also that irrigation can enable production of a wider range of crops in arid and semi-arid regions.

Each climate includes species in the following categories:



Perennial staple crops: basic starch, balanced carbohydrates, protein, protein-oil, oil, sugar

Perennial industrial crops: biomass, industrial starch, industrial oil, hydrocarbons, fiber, other industrial

Agroforestry services includes windbreaks, alley cropping, and more.

Tropical Humid

Basic Starch


Agave cantala, Artocarpus altilis, A. heterophyllus, A. integer, A. mariannensis, Dioscorea bulbifera, Ensete ventricosum, Eugeissona utilis, Metroxylon amicarum, M. sagu, Musa acuminata.

Balanced Carbohydrates


Albizia saman, Araucaria angustifolia, A. bidwillii, Artocarpus camansi, A. heterophyllus, A. integer, A. mariannensis, Bactris gasipaes, Barringtonia edulis, B. novae-hiberniae, B. procera, Bauhinia thonningii, Brosimum alicastrum, B. utile, Castanopsis inermis, C. javanica, Coix lacryma-jobi, Distichlis palmeri, Faidherbia albida, Gnetum africanum, G. gnemon, Inocarpus fagifer, Oryza hybrids, O. longistaminata, Porteresia coarctata, Rhynchoryza subulata, Sorghum hybrids, Sporobolus fimbriatus, Treculia africana, Urochloa mosambicensis, Zea hybrids, Zizania latifolia.

Protein


Abelmoschus esculentus, Acacia holosericea, Albizia lucidior, Brassica carinata, Brosimum alicastrum, B. paranarioides, B. utile, Cajanus cajan, Canavalia gladiata, Cnidoscolus aconitifolius, Gnetum africanum, G. gnemon, Lablab purpureus, Manilkara huberi, Moringa oleifera, M. stenopetala, Phaseolus polystachios, P. lunatus, Psophocarpus tetragonobolus, Sphenostylis stenocarpa, Treculia africana.

Protein-Oil


Abelmoschus esculentus, Adenanthera pavonina, Anacardium occidentale, Bertholletia excelsa, Blighia sapida, Buchanania cochinchinensis, Caesalpinia digyna, Caryodendron orinocense, Chrysobalanus icaco, Dacryodes edulis, Entada phaseoleoides, Jatropha curcas, Juglans olanchana, Lecythis corrugata, L. minor, L. pisonis, L. zabucajo, Pachira glabra, Pentaclethra macrophylla, Plukenetia conophora, P. volubilis, Psophocarpus tetragonobolus, Ricinodendron heudelotii, Sclerocarya birreya, T. pedata, Terminalia catappa, T. kaernbachii.

Oil


Abelmoschus esculentus, Acrocomia aculeata, Adenanthera pavonina, Afraegle paniculata, Allanblackia floribunda, A. parviflora, A. stuhlmannii, Astrocaryum vulgare, Attalea funifera, A. maripa, A. speciosa, Bactris gasipaes, Borassus aethiopum, B. flabellifer, Brassica carinata, Canarium indicum, C. luzonicum, C. ovatum, C. schweinfurtii, Caryocar nuciferum, C. villosum, Cocos nucifera, Elaeis guineensis, E. oleifera, Entada phaseoleoides, Gossypium arboreum burmanicum, G. arboreum indicum, G. arboreum soudanense, G. barbadense braziliense, G. barbadense darwinii, G. herbaceum acerifolium, G. herbaceum africanum, G. hirsutum marie-galante, G. hirsutum punctatum, G. hirsutum taitense, Gustavia superba, Irvingia gabonensis, Iryanthera laevis, Leopoldinia piassaba, Macadamia hildebrandii, M. integrifolia, Mauritia flexuosa, Mesua ferrea, Moringa oleifera, M. stenopetala, Oenocarpus bataua, O. distichus, Pandanus conoideus, Persea americana, Raphia hookeri, Schleichera oleosa, Syagrus coronata, Theobroma cacao, T. grandiflorum, Vitellaria paradoxa.

Sugar


Arenga pinnata, Borassus aethiopum, B. flabellifer, Caryota urens, Cassia fistula, C. grandis, Cocos nucifera, Corypha utan, Nypa fruticans, Oenocarpus distichus, Raphia hookeri, Saccharum hybrids, S. officinarum, Sorghum hybrids.

Biomass


Acacia angustissima, Albizia lebbeck, Arundo donax, Azadirachta indica, Bambusa spp., Bursera simaruba, Calliandra calothyrsus, Chrysopogon zizanoides, Cortaderia selloana, Dendrocalamus spp., Echinochloa polystachya, Eucalyptus brassiana, E. camaldulensis, E. citriodora, E. grandis, E. tereticornis, E. urophylla, Eulaliopsis binata, Gigantochloa spp., Gliricidia sepium, Guadua angustifolia, Gynerium sagittatum, Hibiscus tilliaceus, Inga vera, Leucaena leucocephala, Melia azederach, Morus alba, Oxytenanthera abyssynica, Pennisetum purpureum, Phragmites australis, Pithecellobium dulce, Pongamia pinnata, Saccharum hybrids, S. officinarum, Sesbania grandiflora, S. sesban, Trema orientalis.

Industrial Starch


Areca catechu, Caesalpinia digyna, Castanospermum australe, Cycas spp., Dioscorea bulbifera, Encephalartos spp., Hyphaene thebaica, Macrozamia spp., Metroxylon amicarum, Microcycas calocoma, Phytelephas macrocarpa, Zamia spp.

Industrial Oil


Aleurites mollucanus, Anacardium occidentale, Attalea speciosa, Azadirachta indica, Caesalpinia digyna, Ceiba pentandra, Croton tiglium, Cuphea micropetala, Hevea brasiliensis, Jatropha curcas, Litsea calophylla, L. glutinosa, Melia azederach, Phytelephas macrocarpa, Pongamia pinnata, Ricinus communis, Sapindus saponaria, Semecarpus anacardium, Simarouba amara, Trichilia emetica, Vernicia montana, Virola sebifera.



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