Since 2002, 304 emergency action notifications have been issued for wood décor and craft products from China, including: trees manufactured from a composite of natural and synthetic materials, garden trellis towers, home and garden wood décor, and craft items. In 2004, the USDA intercepted live Callidiellum villosulum beetles from wood décor and craft products imported from China, and shipments of the commodity were recalled. Options to mitigate the risk of introducing quarantine arthropod pests in wood décor and craft products (non-palleting and non-crating) from China into the United States include fumigation and heat treatment described in the PPQ Treatment Manual.
Table of Contents
I. Introduction 4
II. Background 5
1.A. Initiating Event 5
III. Pest Categorization 6
2.A. Pest Identification and Categorization 6
3.Table 1 – Arthropod Pests Associated with Wood from China 6
5.B. Identification of Quarantine-Significant Pests Likely to Follow the Pathway 43
6.C. Likelihood and Consequences of introduction of the quarantine pests in Table 2 63
IV. Risk Mitigation (Treatment Options) for Quarantine Pests Likely to Follow the Pathway 90
7.Table 6. Categorization of Manufactured Wood Products from China and Likelihood that Internal Feeders will Follow the Pathway 90
V. Conclusion 92
VI. References 93
VII. Preparers and Reviewers 103
VII. Appendices 104
8.Appendix 1 – Climate/Host Interaction – Hardiness Zones 104
Since 2002, 304 Emergency Action Notifications have been issued for wood décor and craft products from China, including: trees manufactured from a composite of natural and synthetic materials; garden trellis towers; home and garden wood décor; and craft items. In 2004, the USDA intercepted live Callidiellum villosulum manufactured wood décor and craft products imported from China and shipments of the commodity were recalled. Options to mitigate the risk of introducing quarantine arthropod pests in wood décor and craft products (non-palleting and non-crating) from China into the United States were requested of Plant Epidemiology and Risk Analysis Laboratory in 2004, with priority given to identifying mitigation options for internal and external arthropod pests.
This analysis lists possible arthropod pests in the pathway, identifies risks associated with the major quarantine pests and pest groups and describes the mitigation options currently available. The products are of an undefined nature being composites of plant and synthetic materials. The species of plants used and their origin are mostly undefined and unknown. It is assumed that most of the plant species and their pests originate in China, but that is uncertain because the raw wood products may have originated in other countries and been shipped to China for manufacturing. If, in the future, any of these commodities are better defined, more detailed risk analyses can be done and mitigations options can more narrowly targeted.
Based on the live insect pest interceptions in 2003 and 2004 which occurred in stores at the point of sale, USDA/APHIS/PPQ Phytoisanitary Issues Management staff requested the Center for Plant Health Science and Technology (CPHST) to complete a report on pests and possible mitigations for home and garden décor and handcrafted manufactured wood product items from China on November 24, 2004. A letter of notification (February 15, 2005) to Mr. Lu Houlin, Deputy Director General, Department for Supervision on Animal and Plant Quarantine, China, indicates that effective on April 1, 2005, USDA APHIS will suspend the importation of wood craft items that contain logs, limbs, branches, or twigs greater than 1 centimeter (0.39 inches) in diameter and having intact bark. Over the past 38 months (2002, 2003, 2004, early 2005), 304 Emergency Action Notifications (EANs) were issued on manufactured wood products from China. The pests listed in these EANs are noted in Table 1 as having been intercepted.
2. Decision to initiate this report
It has been demonstrated by the interceptions that the importation of home and garden décor and wooden handicraft items provide a pathway for the entry and possible establishment of potentially harmful live plant arthropod pests. Mitigation options are required for trade to continue.
3. Commodity Information
The article in question consist of manufactured wood products including articles with/without bark, with/without seeds, and with/without non-wood components of varied size (e.g., plastic, paper, metal parts). For each item, the degree of processing, the tree species and parts used, and the geographic origins are unspecified and unknown. Because of the similarity between some of these products and wood packaging material, pests of wood packaging material are included here.
The following partial list categorizes manufactured wood products imported into the United States from China within the last ten years:
Categorization of Manufactured Wood Products from China
Animal Artifacts (deer, other animals made from wood)
Art Décor/Wood Carvings
Bird Houses (with supporting poles)
Manufactured Christmas Trees (boles with wood and bark, some with natural conifer cones attached)
Garden and Lawn/Patio (Rustic) Furniture
Potpourri (possibly including wood/seeds of trans-shipped origins)
Silk Trees (typically Ficus, could include wood not of Chinese origins)
Trellis Towers (including garden fencing, some hardwoods, mainly of bamboo species)
Bamboo slats and bamboo garden stakes
Unspecified Wood Items (varying in size, origin, and description)