Cheirodendron is nearly endemic to the Hawaiian Islands with a single species, C. bastardianum, in the Marquesas. It is related to Raukaua of New Zeland and Tasmania (Mitchell and Wagstaff 2000; Plunkett and Wagner, unpubl.).
A large group of Pacific Araliaceae have been the subject of recent phylogenetic analysis (Plunkett and Lowry 2010) and taxonomic revision (Lowry and Plunkett 2010). The genus Meryta contains related taxa in the Marquesas and Society Islands (Tronchet et al. 2005). The genera Reynoldsia, Munroidendron, and Tetraplasandra (the latter two endemic to the Hawaiian Islands) have been subsumed into the genus Polyscias. Most taxa in this group belong to a larger Pacific clade, although P. tahitense is more distantly related.
Monophyly close relationship among taxa confirmed by Ganders et al. (2000).
Fitchia and Oparanthus are closely related genera endemic to the South Pacific (Kimball and Crawford 2004).
Hesperomannia is a Hawaiian endemic genus forming a highly distinct clade Kim et al. (1998).
The Hawaiian endemic genus Lipochaeta formerly included several taxa now placed in the genus Melanthera, with members of these genera now representing separate colonization events (Wagner and Robinson 2001).
The Silversword Alliance represents a single colonization of the Pacific by tarweeds (Madiinae) from North America that radiated into three endemic genera (Argyroxiphium, Dubautia, and Wilkesia; Baldwin and Sanderson, 1998).
The Hawaiian endemic genus Remya appears to be related to part of the genus Olearia possibly from New Zealand, with no close relatives in the South Pacific (Wagner and Herbst 1987; Cross et al. 2002).
The genus Tetramolopium represents a clade derived from a colonization of the Hawaiian Islands from New Guinea (Lowrey, 1995).
The genus Lepidium contains five species in the Hawaiian Islands that form a clade that directly or indirectly are evidently of temperate North American origin (Mummenhoff et al. 2001, 2004). L. bidentatum also occurs in the South Pacific archipelagoes and we presume the occurrence probably results from colonization from the Hawaiian Islands.
The six genera of Lobelioids in the Hawaiian Islands (Lobelia, Brighamia, Cyanea, Clermontia, Delissea, and Trematolobelia, all but the last endemic to the Hawaiian Islands) are derived from a single colonization event resulting in the largest known radiation of plants on oceanic islands (Givnish et al. 2009); this clade is in turn related to the South Pacific endemic genera Apetahia and Sclerotheca.
The Hawaiian endemic genus Schiedea forms a distinct clade that appears to be related to temperate North American taxa, with no close relatives in the South Pacific (Nepokroeff et al. 2005).
Hawaiian Silene form a single clade that appears to be related to temperate North American taxa, with no close relatives in the South Pacific (Eggens et al. 2003).
Based on morphology, we presume that Ascarina subfalcata of Raiatea is closely related to the Marquesan A. marquesensis, with A. polystachya of the Society Islands more distantly related.
The Hawaiian endemic species Ipomoea tuboides appears to be unrelated to other Hawaiian or South Pacific taxa, but rather related to American taxa (Austin 1997).
Several apparently unrelated groups of Carex have formed island endemic species: one with two species in the Hawaiian Islands (C. alligata and C. kauaiensis), one with a single species each in the Marquesas and Societies Islands (C. feaniana and C. tahitensis, respectively), and two separate monotypic lineages in the Hawaiian Islands (C. montis-eeka and C. wahuensis) with no relatives in the other archipelagoes.
Several apparently unrelated groups of Cyperus have formed island endemic species: some have local endemic species derived from widespread taxa (C. cyperinus, C. javanicus and C. odoratus), while others form small groups of endemic species apparently unrelated to other groups.
Two apparently unrelated groups of Fimbristylis have endemic species: one includes the Hawaiian endemic species F. hawaiiensis, the other includes presumably related South Pacific taxa.
Gahnia lanaiensis appears to be more distantly related to other taxa, with other Hawaiian species forming a separate lineage related to South Pacific taxa (Wagner et al. 1999).
Hawaiian Vaccinium species form a distinct clade related to boreal-arctic species, but the South Pacific species V. cereum may be of hybrid origin and derived from the Hawaiian clade and south (Powell and Kron 2002).
The Hawaiian endemic species Caesalpinia kavaiensis appears to be unrelated to the widespread C. bonduc (Wagner et al 1999).
Three distinct groups of Canavalia appear to have colonized the central Pacific: one including the widespread C. sericea, a second including C. cathartica and the Societies endemic C. raiateensis, and a third with endemic taxa in each of the three archipelagoes.
Two separate colonizations of Erythrina are recognized: one that includes the widespread E. variegata, the other includes the Hawaiian and Tahitian endemic species E. sandwicensis and E. tahitiensis (Bruneau and Doyle 1993).
The Hawaiian endemic species Vigna o-wahuensis appears to be unrelated to other widespread species (Wagner et al 1999).
Cyrtandra species in the Marquesas and Society Islands are members of a clade with some Fijian species while the Hawaiian species form a separate clade unresolved relative the Fijian + Polynesian species and another group of Fijian species (Clark et al 2009).
Scaevola is represented by four groups: one including the widespread C. taccada that is related to a separate clade including the Marquesan and Societies endemic species, a third one including the distinctive Hawaiian endemic S. glabra, and the fourth including all other Hawaiian endemic species (Howarth et al. 2003 ).
The two Hawaiian endemic species of Gunnera are related to New World taxa (Wanntorp and Wanntorp 2003).
Hawaiian endemic mints in the genera Haplostachys, Phyllostegia, and Stenogyne form a distinct clade derived from a North American ancestor (Lindqvist and Albert, 2002); the Tahitian endemic Phyllostegia tahitiensis presumably colonized Tahiti from the Hawaiian Islands.
Plakothira is a Marquesan endemic genus with no close relatives elsewhere in the Pacific, but rather Klaprothia in South America (Hufford et al. 2005).
The South Pacific genus Geniostoma has representative endemic species in the Marquesas and Society Islands, with the Hawaiian endemic genus Labordia forming a closely related clade (Motley unpubl.).
Abutilon incanum is a widespread species that occurs in the Hawaiian Islands. Other Hawaiian species appear to be derived from two independent colonization events (Wagner et al 1999). The Marquesan endemic A. sachetianum appears to be unrelated to other Pacific taxa (Fosberg and Sachet 1981)
Hibiscadelphus is a Hawaiian endemic genus presumably related to Hibiscus, although we keep it separate here pending molecular analyses.
We recognize five groups of Hibiscus: two representing widespread species H. tiliaceus and H. furcellatus, and three groups of Hawaiian endemic species grouped according to morphological (especially floral) characteristics (Wagner et al. 1999).
The Hawaiian endemic genus Kokia forms a distinct clade that is not directly related to the Marquesan endemic Lebronnecia kokioides (Seelanan et al. 1997).
The Societies endemic species Decaspermum lanceolatum appears to be derived from a separate colonization event from the non-endemic D. fruticosum.
The five endemic Hawaiian species of Metrosideros form a distinct clade closely related to the South Pacific M. collina (Percy et al. 2008).
The Societies endemic species Dendrolobium crispatum appears to be derived from a separate colonization event from the non-endemic D. biflorum and its (presumably) derivative species.
The two highly distinctive species of Marquesan endemic Oxalis are almost certainly both derived from an ancestor only distantly related to the widespread O. corniculatus, which apparently is considered indigenous to the Society Islands.
The Marquesan endemic species Pandanus mei appears to represent a separate colonization event from the widespread P. tectorius.
We tentatively recognize three groups of Peperomia lineages: one includes the widespread P. tetraphylla, one includes the widespread P. blanda and the closely related Hawaiian endemic species P. remyi, and one includes lineages consisting of all remaining endemic taxa within each archipelago (Bradley 2002; Wanke et al 2006, in part).
Hawaiian endemic species of Pittosporum form a clade that is related to Society Island species (Gemmill et al 2002).
All Hawaiian endemic species of Plantago are derived from a single colonization event (Dunbar et al 2008).
The Hawaiian endemic species Agrostis sandwicensis appears to represent a separate colonization event from the non-endemic A avenacea.
The two Hawaiian endemic species of Calamagrostis appear to derive from separate colonization events (Wagner et al., 1999).
The two Hawaiian endemic species of Isachne appear to derive from separate colonization events (Wagner et al., 1999).
The Hawaiian endemic species Panicum lineale appears to derive from a separate colonization event from all other Hawaiian endemic Panicum (Wagner et al., 1999).
The Marquesan endemic species Pennisetum marquisense appears to derive from a separate colonization event from all other Marquesan endemic Pennisetum.
Portulaca molokiniensis is a Hawaiian endemic closely related to the widespread species P. lutea; P. villosa and P. sclerocarpa are presumably closely related species from a separate colonization event (Wagner et al. 1999).
Hawaiian endemic Lysimachia species form a clade (Hao et al. 2004) that is presumably unrelated to the widespread L. mauritiana (Wagner et al., 1999).
We consider the Hawaiian endemic species Colubrina oppositifolia to be a separate colonization from the widespread C. asicatica (Wagner et al., 1999).
We consider the Hawaiian endemic species Gouaniahillebrandii and G. meyenii to derive from a separate colonization from the G. vitifolia (Wagner et al., 1999).
Hawaiian species of Rubus appear to be derived from separate colonization events (Alice and Cambell 1999; Howarth et al. 1997; et al. 2003).
Most Hawaiian endemic species of Coprosma are presumably a single clade related to South Pacific taxa; C. ernodioides is morphologically extremely distinct and is considered to be a separate colonization event and more distantly related (Wagner et al., 1999).
We consider the Hawaiian endemic species Gardenia remyi and G. mannii to derive from a separate colonization from the G. brighamii (Wagner et al., 1999).
Endemic Ixora species in the Marquesas and Societies Islands likely comprise related clades, however the newly discovered and enigmatic I. oomuensis may be more distantly related (Mouly et al. 2009).
Endemic Kadua species in the three archipelagoes likely comprise related clades, however the non-endemic K. romanzoffiensis constitutes a separate colonization of the Society Islands (Terrell et al. 2005).
Most Marquesan endemic species of Psychotria are presumably a single clade related to taxa in the other archipelagoes; P. oliveri and P. schaeferi presumably derive from a single, separate colonization event as does P. adamsonii (Nepokroeff et al, unpubl.).