Prioritizing Underutilized Tree Species for Domestication in Smallholder Systems of West Java



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Table 3 Tree species prioritized by farmers

Botanical name



Number of farmers

Total

Cisarua

Curug

Bitung


Parakan

Muncang


Manglietia glauca Blume.

7

7

3

17

Garcinia mangostana L.

6

6

3

15

Nephelium lappaceum L.

4

4

6

14

Parkia speciosa Hassk.

5

3

4

12

Mangifera indica L.

1

3

4

8

Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg

6

2

0

8

Myristica fragrans Houtt.

0

6

0

6

Durio zibethinus Murr.

1

2

2

5

Gmelina arborea Roxb

2

1

0

3

Archidendron pauciflorum (Benth.) Nielsen

2

0

1

3

Shorea spp.

2

1

0

3

Acacia mangium Willd

2

1

0

3

Swietenia macrophylla King

0

0

2

2

Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle

2

0

0

2

Anthocephalus cadamba (Roxb.) Miq.

0

2

0

2

Paraserienthes falcataria (L.) Nielsen

1

0

0

1

Psidium guajava Linn.

0

1

0

1

Persea americana Mill

0

0

1

1

Maesopsis eminii Engl.

1

0

0

1

Toona sureni (Bl.) Merr

0

1

0

1

Citrus microcarpa L.

0

0

1

1

Altingia excelsa Noronha

0

0

1

1

Manilkara zapota (L.) van Royen

1

0

0

1

Tectona grandis Linn. F.

0

1

0

1

Syzygium aqueum (Burm.f.) Alston

0

0

1

1

Melia azedarach L.

0

1

0

1

Alstonia scholaris (L.) R.Br.

0

1

0

1

The focus group discussion identified five species, in the following order of preference, for further domestication: M. glauca, P. speciosa, D. zibethinus, G. arborea and S. koetjape. Farmers and researchers felt that these are species that yield both long- and short-term products and offer a potential advantage for smallholder production. M. glauca and G. arborea represent timber species, D. zibethinus and S. koetjape are fruit species and P. speciosa is a spice species. Except for G. arborea, they are indigenous to the Nanggung area. M. glauca and S. koetjape have not yet benefited from domestication activities and are infrequently planted. P. speciosa has benefited from some domestication and is commonly planted in small numbers. D. zibethinus and G. arborea have been more widely domesticated, with improved germplasm and management prescriptions, but these advances rarely reach farmers. Strong demand for P. speciosa, D. zibethinus and G. arborea across national, provincial and local markets is a significant opportunity for smallholder production. S. koetjape was selected as a species with cultural or traditional value and niche market potential that would not attract competition from the formal horticulture sector. Some fruit tree species in the priority list were not selected because the formal horticulture sector (including importers) is believed to maintain a strong market position.


The market survey focused on the 5 selected species. A number of farmers in Cisarua and Curug Bitung planted 10 to 40 M. glauca seedlings in 2008 and 2009. They did not produce seedlings themselves due to insufficient seed and propagation knowledge. As with other tree species, M. glauca seedlings are planted early in the rainy season. Land preparation, including the preparation of 400 planting holes, requires 25 labour days/ha. Farmers recommended the application of 2 kg manure per planting hole. Weeding was recommended 6 and 12 months after planting, requiring 10 labour days/ha. M. glauca has been successfully harvested and sold by a small number of Nanggung farmers. As in most smallholder timber production systems, M. glauca is sold when farmers need cash—economic maturity is not considered. Farmers sell the standing trees to middlemen or directly to sawmill owners. The buyer is responsible for cutting and transporting the timber.
Table 4 General information on selected tree species

Species

Tree origin

Product and price

Germplasm sources

M. glauca

Local markets or commercial nurseries Rp 1,300/seedling

Trees are harvested at a minimum dbha of 18 cm (at an approximate age of 10 yrs)

Standing trees with a 25 cm dbh are sold for Rp 230,000b.



Salak National Park.

Scattered trees in Nanggung district.



P. speciosa

Natural regeneration protected and/or transplanted.

Trees with a dbh of 50 cm produce 30 bunches of 100 pods. Pods contain 11–20 seeds.

Pods are sold to traders for Rp 100,000–200,000/bunch.

The price in local markets is Rp 1,000–2,500/pod and in Bogor markets Rp 2,000–3,000/pod.

Standing trees with a 25 cm dbh are sold for Rp 50,000–60,000 (similar to P. falcataria).



Some trees in Parakan Muncang

D. zibethinus

Natural regeneration protected and/or transplanted

Trees with a dbh of 50 cm produce 50−100 fruits/year.

The ijon price is Rp 500,000/tree/season.

Climbers harvest fruit for Rp 400/fruit or Rp 20,000/day.

Fruits are sold in local markets for Rp 6,000–30,000/fruit and in Bogor or Jakarta markets for Rp 20,000–60,000/fruit.

Standing trees with a 10-25 cm dbh are sold for Rp 25,000–50,000.


Some trees in Parakan Muncang

G. arborea

Historically free seedlings were distributed by government agencies or NGOs

Standing trees with a 25 cm dbh are sold for Rp 50,000–60,000 (similar to P. falcataria).

Haurbentes and Parung Panjang research forests

S. koetjape

Natural regeneration protected and/or transplanted.

Mature trees produce 10 sacks (25 kgs) of fruit per season.

Fruits are sold to traders for Rp 30,000/sack.

Fruits are sold in local markets for Rp 2,000–2,500/kg and in Bogor markets for Rp 5,000/kg.

Stable market prices for sweet varieties have not developed yet.



Some trees in Parakan Muncang

a. dbh = diameter at breast height. b. $1 US = 9,600 Indonesian Rupiah, as at November 2012.
The pods are the key product of P. speciosa. When tree pod production begins to decline, usually at about 20 years of age, P. speciosa can be harvested for timber. Although wood quality is inferior to P. falcataria the selling price is approximately the same.
Marketing systems for D. zibethinus are underdeveloped. Fruit is usually sold to traders while green and still on the tree—an arrangement called ijon (from the Indonesian word hijau, meaning green). Farmers receive cash payment when an agreement is reached. They are not responsible for further management, nor liable if the crop fails. The disadvantage of this marketing system is that farmers receive less than half the value of the crop. Traders sell most of the fruit to lucrative urban markets. D. zibethinus timber also has higher market value, but a longer rotation, than P. falcataria or M. eminii.
G. arborea is a popular species in Nanggung. The market price for the timber is similar to that of P. falcataria and there is a steady demand at the village level and from local commercial sawmills.
Local niche markets exist for S. koetjape fruit, where demand exceeds supply. Stable market prices for ‘sweet kecapi’ fruit have not yet developed due to inconsistent supply and quality. S. koetjape is valued for its timber (quality and price are similar to D. zibethinus).
SWOT analysis results for the five species are reported in Table 5. G. arborea and P. speciosa showed strength and opportunity for domestication. Smallholder domestication of these species may be easier than for the other three species. M. glauca and S. koetjape have positive strength, but threats are greater than opportunities. Germplasm sources of M. glauca are threatened by illegal logging; market opportunities for the timber are still uncertain compared to common fast-growing timber species with established markets including G. arborea and P. falcataria. S. koetjape is constrained by lack of technology and knowledge related to post-harvest handling and processing. This results in low fruit prices during the peak harvesting season. D. zibethinus has ample opportunity but there is a long juvenile period, especially for local cultivars.
Table 5 SWOT analysis of selected species


Category

Sub-category

Weight

Score

M

G

D

P

S

Strength

1. Increases household income

0.50

80

40

60

80

20

2. Easy to cultivate

0.30

20

40

100

80

60

3. Low input in species planting

0.20

60

80

20

40

100

 

a=score x weight

58

48

64

72

48

Weakness

1. Low quality product

0.25

20

40

60

80

100

2. Long rotation (slow growth)

0.60

60

40

80

60

60

3. Seed handling

0.15

100

40

60

40

60

 

b=score x weight

56

40

72

62

70




 

x = a – b

2

8

-8

10

-22

Opportunity

1. Farmers prefer to domesticate

0.30

100

40

60

80

20

2. Institutions are targeting the species to be domesticated

0.05

20

100

80

60

40

3. Farmers can cultivate the species

0.10

40

20

80

80

60

4. Secure germplasm source

0.15

20

100

80

60

40

5. High demand for the product

0.40

60

40

100

80

20

 

c=score x weight

62

50

82

76

28

Threat

1. Loss of germplasm source

0.15

100

20

40

60

80

2. Poor market linkages

0.20

100

80

60

20

40

3. Lack of product processing technology

0.10

60

40

20

80

100

4. Pests and diseases

0.25

40

60

80

100

20

5. Uncertainty of product price

0.30

40

20

60

80

100

 

d=score x weight

63

44

58

70

65

 

 

y = c – d

-1

6

24

6

-37

Remark: M = M. glauca, G = G. arborea, D = D. zibethinus, P = P. speciosa, S = S. koetjape
The germplasm survey revealed that indigenous sources of M. glauca could be found in Gunung Halimun Salak National Park (Priyadi et al. 2010). Respondents indicated that the species is now difficult to find in the Halimun area, the natural forest closest to Nanggung. Park officers reported that M. glauca still grows in the Salak mountain area in Sukabumi district. The research team observed that some M. glauca trees were growing in the Nanggung area, which may be an alternative germplasm source.
Although high-yielding local individual trees and commercial varieties of P. speciosa were known, most farmers did not consider the genetic quality of their planting material. Some P. speciosa trees with good phenotypic characteristics were observed in Parakan Muncang village. These specimens can produce 3,000 pods per year and have large seeds, and could serve as a local seed source. Besides transplanting wild seedlings of P. speciosa on their land, some farmers practice an indigenous propagation method where the seed coats are removed and seeds are cut before sowing to accelerate germination (Roshetko et al. 2008).

D. zibethinus trees originated from the chance introduction of seeds, seedlings and wildings. Despite the existence of many local and exotic varieties that produce superior fruits, most farmers do not consider genetic quality when cultivating D. zibethinus. Local superior varieties of D. zibethinus are recognized, but are not necessarily those that are cultivated.
Trials conducted by FORDA at their research forests in Haurbentes (Jasinga sub-district) and Parung Panjang (Parung Panjang sub-district) identified suitable G. arborea material for Bogor district. It was observed in Haurbentes that provenance no. 4045 (origin Sankos, India) and no. 4004 (origin Chinsapo, Malawi) had optimal growth in terms of height and diameter (Suhaendi 1989). The Parung Panjang trials demonstrated that the progeny of plus trees from East Java, Central Java and East Kalimantan perform particularly well in Bogor. Despite these results, farmers in Nanggung plant G. arborea germplasm of unknown quality and origin, using whatever seed is available.
S. koetjape is generally cultivated by transplanting wildlings. In Parakan Muncang there are local village varieties of sweet kecapi that have potential as a higher-value market product. However, certified germplasm of sweet kecapi is unavailable and it is not multiplied by vegetative propagation.
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