in Craven & Lepschi, Australian Systematic
Botany 12: 884 (1999)
laetifica, from the Latin laetus, joyful, glad,
pleasant and -fex, doer, maker, agent, in reference to the
pleasing yellow flowers of this species
0.4–1 m tall.
puberulous to shortly pubescent overlaid with a sparser
layer of longer, coarse pubescent hairs.
long as wide, subsessile to rarely short-petiolate; blade
glabrescent, pubescent, linear-obovate, linear or rarely
linear-elliptic, in transverse section transversely elliptic,
depressed obovate, circular, the base parallel (blade width
equals petiole width) or very narrowly cuneate, the apex
acute to rounded, obtusely shortly acuminate or rarely
acuminate, the veins longitudinal, 3,
dense, distinct, more or less in rows.
pseudoterminal, with 4–10 flowers apparently in mon-
ads, up to 23 mm wide.
hairy, 2.5–3 mm
abaxially glabrous, 2–2.5 mm long,
deciduous, 2.5–4 mm long.
12–20 per bundle; filaments yellow, cream,
very pale lemon or creamy-yellow, ageing to pinkish,
9–11.5 mm long, the bundle claw 4–5(–6.5) mm long,
0.4–0.5 times as long as the filaments.
15–25 per locule.
4–6 mm long, the calyx lobes weathering away or
rarely replaced by sepaline teeth; cotyledons obvolute.
Western Australia: the Kalbarri
– Hutt River district.
shrubs, sand plain, low open shrubland, on sandy clay,
sandstone, and laterite with sand.
Recorded as flowering from August
The oil obtained from this species
contained significant amounts of both mono- and
sesquiterpenes. The principal monoterpene was 1,8-cin-
eole (24–49%) and this was accompanied by lesser
amounts of a-pinene (1–5%), linalool (0.8–1.0%) and
a-terpineol (1–4%). The principal sesquiterpenes were
spathulenol (14–33%), globulol (2–4%), viridiflorol (1–2%)
and a-cadinol (1–4%). There was also, however, a con-
siderable number of oxygenated sesquiterpenes, in small
amounts, which were not identified.
Forms of this species with strongly coloured flow-
ers provide a spectacular display and the species warrants
further trialling in areas with a dry Mediterranean climate
as a small ornamental shrub.
7. Species ac
in Nees, Horae physicae Berolinenses col-
lectae 36 (1820)
lanceolata, from the Latin lancea, a light
spear, hence lanceolatus, lanceolate, in reference to the
shape of the leaf blade
Melaleuca lanceolata subsp. occidentalis
Barlow; Melaleuca lanceolata subsp. planifolia Barlow;
Melaleuca lanceolata subsp. thaeroides Barlow
Shrub or tree
1–10 m tall.
puberulous, often with some scattered longer pubes-
cent hairs, rarely approaching sericeous-lanuginulose.
alternate, 3.1–12.5 mm long, 0.7–1.9 mm wide,
3–9 times as long as wide, short-petiolate to rarely
subsessile; blade glabrescent, lanuginulose to lanuginulose-
puberulous, rarely with some puberulous hairs or at the
base of the leaf/petiole with sericeous-lanuginulose hairs,
very narrowly elliptic, linear-elliptic, very narrowly ovate,
linear-ovate, narrowly elliptic or rarely narrowly ovate or
linear, in transverse section transversely elliptic (often
broady so), depressed obovate or transversely oblong, the
base attenuate, the apex obtuse or sometimes rounded, the
veins longitudinal, 3,
moderately dense, obscure,
more or less in rows.
and sometimes also upper axillary, with 3–12 triads, up
to 23 mm wide.
glabrous or glabrescent to
hairy, 1.5–3.3 mm long.
0.5–1.5 mm long, scarious in a marginal band up to
0.2 mm wide or herbaceous to the margin.
7–20 per bundle; filaments
white, 4.5–7.5 mm long, the bundle claw 1.5–3 mm long,
0.3 times as long as the filaments.
3.9–9.5 mm long.
30–50 per locule.
3–7.5 mm long, the calyx
lobes weathering away or sepaline teeth present (these
occasionally reduced to a low rim around the apex of the
fruiting hypanthium); cotyledons planoconvex.
Western Australia, South
Australia, Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria: from
southern Western Australia eastwards to southern South
Australia, western Victoria, New South Wales and south-
Recorded as occurring in a wide range of
vegetation types, including mallee woodland, closed tall
Melaleuca woodland, samphire-grassland, brigalow–belah
open forest, coastal Melaleuca–Leptospermum community,
Casuarina–Acacia low open woodland with chenopods,
coastal heathland, salmon gum woodland, on light brown
sand, deep white sand on coastal dunes, on salt lake edge,
yellow sand beside creek, red sand dunes, limestone on cliff
top, brown clay loam with quartzite outcrops, grey sand
over granite, stony calcareous hillside sand over laterite,
and on black sandy soil.
Recorded as flowering from January
The oil from this species was monoter-
penoid in character, though there were significant amounts
of sesquiterpenes present. The principal monoterpenes
identified were a-pinene (10–20%), 1,8-cineole (21–33%),
limonene (3–5%) and a-terpineol (1–3%). A second col-
lection gave a-pinene (7–13%) and 1,8-cineole (48–68%).
The main sesquiterpenes encountered were globulol
(3–8%), viridiflorol (2–5%) and spathulenol (11–15%).
at <0.1%. The sample containing the larger proportion of
1,8-cineole gave a yield of 0.4%.
Melaleuca lanceolata is a variable taxon and four
subspecies have been proposed previously, i.e. lanceolata,
. Species ac
occidentalis, planifolia and thaeroides. There are certainly
lections but their taxonomic status needs to be clarified.
Until the morphological and geographical limits of the
morphs are more fully known, the complex is best treated
as a single taxon.
The species is suitable for planting in a broad range
of environments, from coastal areas that experience salt
winds, to saline soil areas, and to calcareous soil regions.
Care should be taken to obtain seed for propagating
planting stock from an appropriate genotype to optimise
Botany 12: 885 (1999)
lara, from the Greek laros, agreeable,
pleasant, lovely, in reference to the attractive flowers of
1–1.5 m tall.
alternate, 4.5–8.5 mm long,
2.8–3.8 mm wide, 1.5–3 times as long as wide, subses-
sile to short-petiolate; blade glabrescent, ciliate with
some sparse pubescent hairs on the adaxial and (rarely)
abaxial surfaces of the blade also, obovate or elliptic, in
transverse section transversely linear, the base cuneate,
the apex rounded to obtuse or rarely acute, the veins
longitudinal (some poorly developed reticulate veins are
present also), 3,
moderately dense, distinct,
minal and sometimes also upper axillary, with 2–5 triads,
up to 25 mm wide.
hairy, 1.5–3 mm long.
abaxially glabrous or glabrescent, 0.7–1.5 mm
long, scarious throughout or rarely scarious in a marginal
band 1–1.1 mm wide.
deciduous, 1.9–3 mm long.
9–13 per bundle; filaments yellow, ageing to
red, 8–10.5 mm long, the bundle claw 3–4.3 mm long,
0.3–0.5 times as long as the filaments.
c. 15–20 per locule.
4–5.5 mm long, the calyx lobes weathering
away; cotyledons obvolute.
Western Australia: the Kalbarri
over river gorge, and on sand.
Recorded as flowering in September
This species produced a predominantly
monoterpenoid leaf oil. The principal monoterpenes
encountered were a-pinene (30.8%) and 1,8-cineole
(28.1%). These were accompanied by lesser amounts of
limonene (2.6%), a-terpineol (4.2%), linalool (1.7%) and
b-pinene (1.8%). The principal sesquiterpenes encountered
were globulol (4.9%), viridiflorol (2.4%), spathulenol
(2.4%) and bicyclogermacrene (4.2%).
The oil yield (fresh weight, w/w) was 0.2%.
lasiandra, from the Greek lasio-, lasi-, hairy,
woolly, and andros, male, in reference to the hairy staminal
0.5–8 m tall; bark papery,
white or grey-white.
hairy, sericeous to
alternate, 12–50 mm long,
2–11 mm wide, 2–10.5 times as long as wide, short-pet-
iolate; blade hairy, sericeous, narrowly obovate, narrowly
elliptic, very narrowly obovate, very narrowly elliptic or
obovate, in transverse section transversely linear, the base
attenuate, the apex acuminate or acute, the veins longitu-
moderately dense or dense, distinct
to rarely obscure, more or less in rows.
with 2–11 triads, up to 22 mm wide.
abaxially hairy, 0.9–1.5 mm
long, herbaceous to the margin to rarely scarious in a mar-
ginal band up to 0.3 mm wide.
caducous, 1.8–3 mm
6–20 per bundle; filaments hairy, yellow,
white, cream, pale greenish or pinkish, 5–9 mm long, the
bundle claw 1.2–4.2 mm long, 0.3 times as long as the fila-
8–10.5 mm long.
50–60 per locule.
2–3 mm long, the calyx lobes weathering away or the
basal portion of the sepals may become more or less woody
and persist as a low woody ring or undulations around the
aperture; cotyledons planoconvex.
Western Australia, Northern
Territory, Queensland: from the Pilbara and Kimberley
regions of Western Australia eastwards through the North-
ern Territory to western and south-central Queensland.
woodland, sand plain, rocky gullies, flood plains, on sand,
clayey soil, sand over limestone, sandy loam, sandy gravel,
and at base of a granite outcrop.
The leaf oil of this species was domi-
nated by monoterpenes. The principal components were
a-pinene (24–31%) and limonene (28–32%), with lesser
amounts of b-pinene (8–11%), a-terpineol (2–4%),
1,8-cineole (0.1–5.0%) and terpinen-4-ol (1–2%). Sesqui-
terpenes did not contribute much to the oil, with the major
compounds being globulol (0.7–8.0%) and spathulenol
(0.2–3.0%). Benzaldehyde (1–2%) was also detected in
The oil yield (fresh weight, w/w) was 0.3%.
References on essential oils:
Brophy et al. 1988;
Brophy and Doran 1996
The hairy staminal filaments are a very diagnostic
feature of M. lasiandra. The species was reported by Hol-
liday (2004) to be in cultivation as an ornamental tree in
Carnarvon, Western Australia, and it may well be suited
for cultivation more widely in arid to semi-arid regions.
de l’Académie Impériale des Sciences de Saint-Pétersbourg
10: 339 (1852)
lateralis, from the Latin lateralis, lateral,
in reference to the inflorescences being inserted on the
branchlets and branches below the leaves
0.5–1.5 m tall.
to lanuginulose hairs ephemeral.
2–7 mm long, 0.5–1.3 mm wide, 2.4–6 times as long
as wide, subsessile; blade soon glabrescent, the lanug-
inulose-puberulous to lanuginulose hairs ephemeral,
linear-obovate, linear-elliptic, narrowly suboblong or rarely
narrowly obovate, in transverse section depressed obovate
or semicircular to transversely semielliptic, the base nar-
rowly cuneate or attenuate, the apex obtuse, obtusely
shortly acuminate, rounded or rarely bluntly acute,
moderately dense, obscure, in rows.
capitate, lateral, with 4–15 monads, up to
12 mm wide.
glabrous (rarely with a few scat-
tered puberulous hairs but effectively glabrous), 1–1.8 mm
abaxially glabrous, 0.3–0.6 mm long,
herbaceous to the margin or scarious in a marginal band
up to 0.3 mm wide.
deciduous, 1.2–2.3 mm long.
Stamens 4–12 per bundle; filaments pink, reddish-pink or
mauve, 4–5.5 mm long, the bundle claw 0.8–1.9 mm long,
0.2–0.4 times as long as the filaments.
35–40 per locule.
2.6–3 mm long, the
calyx lobes weathering away (although the woody bases of
the lobes may be visible on younger fruits as small undula-
tions); cotyledons planoconvex.
Western Australia: from the
Stirling Range eastwards to the Lake King district.
heath understorey, tall shrubland, open mallee woodland,
on sandy loam, sand over clay, and gravel.
This species presented a monoterpenoid
oil. The principal component was 1,8-cineole (64.8%) and
this was accompanied by lesser amounts of limonene
(7.3%), a-pinene (3%), b-pinene (1.4%), myrcene (1.7%)
and a-terpineol (0.9%). Sesquiterpenes, while plentiful,
did not contribute much to the oil. The main members
were globulol (2.8%), viridiflorol (2.8%), spathulenol
(1.1%), cubeban-11-ol (1%) and an unknown oxygenated
The oil yield (fresh weight, w/w) was 0.1%.
This species should be trialled more widely for use
as an ornamental shrub as the clustered, pinkish to mauve
flowers can be very showy.
and -florus, flowered, in reference to the inflorescences
being inserted on the branchlets and branches below the
0.2–4 m tall.
alternate, 4–11.5 mm long, 0.7–1.7 mm wide,
5–12 times as long as wide, subsessile to short-petiolate;
blade soon glabrescent (the lanuginulose-puberulous to
lanuginulose hairs ephemeral), linear, linear-obovate,
linear-ovate, very narrowly obovate or very narrowly
ovate, in transverse section transversely narrowly elliptic,
transversely elliptic, subcircular or flattened transversely
semielliptic, the base broadly attenuate or narrowly cune-
ate, the apex obtusely shortly acuminate, acuminate,
narrowly acute, acute or rounded, the veins longitudi-
sparse, obscure, more or less in rows.
capitate, lateral or pseudoterminal and
then approaching interstitial, with 1–15 monads, up to
12 mm wide.
glabrescent, 1–2 mm long.
abaxially glabrescent or glabrous, 0.6–
1.2 mm long, herbaceous to (or almost to) the margin.
bundle; filaments white or creamy-white, 1.5–5.5 mm long,
the bundle claw 0.2–0.3 mm long, 0.1–0.4 times as long as
4–6 mm long.
15–40 per loc-
3–5.5 mm long, with sepaline teeth; cotyledons
subobvolute (almost planoconvex).
Western Australia: from the
East Yuna – Mullewa district south to the Stirling Range
area and eastwards to the Coolgardie–Zanthus district.