Publication: Novon 16: 472 (2006) Derivation



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264

Melaleuc

a pach

yph

ylla

 —

 7



. Species ac

counts


Publication:

 Novon 16: 472 (2006)

Derivation:

 pachyphylla, from the Greek, pachys, thick, 

and phyllon, leaf, in reference to the thick leaves

Synonym:

 Callistemon pachyphyllus Cheel



Description:

 

Shrub 

0.5–3 m tall. 



Branchlets 

glabrescent, 

sericeous to pubescent, sometimes overlaid with veluti-

nous hairs. 



Leaves 

alternate, 25–119 mm long, 3–15 mm 

wide, 4.5–25 times as long as wide, short-petiolate; blade 

glabrescent, sericeous or sericeous-pubescent, very nar-

rowly obovate, narrowly obovate or narrowly elliptic, in 

transverse section transversely linear or sublunate, the base 

very narrowly cuneate or very narrowly attenuate, the apex 

obtusely shortly acuminate or very shortly acuminate, the 

veins pinnate, 11–22, 

oil glands 

sparse, obscure, scattered. 



Inflorescences 

spicate, pseudoterminal or interstitial, with 

30–90 monads, 45–65 mm wide. 

Hypanthium 

hairy or 

glabrescent, 3.6–5 mm long. 

Calyx lobes 

abaxially hairy, 

1–2.3 mm long, herbaceous to the margin. 

Petals 

decidu-


ous, 3.5–6.9 mm long. 

Stamens 

27–45 per flower; filaments 

red or green (once described as creamish), 23–31 mm long; 

anthers purple or greenish-yellow. 



Style 

28–37 mm long. 



Ovules 

c. 250–350 per locule. 



Fruit 

3.9–7.5 mm long, the 

calyx lobes deciduous; cotyledons obvolute.

Natural occurrence:

 Queensland, New South Wales: 

from the Hervey Bay district in Queensland to the Port 

Stephens district in New South Wales.

Ecology:

 Recorded as occurring in swampy heathland, 

wet places in wallum flats, Melaleuca quinquenervia wood-

land, steep rocky north-facing slope, open forest, on sand, 

skeletal light-brown soil on rock, and peat swamp.



Flowering time:

 Recorded as flowering from January 

to December.

Essential oils:

 This species produced an oil in which 

monoterpenes predominated, though sesquiterpenes were 

numerous. The principal monoterpenes were a-pinene 

(37.5%), a-phellandrene (11.7%) and 1,8-cineole (19.1%), 

with lesser amounts of b-pinene (1.8%), limonene (5.5%), 

myrcene (1.8%) and a-terpineol (2.7%). The main ses-

quiterpenes encountered (of many) were b-caryophyllene 

(3.8%), globulol (1.1%) and spathulenol (0.5%).

Oil yield:

 The oil yield (fresh weight, w/w) was <0.1%.

Reference on essential oils: 

Brophy et al. 1998, as 

Callistemon pachyphyllus

Notes:

 There is variation in flower colour within this 

species and it should be possible to select superior colour 

forms for use as ornamental shrubs in subtropical and 

temperate regions. Bushiness should also be a selection 

criterion as Elliot and Jones (1993) and Wrigley and Fagg 

(1993) reported that pruning is required to produce a 

shapely plant.



Melaleuca 

pachyphylla

(Cheel) Craven



265

7. Species ac

counts

 —

Melaleuc



a palle

sc

ens

Publication:

 Austrobaileya 2: 74 (1984)

Derivation:

 pallescens, from the Latin palleo, to be pale, 

in reference to the pale colour of the flowers

Synonym:

 Melaleuca tamariscina subsp. pallescens 

(Byrnes) Barlow

Description:

 

Tree or shrub 

1–4 m tall; bark hard or 

somewhat flaky, black or dark grey. 

Branchlets 

glabrous. 



Leaves 

alternate, peltate, 1.3–5.5 mm long, 0.7–1.2 mm 

wide, 1.4–10 times as long as wide, sessile; blade glabrous 

or sometimes glabrescent (a few minute marginal cilia 

may be present), ovate, narrowly ovate or very narrowly 

ovate (more or less rounded angular-ovate), in trans-

verse section strongly depressed obtriangular, the base 

truncate, the apex acuminate to narrowly acute, obtusely 

shortly acuminate or narrowly acuminate, the veins 

longitudinal, 5–9, 



oil glands 

moderately dense, obscure, 

in rows. 

Inflorescences 

spicate, interstitial or pseudoter-

minal, with 3–12 triads (rarely monads and then 1–8 per 

inflorescence; monads occur in southern populations 

through suppression of lateral buds), up to 18 mm wide. 

Hypanthium 

glabrescent or rarely glabrous, 1–1.8 mm long. 



Calyx lobes 

abaxially glabrescent or rarely glabrous, costate, 

0.6–0.8 mm long, scarious in a marginal band 0.1–0.2 mm 

wide. 


Petals 

deciduous, 1.5–1.6 mm long. 



Stamens 

5–9 per 


bundle; filaments pink-mauve at anthesis, soon ageing to 

white, 6–8.2 mm long, the bundle claw 3.5–4.1 mm long, 

0.5–0.6 times as long as the filaments. 

Style 

5–9 mm long. 



Ovules 

c. 15–40 per locule. 



Fruit 

2.5–4 mm long, the calyx 

lobes usually weathering away (the extreme basal portion 

may become more or less woody and persist as undulations 

on the hypanthium rim); cotyledons obvolute.

Natural occurrence:

 Queensland: from the central 

region south to southern and south-eastern Queensland.



Ecology:

 Recorded as occurring in mixed open forest 

and shrubland, mallee scrubland, open eucalypt woodland, 

dense scrubland, on sandy loam, clay pan, and sandy loam 

over sandstone.



Flowering time:

 Recorded as flowering from Septem-

ber to November.



Essential oils:

 This species gave an oil in which 

monoterpenes, based on the pinene skeleton, were the 

major contributors. The principal components identi-

fied were a-pinene (21–43%), a-pinene oxide (3–6%), 

pinocamphone (7–14%), several unknown oxygenated 

monoterpenes (up to 10%) and a-terpineol (3–5%). Ses-

quiterpenes did not contribute much to the oil. The main 

components were aromadendrene (1–3%) and globulol 

(2–5%). An unknown, molecular weight 236, suspected 

of being a phenolic ether (4–9%), was also present.



Oil yield:

 The oil yield (fresh weight, w/w) was 0.3%.

Reference on essential oils: 

Brophy and Doran 1996



Notes:

 This pinkish-mauve-flowered species is suited to 

subtropical regions and can be used as a background or 

screening shrub (Holliday 2004).



Melaleuca 

pallescens

Byrnes


266

Melaleuc

a pallida

 —

 7



. Species ac

counts


Publication:

 Novon 16: 472 (2006)

Derivation:

 pallida, from the Latin palleo, to be pale, in 

reference to the pale colour of the flowers

Synonym:

 Callistemon pallidus (Bonpl.) DC.



Description:

 

Shrub or tree 

1–25 m tall; bark fibrous or 

somewhat papery, hard, yellowish-brown, light brown or 

dark grey. 



Branchlets 

glabrescent, sericeous to sericeous-

pubescent. 

Leaves 

alternate, 20–79 mm long, 4–17 mm 

wide, 2.3–7.5 times as long as wide, long- to short-petio-

late; blade glabrescent, sericeous or sericeous-pubescent, 

narrowly elliptic, narrowly obovate, elliptic or obovate, in 

transverse section transversely linear, sublunate or broadly 

v-shaped, the base attenuate or very narrowly attenuate, 

the apex shortly acuminate or obtusely shortly acuminate, 

the veins pinnate, 6–16, 

oil glands 

sparse or moderately 

dense, distinct or obscure, scattered. 

Inflorescences 

spi-


cate, pseudoterminal and sometimes also upper axillary 

or interstitial, with 15–50 monads, 20–45 mm wide. 



Hypanthium 

hairy to glabrous, 3.1–4.2 mm long. 



Calyx lobes 

abaxially hairy or glabrescent, 1–2.2 mm long, 

herbaceous to the margin. 

Petals 

deciduous, 2.9–6 mm 

long. 

Stamens 

34–70 per flower; filaments pale yellow, yel-

low, lemon or rarely pink or pinkish-red, 8–16 mm long; 

anthers yellow. 



Style 

12–21 mm long. 



Ovules 

c. 70–150 per 

locule. 

Fruit 

3.9–6.6 mm long, the calyx lobes deciduous; 

cotyledons obvolute.

Natural occurrence:

 Queensland, New South 

Wales, Victoria, Tasmania: from the border ranges area 

of Queensland and New South Wales south to eastern 

Victoria and Tasmania.



Ecology:

 Recorded as occurring in wet sclerophyll 

forest along streams, dense shrubbery on river edge, 

Eucalyptus delegatensis forest, margin of coastal heath 

on upper cliff face, swamp, rocky hillside, snow gum 

open forest, gully areas in dry sclerophyll forest, margin 

of Nothofagus temperate rainforest, Eucalyptus pulchella 

woodland with low shrub understorey, on an exposed 

ridge, limestone, and dolerite.



Flowering time:

 Recorded as flowering from October 

to February.

Essential oils:

 This species produced a monoterpenoid 

oil in which the principal components were a-pinene (44–

88%) and 1,8-cineole (0.1–37.0%). There were also lesser 

amounts of camphene (0.2–2.0%), limonene (1–4%) and 

a-terpineol (0.9–5.0%). There were many other monoter-

penes in amounts of less than 0.5% of the total oil. The 

major sesquiterpenes were spathulenol (0.4–0.9%) and 

globulol (0.3%).



Oil yield:

 The oil yield (fresh weight, w/w) was 0.2–0.5%.

Reference on essential oils: 

Brophy et al. 1998, as 

Callistemon pallidus, C. macrandus (an unpublished name)

Notes:

 This is a very variable species, usually occur-

ring as a shrub but a tree form occurs in Tasmania. It is 

commonly cultivated as an ornamental garden shrub in 

temperate Australia but the tree form should be trialled 

for use in parks and larger gardens. Use of the tree form in 

hybridisation with red-flowered bottlebrush species, such 

as M. citrina, may give rise to a range of cultivars with tree 

form but novel flower colours.

Melaleuca 

pallida

(Bonpl.) Craven



267

7. Species ac

counts

 —

Melaleuc



a paludic

ola

Publication:

 Novon 16: 472 (2006)

Derivation:

 paludicola, from the Latin palus, swamp, 

marsh, and -cola, inhabitant, dweller, the epithet having 

been selected to retain a link with an early name of the 

species, Callistemon paludosus

Synonyms:

 Callistemon paludosus F.Muell.; Callistemon 

sieberi DC.

Description:

 

Shrub or tree 

0.6–8 m tall; bark fibrous or 

flaking, hard, pale grey to blackish. 

Branchlets 

glabrescent, 

puberulous to sericeous. 

Leaves 

alternate, 20–68 mm long, 

1.3–8 mm wide, 6–30 times as long as wide, short- to 

long-petiolate; blade glabrescent, lanuginose to sericeous, 

very narrowly elliptic, very narrowly obovate, linear-obovate 

or linear-elliptic, in transverse section transversely linear, 

sublunate or obsublunate, the base very narrowly attenu-

ate or very narrowly cuneate, the apex acute or obtuse, the 

veins pinnate, 11–18, 

oil glands 

dense or moderately dense, 

distinct or obscure, scattered. 

Inflorescences 

spicate, pseudo-

terminal or interstitial, with 10–40 monads, 20–30 mm 

wide. 


Hypanthium 

glabrous or hairy, 2.3–3.2 mm long. 



Calyx lobes 

abaxially hairy (sometimes only with cilia on 

the margin), 0.9–1.5 mm long, scarious in a marginal band 

0.3 mm wide or herbaceous to the margin. 



Petals 

deciduous, 

2.6–4.2 mm long. 

Stamens 

48–67 per flower; filaments yel-

lowish-cream, cream, yellow or rarely pink, 7–11 mm long; 

anthers pink. 



Style 

10–15 mm long. 



Ovules 

c. 110–150 per 

locule. 

Fruit 

3–4.3 mm long, the calyx lobes deciduous; 

cotyledons obvolute.

Natural occurrence:

 South Australia, Queensland, 

New South Wales, Australian Capital Territory, Victoria: 

the Mt Lofty Ranges – Adelaide district in South Australia, 

and the Warwick – border region of Queensland, extend-

ing across the tablelands and coastal regions of New South 

Wales to central and eastern Victoria.



Ecology:

 Recorded as occurring in riparian shrubland, 

dry sclerophyll forest, gorges, sand ridges between flood 

channels, on pale brown silty sand, rocky alluvium, and 

sand among granite rocks.



Flowering time:

 Recorded as flowering from October 

to May.

Essential oils:

 The oil from this species was predomi-

nantly monoterpenoid in nature, with 1,8-cineole (66%) 

being the major component. This was accompanied by 

lesser amounts of a-pinene (2.5%), b-pinene (1.6%), 

limonene (10.0%), p-cymene (1.8%) and a-terpineol 

(6.3%). Sesquiterpenes contributed approximately 10% of 

the oil, with the principal identified members being spathu-

lenol (1.4%), b-caryophyllene (1.0%) and globulol (0.6%). 

This oil was obtained from a population at Girraween 

National Park, Queensland. Collections from Armidale, 

Rye Park and Braidwood, all New South Wales, produced 

no discernible oil.



Oil yield:

 The oil yield (fresh weight, w/w) was <0.01%.

Reference on essential oils: 

Brophy et al. 1998, as 

Callistemon sieberi

Notes:

 This bottlebrush species most recently was known 

as Callistemon sieberi but when transferring the species to 

Melaleuca a new epithet was necessary because sieberi had 

already been used for a plant from coastal Queensland, 

M. sieberi Schauer. Melaleuca paludicola previously had 

been confused with M. pityoides (as C. pityoides).

Melaleuca 

paludicola

Craven


268

Melaleuc

a pancheri

 —

 7



. Species ac

counts


Publication:

 in Craven & Dawson, Adansonia, sér. 3, 

20: 192 (1998)



Derivation:

 pancheri, in honour of Jean Armand Isidore 

Pancher (1814–1877), a French explorer and botanist who 

collected extensively in New Caledonia

Synonym:

 Callistemon pancheri Brongn. & Gris



Description:

 

Shrub or tree 

to 10 m tall; branchlets 

hairy, the hairs woolly. 

Leaves 

40–70 mm long, 15–20 mm 

wide, short- to long-petiolate; blade glabrescent, the hairs 

woolly, narrowly obovate, the base attenuate, the apex 

rounded, the veins longitudinal, 7–10. 

Inflorescences 

sub-


spheroidal,  pseudo terminal. 

Hypanthium 

3–3.5 mm long. 



Calyx lobes 

with long appressed hairs on the abaxial surface, 

1.2–1.8 mm long. 

Petals 

3–5.5 mm long. 



Stamens 

16–20 per 

flower; filaments yellow to yellowish green, 16–24 mm long. 

Style 

24–30 mm long. 



Fruit 

3 mm long.



Natural occurrence:

 New Caledonia: the southern 

part of Grande Terre.

Ecology:

 Recorded as occurring in rainforests of hills or 

plains, or in maquis, in lateritic, more or less deep, colluvial 

soils on ultramafic substrates.



Flowering time:

 Recorded as flowering from May to 

August.


Essential oils:

 This species contained more ses-

quiterpenes than monoterpenes, though the principal 

component was a-pinene (24.8%). This compound 

was accompanied by lesser amounts of linalool (4.0%), 

b-pinene and limonene (both 1.0%) and a-terpineol 

(5.6%). The major sesquiterpenes identified were b-caryo-

phyllene (14.1%), caryophyllene oxide (8.4%), spathulenol 

(7.3%) and globulol (2.8%).



Oil yield:

 The oil yield (fresh weight, w/w) was 0.1%.



Reference on essential oils: 

Hnawia et al. 2012



Notes:

 It is unfortunate that this very attractive species 

cannot be widely grown in subtropical regions but experi-

ence has been that plants from the ultramafic soils of New 

Caledonia are extremely difficult to cultivate.

Melaleuca 

pancheri

(Brongn. & Gris) Craven & J.W.Dawson



269

7. Species ac

counts

 —

Melaleuc



a papillosa

Publication:

 in Craven & Lepschi, Australian Systematic 

Botany 12: 894 (1999)



Derivation:

 papillosa, from the Latin papilla, nipple, 

teat, in reference to the papillate leaf surface

Description:

 

Shrub 

0.5–1.2 m tall. 



Branchlets 

glabres-


cent, more or less matted sericeous to minutely sericeous or 

lanuginose-sericeous. 



Leaves 

alternate, 6.5–14.5 mm long, 

1–1.7 mm wide, 5–11.5 times as long as wide, subsessile 

to short-petiolate; blade glabrescent, more or less matted 

sericeous to lanuginose-sericeous, generally becoming 

more or less lanuginose-pubescent to lanuginose distally, 

linear-obovate, linear or narrowly suboblong, subfalcate 

to falcate, in transverse section depressed obovate, trans-

versely semielliptic to semicircular or transversely elliptic, 

the base narrowly cuneate to attenuate or parallel (blade 

width equals petiole width), the apex acuminate or obtuse 

to rounded, the veins longitudinal, 3, 



oil glands 

moderately 

dense, obscure, more or less in rows to in rows or scattered. 

Inflorescences 

capitate, pseudoterminal and sometimes 

also upper axillary, with 1–3 triads, up to 18 mm wide. 

Hypanthium 

hairy, glabrescent or glabrous, 2–3 mm 

long. 

Calyx lobes 

abaxially glabrous or hairy, 0.4–1 mm 

long, scarious in a marginal band 0.1–0.2 mm wide or 

herbaceous to the margin. 



Petals 

deciduous, 1.2–2 mm 

long. 

Stamens 

4–7 per bundle; filaments pink, purple, 

mauve or purplish-mauve, 6–9.7 mm long, the bundle 

claw 1.4–3.1 mm long, 0.2–0.4 times as long as the fila-

ments. 

Style 

6.5–13 mm long. 



Ovules 

c. 10–20 per locule. 



Infructescences 

peg-fruited. 



Fruit 

3.8–5 mm long, with 

sepaline teeth (these sometimes weakly developed); coty-

ledons obvolute.



Natural occurrence:

 Western Australia: the Fitzger-

ald River district.



Ecology:

 Recorded as occurring in sand plain, heath, 

mallee heath, on sandy loam, quartz sand, and sandy clay 

over laterite.

Flowering time:

 Recorded as flowering in September 

and October.



Essential oils:

 This species produced a leaf oil that was 

predominantly sesquiterpenoid in nature; monoterpenes 

contributed approximately 30% of the oil. The principal 

monoterpene encountered was a-pinene (20.5%). This 

was accompanied by lesser amounts of 1,8-cineole (8.1%), 

linalool (2.1%), b-pinene, terpinen-4-ol, limonene and 

a-terpineol (all <1.5%). The principal sesquiterpenes 

encountered were E,E-farnesol (19.4%), globulol (7.4%), 

viridiflorol (6.0%), bicyclogermacrene (4.9%) and cube-

ban-11-ol (3.2%). The presence of so much E,E-farnesol is 

unusual in a Melaleuca oil.

Oil yield:

 The oil yield (fresh weight, w/w) was 0.3%.



Melaleuca 

papillosa

Turcz. ex Craven



270

Melaleuc

a parvic

ep

s

 7



. Species ac

counts




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