Radix fusiformis, ramosa, sanguinea



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Lewisia Pursh. Bitterroot

  • Radix fusiformis, ramosa, sanguinea. Folia radicalia linearia, subcarnosa, obtusiuscula. Scopus uniflorus and biflorus. Pedicellus basi geniculatus. Caluyx coloratus, scariousus, 7-9 phyllus, patens: foliolia ovatis, acutis, concavis, nervoso-venosis, interioribus angustioribus. Petala 14-18. alba, lanceolata, patentia, calyce vix duplo longiora. Filamenta 14-18. receptaculo petalis opposite inserta, filiformia, calyce breviora. Antherae oblongae, erectae. Germen superum, ovatum, glabrum. Stylus filiformis, staminibus paulo longior, superne trifidus. Stigmata 3. bifida. Capsula oblonga, 3-locularis: loculis bispermis. Semina lenticularia, nitida, nigra.



Radix fusiformis, ramosa, sanguinea.

  • Root swollen at the middle and tapering to each end like a spindle (narrowly ellipsoid), branched, blood red.



Folia radicalia linearia, subcarnosa, obtusiuscula.



Lewisia Pursh. Bitterroot

  • Radix fusiformis, ramosa, sanguinea. Folia radicalia linearia, subcarnosa, obtusiuscula. Scopus uniflorus and biflorus. Pedicellus basi geniculatus. Caluyx coloratus, scariousus, 7-9 phyllus, patens: foliolia ovatis, acutis, concavis, nervoso-venosis, interioribus angustioribus. Petala 14-18. alba, lanceolata, patentia, calyce vix duplo longiora. Filamenta 14-18. receptaculo petalis opposite inserta, filiformia, calyce breviora. Antherae oblongae, erectae. Germen superum, ovatum, glabrum. Stylus filiformis, staminibus paulo longior, superne trifidus. Stigmata 3. bifida. Capsula oblonga, 3-locularis: loculis bispermis. Semina lenticularia, nitida, nigra.



Bitterroot Collecting from Bitterroot: The Montana State Flower by Jerry DeSanto

  • “The plant was dug out by trenching the earth about four or five inches from the plant. Lift the earth and pull out the plant, simultaneously, the entire four to six inch root will come out unharmed. Knock the dirt off, back into the hole, top the plant by pulling at the leaves and buds until they separate from the root. Break a section of the red, root skin at the crown of the root and strip it down. Throw the plant buds and skin back into the hole, to grow again.”



Bitterroot Collecting from Bitterroot: The Montana State Flower by Jerry DeSanto

  • Dug immediately before flowering, the roots were not only high in starch and less bitter, but the unpalatable bark of the roots was also easily slipped off. The most bitter part of the root, the orange-colored living periderm beneath the bark, also was easily removed at this time. The core of the root was excised also as many believed that this was ‘the heart’ of the plant, and you must not eat it because it was sacred.



Bitterroot Collecting from Bitterroot: The Montana State Flower by Jerry DeSanto

  • A strong tradition, supposedly still current, indicates that something of value was offered to the spirits in return for the bounty of bitterroot. This was a simple small item such as a bead placed in the hole after the removal of the first root, or it may have been tobacco, or in later years, a coin. This offering was also made when other plant roots were dug.



Montana Pines

  • Pinus ponderosa W C E

  • Pinus flexilis W C

  • Pinus contorta W C

  • Pinus monticola NW

  • Pinus albicaulis W



Pinus ponderosa Ponderosa Pine



Pinus flexilis Limber Pine



Pinus contorta Lodgepole Pine



Pinus monticola Western White Pine



Pinus albicaulis Whitebark Pine



Polemoniaceae Sub-class: Asteridae

  • The Phlox Family

  • This is a family of only about 300 species, mainly from North America, but also from other parts of the northern hemisphere and the east of South America. It includes plants of all types and sizes, from trees to small annuals. Several species are grown as garden plants, including Phlox, Polemonium and Gilia.

  • The tropical members of this family (Cantua, Cobaea, Huthia, Loeselia, Bonplandia) are mostly woody plants with large flowers and winged seeds. Those from the temperate regions are mostly herbaceous with small flowers and wingless seeds.



Polemoniaceae Sub-class: Asteridae



Polemoniaceae Sub-class: Asteridae

  • CHARACTERISTICS OF THIS PLANT FAMILY:

  • Leaves, Stem & Roots: ~ Leaves are alternate or opposite, and may be undivided or compound (made up of many leaflets). The calyx is made of five parts, fused into a tube. The leaves are sometimes covered in short hairs, making the leaves appear sticky.

  • Flowers: ~ There are five petals, joined to form a flat round or bell shaped flower, and five stamens joined to the flower tube. They may be single or in small clusters, either from the leaf joints or at the end of the stem.

  • Seeds: ~ The seed pod forms inside the flower. It usually has three parts joined to form a pointed capsule which splits into three parts to release the seeds. There may be one or many seeds, and they are often sticky when wet.



Polemoniaceae Sub-class: Asteridae

  • Members of this Family usually have:

  • Five joined sepals

  • Five stamens

  • Corolla made of five parts joined into a tube

  • Alternate or opposite leaves

  • Seed pod with three chambers forming inside the flower

  • Sticky seeds

  • and are perennial or annual deciduous plants



Polemoniaceae Sub-class: Asteridae



Polemoniaceae Sub-class: Asteridae

  • In Montana:

  • Polemonium, Collomia, Microsteris, Phlox, Navarretia, Linanthus, Leptodactylon, Linanthus, Ipomopsis, Gilia



Polemoniaceae Collomia debilis (Wats.) Greene.



Polemoniaceae Phlox albomarginata Jones



Polemoniaceae Linanthus septentrionalis Mason



Polemoniaceae Leptodactylon pungens



Polemoniaceae Ipomopsis aggregata



Polemoniaceae Polemonium viscosum Nutt.



Hydrophyllaceae Sub-class: Asteridae

  • The Waterleaf Family

  • This is a small family of about 250 species, distributed around the world but perhaps mainly coming from the Americas. They are all annual or perennial herbs or undershrubs. Most are grown as ornamental plants, with no economically useful plants in the Family. Some of the most popular and well-known plants are Nemophila and Phacelia species, while plants from tropical America include Wigandia and Nama.



Hydrophyllaceae Sub-class: Asteridae

  • Characteristics of this Plant Family:

  • Leaves, Stem & Roots ~ The leaves are usually hairy or with glands, simple or compound, with no stipules. They are mainly alternate, rarely opposite.

  • Flowers ~ There are five free sepals and five petals fused at the base. The flowers are most often blue or purple, often wheel, bell or funnel shaped, and are usually borne in cymes. There are five stamens at the base of the corolla tube.

  • Seeds ~ The ovary is superior, and the fruit is a capsule containing many seeds.



Hydrophyllaceae Sub-class: Asteridae



Hydrophyllaceae Sub-class: Asteridae

  • Members of this Family usually have:

  • Blue or purple flowers

  • Hairy leaves without stipules

  • Seed capsule containing many seeds

  • and are annual or perennial herbs or small shrubs (not climbers or trees)



Hydrophyllaceae Sub-class: Asteridae

  • In Montana:

  • Hesperochiron, Phacelia, Nemophila, Ellisia, Romanzoffia, Hydrophyllum



Hydrophyllaceae Hesperochiron pumilus (Griseb.) Porter



Hydrophyllaceae Hydrophyllum capitatum Dougl. ex Benth.



Hydrophyllaceae Phacelia linearis (Pursh) Holz.



Hydrophyllaceae Ellisia nyctelea (L.) L.



Hydrophyllaceae Nemophila breviflora Gray



Boraginaceae Sub-class: Asteridae

  • This is a family of around 2000 species, occurring mainly in Europe and Asia, especially in the Mediterranean region. Most of them are herbs, although there are some woody plants. Most of them are grown as ornamental plants, although some are a source of dye or have medicinal uses. The most well-known members of the Family include Forget me Not (Myosotis), Heliotrope (Heliotropium), the Comfreys (Symphytum), Borage (Borago), and Hound's Tongue (Cynoglossum).



Boraginaceae Sub-class: Asteridae

  • Characteristics of this Plant Family:

  • Leaves, Stem & Roots ~ The stems are usually covered in rough hairs, as are the leaves and inflorescence. The leaves are generally alternate, simple and entire, without stipules.

  • Flowers ~ The flowers are borne in a characteristic coiled inflorescence (crozier), the lower ones opening first. There are five sepals, free or joined at the base, and a five-lobed corolla which may be tubular or salver-shaped. There are often scales or hairs at the base or mouth. The flowers are usually regular, or sometimes irregular as in Echium, and usually bisexual, although the female flowers are frequently borne on separate plants. There are five stamens attached to the corolla. The flower color may be pink, purple, yellow or white, but is predominantly blue.

  • Seeds ~ The ovary is superior, and the fruit is either four nutlets or a drupe. The seeds sometimes with hooked or barbed prickles.



Boraginaceae Sub-class: Asteridae

  • Members of this Family usually have:

  • Blue flowers in a coiled inflorescence

  • Hairy stems and leaves

  • No stipules

  • Four seeds

  • and are usually annual or perennial herbaceous plants



Boraginaceae Sub-class: Asteridae



Boraginaceae Sub-class: Asteridae

  • The Boraginaceae Family includes the following genera:

  • Alkanna, Anchusa, Arnebia, Borago, Cerinthe, Cryptanthe, Cynoglossum, Echium, Eritrichium, Heliotropium, Lithospermum, Mertensia, Myosotis, Omphalodes, Pulmonaria, Rindera, Symphytum, Tournefourtia.

  • The ovary of plants in this family is superior, with two parts, often becoming four with a dividing membrane. Each part has one nutlet, held upright or horizontally inside the calyx.



Boraginaceae Sub-class: Asteridae

  • In Montana:

  • Heliotropium, Cynoglossum, Lappula, Hackelia, Echium, Onosmodium, Symphytum, Anchusa, Mertensia, Lithospermum, Amsinckia, Eritrichium, Borago, Anchusa, Asperugo, Myosotis, Crytantha, Plagiobothrys.



Boraginaceae



Boraginaceae Anchusa officinalis L.



Boraginaceae Borago officinalis L.



Boraginaceae Cryptantha spiculifera (Piper) Payson



Boraginaceae Cynoglossum officinale L.



Boraginaceae Echium vulgare L.



Boraginaceae Eritrichium howardii (Gray) Rydb.



Boraginaceae Hackelia micrantha (Eastw.) Gentry



Boraginaceae Lappula myosotis Wolf



Boraginaceae Mertensia oblongifolia (Nutt.) G. Don



Boraginaceae Myosotis alpestris Schmidt



Boraginaceae Symphtum officinale L.



Boraginaceae Lithospermum incisum Lehm.




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