Recommendations concerning inventory of timber, fuelwood, and nontimber products and charcoal species regeneration



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Appendix B. Steps to incorporate data from PROGEDE’S SIEF National inventory into forest management plans and maps


(Taken from the Manual used for training PAEFK Forestry project in Kolda funded by Canadian International Development Agency, 2006)

SHORTLIST

  1. CREATE THE NECESSARY DIRECTORIES AND SUBDIRECTORIES

  2. CREATE A NEW PROJECT IN ARCVIEW

  3. GET DATA FROM EXISTING THEMES: Forest boundaries, Roads, Hydrology, Villages, Inventory plot locations, Occup Sol, Mares; Clip all to one forest boundary and make a map

  4. MAKE THE 3 SERIES OUT OF THE BASE MAPS: Agriculture (from OccupSol); Protection (Mares + Hydrol with buffers); Production (ForetClaire + Savanes Arbustive/Arborée/Boisée + jachères)

  5. ANALYZE, SUMMARIZE AREA AND LENGTH DATA FROM SERIES MAPS

  6. DISPLAY VARIOUS INVENTORY PLOT CHARACTERISTICS THAT DESCRIBE THE TERRAIN

  7. MAKE A 1-HECTARE GRID FOR THE BLOCK AND PARCEL CALCULATIONS

  8. DRAW OUT DATA ON YOUR FOREST FROM THE SIEF AND SAVE OR WRITE DOWN THE DATA TO ADD TO ACCESS: Stems/Basal area/volume per hectare living and dead; no. of plots; Total for forest and for utilization type especially Bois d’énergie

  9. SYNTHESIZE AND INCORPORATE DATA BY STRATUM INTO FOREST POLYGON TABLES (for later estimation of stems, basal area, and volume in the forest, the blocks, and the parcels)

  10. EXTRACT AND GROUP DATA FROM FOREST POLYGON TABLES BY FOREST, BY STRATUM

  11. DO CROSS-ANALYSES IN ACCESS TO GET STEMS/BASAL AREA/VOLUME BY DIAMETER CLASS AND BY STRATUM -- PER HECTARE, PER UTILIZATION

  12. CREATE BLOCKS WITHIN FOREST BOUNDARY BY CLICKING 1-HA SQUARES AND APPLYING THE AVERAGE “SERIE PRODUCTION” VOLUME TO EACH (based on one criterion: total of forest volume of bois d’énergie divided by the number of blocks)

  13. CONSTRUCT PARCELS SIMILARLY BASED ON BOIS D’ENERGIE VOLUME IN EACH BLOCK DIVIDED BY NUMBER OF PARCELS (=8 in Tamba; =12 in Kolda); MAP THE SEQUENCE OF EXPLOITATION WITH COLORFUL POLYGONS

SUMMARY OF IMPROVEMENTS FOR FUTURE USE OF THE SIEF

  • Perform a verification of the plot locations in relation to Yangambi (veg type) classes they represent. (During some mapping exercises, we found that some plots seem to fall outside predicted polygons)

  • Define in more detail how it is decided whether more plots are needed to improve the sample, and how they are incorporated into the calculations once “borrowed” or measured in the field (Steps 3, 8); include a chapter on adding all new plots for a forest heretofore unsampled.

  • Exclude substeps that produce graphs and maps not needed for the management plan (Steps 5, 6, 12)

  • Include a buffer of at least 2km around forests so that roads, villages, and adjoining forest types can be linked to PAF activities inside the boundary. (Step 3)

  • Add automatic report-producing modules in the Access portion of SIEF so that transferring data and tables between Access and Excel can be minimized (Steps 8, 9, 10, 11, 13)

  • Clarify the meaning of-- and use in the PAF volume estimates -- the error calculations provided in SIEF’s Paramètres Dendrométriques (step 8).

  • Consider omitting the Thiessen square grid procedure for adding up volumes in blocks and parcels, in favor of drawing boundaries by eye together with village participants. The same inventory data can be applied to the Yangambi polygons thus enclosed, with more realistic results (steps 7, 12, 13).

DETAILED PROCESS IN 13 STEPS

NOTES: “save .shp” means to save as a shapefile in ArcView

No. (pg) is the STEP NUMBER and (page number) in 2006 PAEFK - CIDA training manual

The theme “OcSol” is an existing map of the Yangambi strata of Senegal (forêt claire, 4 savane types, and others)



SW is the software used for the step: W=Windows, AV=ArcView, Ac=Access, Ex=Excel, S=SIEF

No.

SW

OBJECTIVE

SUBSTEPS

OBSERVATIONS

1

(p7)

W


CREATE NECESSARY DIRECTORIES AND SUBDIRECTORIES

C:\Amenag\[forest name]\

Subdirectories:

\FichierAccess\ (for TraitemtCarto.mdb)

\FichierDbase\ (for .dbf files)

\FichierDoc\

\FichierExcel\

\FichierGIS\ (for \bloc\, \grille\, \parcel\


It is an excellent beginning to require setting up a good directory system right from the start.

2

(p8)

AV

CREATE A NEW PROJECT IN ARCVIEW

Add Extensions Geoprocessing, ArcTrace, and Thiessen

Could combine this step with the next one.

3

(p9)

AV

GET DATA FROM EXISTING THEMES: Forest boundaries, Roads, Hydrology, Villages, Inventory plot locations, Occup Sol, Mares; Clip all to one forest boundary and make a map

  • Add Senegal all forest boundaries

  • Select this forest, save .shp,

  • Add, clip to forest, & save as .shp: Routes, Hydro, Placettes (locations XY from national inv), OcSol, Mares (select & save separate from OcSol)

  • Villages near the forest have to be selected by hand (those participating in the PAF)

  • Combine .shp’s to make forest map

(1) All steps from now on deal only with resources within forest boundaries, not immediately outside them. This makes boundary demarcation more important and ignores resources that straddle boundaries.

(2) If there are no plots from the National Forest Inventory here, they must be “borrowed” from other areas. Dr Dieng of PROGEDE has the knowledge of how to do this.



4

(p16)

AV

MAKE THE 3 SERIES OUT OF THE BASE MAPS:

  • Agriculture (= from Occup Sol);

  • Protection (= Mares + Hydrol with buffers);

  • Production (= Foret Claire + Savanes + jachères)

  • PROTECTION: Buffer mares with 100m, watercourses with 50m; union these themes; save .shp; calc areas.

  • AGRICOLE: Select and save .shp the OcSol “agricole” stratum. Calc areas. subtract out Protection overlapping polys.

  • PRODUCTION: Add themes FC, Savanes, jachères from OcSol; subtract out overlapping Protection polys (save .shp). Make buffer 1m of Routes; save .shp. Union these two and subtract out overlapping routes. Save .shp.

  • Put all series on one map.

(1) THE AGRICULTURE LAND USE CATEGORY CANNOT BE REMOVED FROM THE ANALYSIS EVEN IF IT FALLS INSIDE THE FOREST BOUNDARY. Therefore if you want to exclude agricultural areas from the PAF, a special alternative procedure will have to be developed. (This is because the SIEF uses an established Yangambi land use classes for Senegal)

(2) This step should be re-verified because in the manual the areas in the final map added up to more than the hectares in the forest. (a typo, or a result of a wrong procedure?)



5

(p23)

Ac

-

Ex

ANALYZE, SUMMARIZE AREA AND LENGTH DATA FROM SERIES MAPS FOR PRESENTATION

  • Import data in .dbf from GIS themes forêt, hydro, vgs, mares, routes, ocsol, plac_for, and the 3 series

    • Sum lengths of watercourses, roads

    • Calc area of mares

    • Sum polygon areas by Yangambi stratum, convert to hectares

    • Sum polygon areas by Series, in ha

  • Export sum tables to Excel graphs

(In the manual, the sums of areas in Yangambi strata are wrong)

Displaying the point data as points with differentiated legend is truer to life (if points are properly registered to the polygons).

Most of the summed data in this step have little use for the PAF as graphics (though they may be useful in other biodiversity applications).


6

(26)

Ac

-

AV

DISPLAY VARIOUS INVENTORY PLOT CHARACTERISTICS THAT DESCRIBE THE TERRAIN

(soil types/depth/texture, elevation, slope, erosion, veg cover %/ density, mean tree height)



  • Copy Plac_for table from ArcView into Access; in design view, add fields from STATION table to Plac_for table and update with STATION data; export updated Plac_for.dbf to ArcView; use legend editor to display station point-based info on map. OR --

  • In ArcView, build Thiessen polygons with buffer %=10; add fields to the Plac_for table in Access as above, display polys by variable in legend editor

The Thiessen polygons are not based on natural features and are not really appropriate for presenting data such as elevation or soil type data taken at such wide spacing.

Therefore this could be the point at which a simpler system which uses delineation of blocks BY EYE would diverge. The simpler process would then continue below in step 8.

7

(p35)

Ac

-

AV

MAKE A 1-HECTARE GRID FOR THE BLOCK AND PARCEL CALCULATIONS

  • Write max and min UTM coordinates for the forest.

  • Run program “PointsGrille” in Access to create intersections of 100 distance apart.

  • Export as coord.dbf; import the table into ArcView.

  • In a new view, add Event Theme based on the x and y of coord.dbf. Convert to Grillept.shp.

  • Add the forest boundary theme and edit the event them of Grillept.shp, deleting points outside, so that only points within the forest boundary remain. Work on small section of around 100 points at a time.

  • Run Thiessen sub-program on selected point intersections. When program finishes this section, it will have drawn 1-ha squares connected by the point intersections. Delete the corner shapes which are not even squares. Save each section with the name Grilx.shp (x = successive no.)

  • Cover the whole forest with subsets of points and Grilx.shp files. Group themes in geoprocessing assistant to make one GrilleS.shp.

THIS IS A “LONG AND DEMANDING STEP” IN THE PROCESS: CREATING THE 1-HA GRID REQUIRES HOURS.

AT THE END, YOU HAVE A SERIES OF SQUARES THAT ARE COMPLETELY INDEPENDENT OF NATURAL BOUNDARIES BUT WILL BE USED TO CALCULATE BLOCK AND PARCEL BOUNDARIES.

(It is proposed that this process be replaced by a “manual” (by eye) drawing of block boundaries together with forest management committees or other village representatives.)

One should decide whether the size and location of each block should be relative to or independent of:

- location and density of villages around the forest;

- location and density of Sourgas and charcoal spp. inside and around the forest;

- layout of roads and streams;

- current land uses (zones amodiées, pasture corridors, fields, charcoal production areas)



8

(p40)

S

-

Ac

PULL OUT DATA ON YOUR FOREST FROM THE SIEF AND SAVE OR WRITE DOWN THE DATA TO ADD TO ACCESS:

Stems/Basal area/volume per hectare and per stratum

- FOR TOTAL FOREST

- by UTILIZATION (bois d’Energie and bois d’oeuvre)




  • TOTAL VOLUME: In SIEF-2, choose Afficher Données Détaillées - Inventaires Bassins d’approvisionnement et Tamba-Kolda - Tous les D130 - Par Strate - Une forêt + Une strate - Param. Dendro, Données par Utilisation, and Quantif. Bois Mort.

    • Write down values for each of the 5 strata in the Série Production.

    • NOTE: When you choose the Param. Dendro option, ERROR CALCS ARE PROVIDED based on all plots within the forest within stratum. (SEE OBSERVATION)



The error calculations provided in the “Paramètres Dendros” should be used in describing the confidence interval for volumes of fuelwood which are used in the PAF.

The errors reported are called “Sampling errors” (“Erreur d’échantillonnage”), and there is a p=.05 written next to this. This may mean that what is being reported is 2xSampleError, in the format of a % of the mean. It would be better for the software to display this information properly.

The error level described here for basal area per ha is the one that determines whether more plots should be added.


8

cont

(p44)

S

-

Ac




  • BOIS D’ENERGIE: Repeat the above for D130 between 10 et 25. This will allow comparisons between the total population of trees and the subpopulations of fuelwood.

  • BOIS D’OEUVRE: Repeat again for Autre intervalles D130, entering values 25 to 151. Then copy data for Type d’utilisation = menuiserie fine, ordinaire, and caisserie/coffrage

The process for adding more plots, either by “borrowing” from another area or by doing new fieldwork, is separate and needs to be described.

Ideally, the SIEF program would report all these data automatically through a module for writing reports.



9

(p47)

Ac

-

AV

-

Ac

-

AV

SYNTHESIZE AND INCORPORATE DATA BY STRATUM INTO FOREST POLYGON TABLES (for later estimation of stems, basal area, and volume in the forest, the blocks, and the parcels)

  • Create table BD_DENDR.dbf under \FichierAccess\TraitemtCarto\. Codes for fields, formats, and comments on pg 47 of manual.

    • Add totals recorded in step 8 to appropriate columns

  • Open New View in ArcView; intersect 1-ha grid (step 7) with Series Production (step 4); save ThFor.shp

  • Compute Geometry; assign ID to each hectare square.

  • Export ThFor.dbf to Access

    • Delete fields Buffer, ID_, Area_, Perimeter_, PRCNT_Tot;

    • Add fields V/BE/BED/MP_NHA, V/BE/BED/MG_VolHA, M_VHA

  • Update ThFor.dbf fields from BD_DENDR.dbf (pre-stocked query converts m2 to ha and sums variables for all polys in a stratum: CstrMajForetGrilleExploitable)

  • Export ThFor.dbf back to ArcView via \FichierdBase\ folder. The ThFor.shp theme’s legend can be modified by variables in its new table.

THIS IS WHERE A COLUMN FOR ERROR /CONFIDENCE INTERVAL INFORMATION SHOULD BE ADDED AND USED IN THE PAF
During the calculations of total areas in strata, a comparison should be made with a summarization of hectares by stratum taken directly from the OcSol theme. The hectares presented in the manual (page 26) do not match the area in this forest, thus the procedure needs to be verified.

Suggest leaving all area values in the new table.



10

(p54)

Ac

EXTRACT AND GROUP DATA FROM FOREST POLYGON TABLES FOR ENTIRE FOREST AND FOR EACH STRATUM

  • All variables entered into ThFor.dbf from BD_Dendr are summed for the entire forest and per stratum (recall that BD_Dendr contains per-hectare, per-stratum values; ThFor contains stratum polygons)

If the 1-ha squares were dropped, then BD_Dendr values would be applied to the stratum polygons in the simplified block which is a subset of the Série Production theme. See in step 12 comments

11

(p55)

Ac

DO CROSS-ANALYSES IN ACCESS TO GET STEMS/BASAL AREA/VOLUME BY DIAMETER CLASS AND BY STRATUM -- PER HECTARE, PER UTILIZATION

  • Make new database Traitspécifiq.mdb; import from SIEF the tables DREF_TOUT, ESPECES, RECHESSCLA, CODECLDIA; from TraitmtCarto, the table PLAC_FOR

  • Change 10-cm classes to 5-cm classes (HOW?)

  • Add a field named Classe to the Plac_for table; rename table Pl_for

  • Do cross-analysis with query assistant (“wizard”):

    • Results desired: 2 tables of Espèces - totals (distributions of stems and volumes), by utilization and diam class

    • Line headings: Codetarif.Famille

    • Column headings: CodeUtil

(The 5-cm class may be due to the inventory design which had a plot design based on 10 to 20cm in one plot size. This requires that trees between 20 and 25cm diameter must be pulled out and treated separately so they can be added into the exploitable fuelwood utilization class.) THE PROCEDURE AND REASON FOR CHANGING TO 5-CM CLASSES ARE NOT CLEAR --

It should be noted that the word “Classe” leads to some confusion in the database and one should always be aware if one is talking about a Yangambi stratum, a Landsat stratification, a diameter class, or an explanation of code meanings.



11

cont

(p59)

Ac




  • Pre-stocked queries in Access do the cross-analyses for distribution of stems by SPECIES - by utilization and diameter class (“ForetNombre”). NOTE: the forest sum for each species is divided by the number of plots done in the forest.

  • Totals by species are further distributed by stratum (“Stratx_Nombre”).

  • (Not clear why the average per plot is calculated here --pg 60 )

  • IF NO PLOTS OR NOT ENOUGH PLOTS, LOAD IN A TABLE FROM THE ZONE AND DO THE QUERY BASED ON THAT TABLE (how to choose plots?)

NOTE: The sum of each species divided by all plots in forest gives average species per hectare according to all plotwork in the forest regardless of whether it fell in or out of production series; thus its average describes all the series (prod, prot, agric). When you divide the 5 “production” stratum sums by the number of plots in the stratum, they are an average only for the production series. Thus the whole forest has 77 plots, while the production series has only 66. WHY CALCULATE THIS? (NOTE: NUMBER OF PLOTS IN THE MANUAL FIGURE PG 32 = 27; IN SIEF-2, TABLE PlacMaBa = 48)

11

cont
(p60)

Ex

PLOT SIEF RESULTS FOR SPECIES AND DIAMETER DISTIRIBUTION IN EXCEL; modify tables

  • Copy table of stem distrib into Excel.

    • Sum Column 2

    • Add a column before species code: Total stems in one species/ total of all species (format: integers)

    • Add row that sums by diam class

    • Add row below this for % represent.

    • Bring in species names from Access table Code ClDiam; transpose to match format.

  • Do Graphs of species and diam distributions in Excel.

  • Make table from a query to ThFor.dbf that shows Stratum, Area, Total stems, Total volume, Stems of Bois d’Energie, Volume Bois d’Energie, Stems of exploitable BE, Vol of exploitable BE, Vol of dead wood.

The Reporting format could be simplified by adding pre-designed reports in the Access part of SIEF, RATHER THAN DOING EVERYTHING BY HAND IN EXCEL.

NOTE: Although no deduction of volume is made in the software, the manual says that one half the volume in the table will be taken.

The exploitants are to follow the protocol of cutting only half the stems as described by service forestier: If they cut half the total stems but they are all the biggest stems, then they have cut more than half the volume.


12

(p68)

Av

CREATE BLOCKS WITHIN FOREST BOUNDARY BY CLICKING 1-HA SQUARES AND APPLYING THE AVERAGE “SERIE PRODUCTION” VOLUME TO EACH

(based on one criterion: total of forest volume of bois d’énergie divided by the number of blocks)



  • Divide total volume of BE_expl or BED_volha from ThFor.dbf (10-25 cm diam) by the number of blocks to be devised in your forest.

  • Open Forest.apr of your forest, new view; load ThFor.shp and activate.

  • Select 1-ha squares and keep summarizing (by the Sum.. function) the field containing volume per ha, until the quotient above is reached.

  • Save the selected squares in shapefile BlGr1.shp.



Recall that the regressions used to estimate volume per tree include all above-ground woody biomass, that is, the branches and stems. Thus the estimations for charcoal volume are overestimated by some 20% (see report text). If volumes are eventually adjusted, then this will affect current volumes per hectare.

The manual has a different value for exploitable bois d’énergie on page 75 and on page 68. (Possibly they are displaying the “exploitable wood” in all series, not just Production?)

Again, it is mentioned that half the volume in this table should be cut in the field, but the software does not calculate that.

IF THE FOREST SERVICE IS ADAMANT ABOUT TAKING HALF THE VOLUME, then it should be calculated automatically in the software.



12

cont
(p70)

Av




  • Repeat for all blocks (BlGrx.shp).

  • Add a repeatable legend for each block.shp.

    • If All species’ biomass is needed, then intersect GrilleS in step 9 with Foret.shp instead of with S_Prod.shp; use same block boundaries as in this step; clip OcSol by Block themes one by one -- manual pg 71

  • Aggregate each square-filled block into new .shp using geoprocessor on field ___.

  • Sum values for the 5 Yangambi strata contained in each block by Aggregating on the field called “Class” in block .dbf. Group by “Premier de Nom_Strate” and save in Bx_Occ.shp.

  • Apply same legend as that for S_Prod map.

  • Find exploitable wood volumes for each block and stratum in the BlGrx.dbf tables.

If the 1-ha square grid is omitted, then one would

- select all the Yangambi strata polygons within defined blocks/parcels with natural/ village-drawn boundaries, and save them into their own .shp;

- apply the BD_DENDR per-hectare stratum-based data to the block’s polygons;

- calculate total volumes, Basal area, and stems within blocks and parcels by summing the values for [(applicable variable per hectare) X (hectares in the poly)]

The substep (page 72) of overlaying the OcSol layer onto the block is moot, because the block has already been delimited by using average volume/ha applied to many 1-ha squares.


13

(p75)

Av

CONSTRUCT PARCELS SIMILARLY BASED ON BOIS D’ENERGIE VOLUME IN EACH BLOCK DIVIDED BY NUMBER OF PARCELS (=8 in Tamba; =12 in Kolda); MAP THE SEQUENCE OF EXPLOITATION WITH COLORFUL POLYGONS

  • The steps are the same as constructing blocks, but only use the Series Production.

  • Load BlGrx.shp and select squares until sum of BED_Volha = (total block volume) divided by (number of parcels); save each Px.shp.

  • Before going to a second block’s parcels, in the current block’s parcel’s .dbf, add column for Bloc No. and Parcel No.; fill in.

  • After all blocks are covered, Regroup parcels by block (Geoprocessor: agréger/group themes - recapBx.shp)

    • Combine files from this grouping by aggregating based on (parcel no. field); sum the other fields.

    • Result: ParcelNo. = heading, underneath are sum_V_NHA etc

  • Export ParcBx.dbf to Access




13

cont

(77)

Ac




  • Modify ParcBx.dbf by

    • Change names to be more descriptive (manual pg 77)

    • Add field EXP to refer to year of exploitation to be assigned on map

  • Export back to ArcView

  • Combine ParcBx.shp with recapBx.shp for all blocks into Parcel.shp.

  • It is possible to make OcSol by Parcel, using the Px.shp and aggregating entities by classe or nom_strate.

  • Make a map of Exploitation years attached to Parcels within blocks. “Only Criterion is: the parcels that are cut in the same year cannot be contiguous (avoid human problems associated with proximity of cuts)”. Attach the number of the year of exploitation to the parcel in the field “EXP” in the Parcel.dbf table.

The alternative procedure, wherein blocks are drawn by with input from local residents, would be similar in that parcels could consist of equal subdivisions within blocks to match the proposed rotation. (8 years were used in Missirah; 12 years in the Kolda training example for the Forêt Classée of Mahon-Bakor.)

Mapping and presentation procedures would be similar to what is presented in the training manual.



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