Record of views formed in response to inquiries



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Mini jelly cups containing konjac and glucomannan in tablet form are both banned in Australia (as potential choking hazards). See the Product Safety Australia website for more information: www.productsafety.gov.au.

Korean supplement drink (2) including Angelica Keiskei, Artemisia princes, Ganoderma lucidum, and Cordyceps

  • Non-traditional food

  • Novel food

Safety concerns based on potential for adverse effects in humans.

Korean supplement drink (containing lotus seeds and root (Nelumbo nucifera syn. Nelumbium speciosum), sea tangle or kelp (Laminaria japonica), jew’s marrow (Corchorus olitorius))

No safety concerns at the proposed low level of use of ingredients.

Kupua (Theobroma grandiflorum) – frozen puree

  • Non-traditional food

  • Not novel food

History of use in Brazil and Peru. No indication of safety concerns.

Lactobacillus (new strains)

  • Non-traditional food

  • Novel food

Although there is a history of use of Lactobacillus bulgaricus in yoghurt, new lactobacillus strains would be non-traditional foods in Australia and New Zealand.

Lactobacillus acidophilus

  • Traditional food

  • Not novel food

Long history of use in yoghurt and fermented milk products. It is also used in complementary medicines.

Lactobacillus paracasei KW3110 (heat killed)

  • Non-traditional food

  • Novel food

Safety not established in food – potential effects on immune system. View is for heat killed Lactobacillus paracasei KW3110 only.

Lactobacillus paracasei

  • Non-traditional food

  • Not novel food

Used as a probiotic internationally. No safety concerns identified.

Note: this view is distinct from the previous view for heat killed L. paracasi KW3110 (see above).



Lactobacillus plantarum

  • Traditional food

  • Not novel food

Long history of use in fermented food products. It is also used as a probiotic.

Lactobacillus reuteri

(NCIMB 30242 strain)



  • Traditional food

  • Not novel food

History of consumption L. reuteri in general population. L. reuteri NCIMB 30242 is a strain that is present in, and consistent with the characteristics of the L. reuteri species as a whole.

View is for NCIMB 30242 strain only.



Lactoferrin (Bovine) for use in dairy products at 10-100 mg/100mL or 100 g

  • Traditional food

  • Not novel food

Normal constituent of bovine milk at 20-200 μg/mL (2-20 mg/100 mL). Proposed use in yoghurt is within the normal range of dietary intake of lactoferrin from dairy foods in the diet. Traditional food when used in this way.

Lapacho (Tabebuia impetiginosa, T.avellanedae) – also known as Pau d’Arco

  • Non-traditional food

  • Novel food

Studies in rats indicate fetotoxic and embryotoxic effects of the characterising chemical constituent, lapachol. Known potential for adverse effects in humans.

Larch arabinogalactan (Larix occidentalis)

  • Non-traditional food

  • Not novel food

Arabinogalactan (larch gum, 409) is approved for use as a Schedule 2 food additive in Standard 1.3.1. Non-traditional when used as a food ingredient. No safety concerns identified based on its history of safe use as a food additive.

L-Arginine alpha-ketoglutarate

  • Non-traditional food

  • Novel food

Safety not established for proposed pattern and level of use.

Lavender (Lavendula angustifolia)

  • Traditional food

  • Not novel food

Traditional use for purpose of flavouring. No safety concerns at proposed low level of use.

Lemon aspen fruit (Acroychia acidula)

  • Traditional food

  • Not novel food

Tradition of use as a food in Australia.

Lemon myrtle (Backhousia citriodora)

  • Traditional food

  • Not novel food

Tradition of use in a number of food applications and appears to have been available (in this context) in Australia for a number of years.

Lithothamnium calcareum (also known as Phymatolithon calcareum or red seaweed)

  • Non-traditional food

  • Not novel food

No safety concerns identified.

Long neck turtle (Chelodina longicollis)

  • Non-traditional food

  • Not novel food

Limited history of use in population sub-groups with safety concerns identified based on this use. The sale of the meat of long-neck turtles is not covered by the Code and would require permission for human consumption under State or Territory law.

Luo han guo extract (Siraitia grosvenorii, otherwise known as Momordica P.E.)

  • Regulate as a food additive (intense sweetener)

Extract contains a high level of mogroside, an intense sweetener. No Application for approval of extract as an intense sweetener received.

Luo han guo fruit juice extract concentrate (PureLo™)

Note: this view was previously termed a ‘concentrate’. Upon further consideration, it is more appropriate to refer to this product as an extract.



  • Regulate as a food additive (intense sweetener)

No application for approval of extract concentrate as an intense sweetener. Permission required for approval of concentrate as an intense sweetener since it contains a high level of mogroside and proposed use is as sweetener, including a table-top sweetener.

Luo han guo fruit juice (Siraitia grosvernorii - also known as monk fruit juice)

  • Traditional food

  • Not novel food

Tradition of use as a food in Australia and New Zealand, particularly in traditional Asian diets.

This view is distinct from the previous Luo han guo extract views. This view relates to the juice of the fruit and not to extracts that concentrate the level of mogrosides present in the fruit. The total mogroside content of the juice is approximately 5%.



Lycopene-enriched tomato extracts

  • Non-traditional food

  • Not novel food

No safety concerns identified. Composition comparable to tomato paste products.

Maca powder (Lepidium meyenii)

  • Non-traditional food

  • Not novel food

History of safe use in South America. No concerns regarding composition.

Mangosteen juice (Garcinia mangostena)

  • Traditional food

  • Not novel food

Traditional use as a food. No safety concerns identified.

Mangosteen rind powder (Garcinia mangostana)

  • Non-traditional food

  • Not novel food

Non-traditional food in Australia and New Zealand. No safety concerns identified.

Manuka oil as a flavour ingredient

  • Regulate as a food additive (flavour)

If used only at levels necessary to impart flavour, can be regulated as a food additive. If it were used in greater quantities, then it would be considered a food ingredient in its own right and may be considered non-traditional and/or novel.


Manuka leaf and stem (Leptospermum scoparium)

  • Traditional food

  • Not novel food

Tradition of use as a food in New Zealand. Note: This view updates the previous view of Novel Foods Reference Group and is based on additional information on products available in the New Zealand market.

Melaleuca (Melaleuca quinquenervia) isolates

  • Regulate as a food additive (preservative)

Intended purpose is as a preservative. No application received for approval as a food additive.

Mesophylum superpositum

(algae, previously identified as Lithothamnion superpositum – product also known as AlgaeCal®)



  • Non-traditional food

  • Not novel food

No tradition of use as a food in Australia and New Zealand. However, no safety concerns identified with intended use of the powdered product in foods at up to 500mg per day.

Methyl cellulose and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose

  • Non-traditional food

  • Novel food

Non-traditional when used as ingredients in foods rather than as food additives. Safety not assessed in context of potential for greater consumption as ingredients in foods.

Mintbush

(Prostanthera incisa, Prostanthera rotundifolia)



  • Traditional food

  • Not novel food

Tradition of use as a food in Australia.

Milk basic protein

(also known as bovine milk basic protein fraction)



  • Non-traditional food

  • Not novel food

No safety concerns identified at intended levels of use. Intended to be added to milk products, yoghurt, cheese, meal replacement and juice (up to 40mg/serve).

Product is comprised primarily of milk proteins lactoferrin and lactoperoxidase (approximately 95%). The ACNF noted that although the product is not likely to be considered a novel food, it is perhaps likely that the product will meet the definition of nutritive substance in Standard 1.1.1 of the Code. Nutritive substances are prohibited from being added to foods in Australia and New Zealand. An application to amend the Code is required for any product that meets the definition of nutritive substance in Standard 1.1.1 of the Code.

Suppliers should consult with a food enforcement agency before adding this product to food.


Momordica grosvenori juice (as a sweetener)

  • Regulate as a food additive (intense sweetener)

Not approved as an intense sweetener

Monk fruit juice – see ‘Luo han guo fruit juice’ entry







Moringa oleifera leaf (malunggay)

  • Non-traditional food

  • Novel food

Safety is not established as a food – potential for pharmacological effects based on its use as a traditional medicine.

Moringa oleifera (powdered mix of seed, leaf and fruit (seed pod))

  • Non-traditional food

  • Novel food

Safety not established – potential for adverse effects in humans.

Muntries (Kunzea pomifera)

  • Traditional food

History of use in Australia.

Mycoprotein from Fusarium venenatum (QuornTM)

  • Non-traditional food

  • Not novel food

Non-traditional in Australia and New Zealand, but has been widely available elsewhere for over 20 years. Reported cases of adverse events (gastrointestinal disturbance and allergy) are very rare.

No safety concerns identified.



Nata de Coco (a fermented coconut-gel dessert)

  • Traditional food

  • Not novel food

Fermented coconut extract with tradition of use as a food and no safety concerns identified.

Oat fibre (powdered material prepared from oat hull)

  • Non-traditional food

  • Not novel food

Non-traditional food because the oat hull is used to prepare insoluble dietary fibre in powdered form. The oat hull is not normally consumed as part of the diet. No safety concerns identified.

Olive fruit extract

(elaVidaTM 40%)



(derived from the fruit of Olea europaea)

  • Non-traditional food

  • Not novel food

No safety concerns identified levels of use (up to 20mg/day of hydroxytyrosol). The components of extract already consumed by general population at similar levels (through olive and olive product consumption).

Olive fruit juice (liquid concentrate and powder - HIDROX®)

(derived from the fruit of Olea europaea)

  • Non-traditional food

  • Not novel food

No history of use of concentrated olive juice and powder as a food or ingredient in food in Australia and New Zealand. No safety concerns identified. Equivalent to olive fruit consumption in general population.

Olive leaf (Olea europaea)

  • Non-traditional food

  • Novel food

Non traditional food in Australia and New Zealand. History of use of olive leaf extract for medicinal purposes but not dry leaf as a food. Safety not established.

Olive leaf extract

(Olea europaea)

  • Non-traditional food

  • Novel food

No history of use of olive leaf extract as a food or ingredient in food in Australia and New Zealand. Safety is not established as a food – potential for pharmacological effects based on its use as a traditional and complementary medicine. Potential for adverse effects at high dietary intakes.

Passionflower (Passiflora incarnata)

  • Traditional food

  • Not novel food

No safety concerns identified at proposed low levels of use.

Patagonol (extract of Aristotelia chilensis)

Intended use appears to be as an additive – colouring or antioxidant. Likely considered non-traditional and novel if used in quantities greater than additive levels of use. Either way, an application would be required before could be used in food.

Perilla oil (derived from the seeds of Perilla frutescens)

  • Non-traditional food

  • Novel food

Non-traditional food in Australia and New Zealand. Safety concerns – purported antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory actions. May be unsuitable for some population sub-groups, e.g. Infants, children, pregnant and lactating women.

Phytostanols derived from tall oils

  • Non-traditional food

  • Novel food

Safety not established for proposed pattern and level of use.

Phytosterol esters derived from vegetable oils

  • Non-traditional food

  • Novel food

Safety not established for proposed pattern and level of use. Approved novel food in Standard 1.5.1 in spreads (A410), ‘healthy’ breakfast cereal (A433), and low-fat milk and yoghurt (A434).

Phytosterol/phytostanol mixture derived from vegetable or tall oils

  • Non-traditional food

  • Novel food

Safety not established for proposed pattern and level of use Application to FSANZ – subsequently withdrawn by applicant.

Phytosterols - free phytosterols derived from tall oils

  • Non-traditional food

  • Novel food

Safety not established for proposed pattern and level of use.

Approved novel food in Standard 1.5.1 in spreads (A417) and low-fat milk (A508)



Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.)

  • Traditional food

  • Not novel food

Tradition of use as food with no safety concerns identified.

Pine bark extract

  • Non-traditional food

  • Not novel when used as a surface treatment for cut fruit at 18 mg/L.

  • Other uses considered as a food additive.

Intended use will have a minimal impact due to: the small amount used on cut fruit; and the small number of products anticipated on the market.

No application required when used as a surface treatment agent for cut fruit at this level.

Other food uses of pine bark extract would be considered to have food additive (preservative) function and an application would be required to amend Standard 1.3.1.


Pine bark extract (Enzogenol®)

This view relates to the use of pine bark extract as an ingredient, rather than as a preservative (see preceding view for preservative function)



  • Non-traditional food

  • Novel food

No tradition of use as a food in Australia and New Zealand. Pine bark is not a traditional food source. Safety of use as a food ingredient is not established at intended levels of use (greater levels than the use described above as a surface treatment for cut fruit).
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