Record of views formed in response to inquiries



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Coffee berry (whole fruit of Coffea arabica)

  • Non-traditional food

  • Novel food

Use of whole fruit of coffee plant is not traditional in Australia and New Zealand (although use of the seed, or coffee bean, is traditional). History of use in Africa and Middle East. Safety not established.

Note: New entry for dried and powdered coffee berry (above).



Colostrum (bovine, pre-milk produced by the cow’s mammary glands in the first 72 hours after birth of the calf)

Non-traditional food in the population in Australia and New Zealand. No safety concerns identified.

(This view has been amended to correct the previous reference to bovine colostrum being a traditional food for infants. The ACNF considered that bovine colostrum is not a traditional food for infants).



Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)

  • Non-traditional food

  • Novel food

Safety concerns based on structure and proposed pattern and level of use. Two Applications received by FSANZ in 2008 (A1005 and A1012)

Cordyceps sinensis

  • Non-traditional food

  • Novel food

No tradition of use of Cordyceps sinensis as a food in Australia and New Zealand. Safety is not established as a food – potential for pharmacological effects based on its use as a traditional medicine. In addition, potential adverse effects have been reported in scientific literature.

Corn fibre (referred to as corn Ztrim)

  • Traditional food

  • Not novel food

Corn fibre (insoluble dietary fibre) in powdered form is prepared from dry milled corn bran.

Cornus mas

(Cornelian cherry)



  • Non-traditional food

  • Not novel food

Limited evidence of use as a food in Australia and New Zealand. However, there is a history of safe use as a food in other countries. No identified safety concerns based on the composition of the fruit.

Note. This view relates only to the edible portion of the fruit of Cornus mas.



Cornus officinalis

(Japanese Cornelian cherry)



  • Non-traditional food

  • Not novel food

Limited evidence of use as a food in Australia and New Zealand. However, there is a history of safe use as a food in other countries. No identified safety concerns based on the composition of the fruit.

Note. This view relates only to the edible portion of the fruit of Cornus officinalis.



Cranberry extract powder

  • Traditional food

  • Not novel food

Cranberry extract powder produced from cranberry juice concentrate. Sugars and organic solids are removed, while phenolic compounds are retained in the extract. Intended use of the extract in beverage products as a source of phenolic compounds. Components of cranberry extract powder have a history of consumption from cranberry juice products.

This view only applies to cranberry extract powder added to beverages at a level that ensures the concentration of phenolic compounds in the final product is not greater than the concentration of these compounds in cranberry juice products.



α-Cyclodextrin

  • Non-traditional food

  • Novel food




Safety not established for proposed pattern and level of use Application to FSANZ (A494). Permission in Standard 1.5.1.

γ-Cyclodextrin

  • Non-traditional food

  • Novel food

Safety not established for proposed pattern and level of use. Application to FSANZ (A438). Permission in Standard 1.5.1.

Dairy mineral concentration (Lactosalt Optitaste)

  • Non-traditional food

  • Not novel food

Non-traditional food in Australia and New Zealand in context presented. Isolation and concentration of milk minerals and subsequent addition to other foods is not consistent with the history of consumption of dairy products. No safety concerns identified.

Damiana (Turnera diffusa or Turnera aphrodisiaca, same species) – non-culinary herb

  • Non-traditional food.

  • Not novel food when used in beverages at less than 100 mg/100 ml

No safety concerns identified at low levels of use. No application required when in beverages at less than 100 mg/100 ml.

Davidson Plum (Davidsonia pruriens, Davidsonia, jerseyana, Davidsonia johnsonii)

  • Traditional food

  • Not novel food

Tradition of use as a food, mainly in Australia.

Deer Horn Extract (powder – deer velvet)

  • Non-traditional food

  • Novel food

Used in complementary medicines. Safety concerns based on potential for adverse effects in humans.

Dermatan Sulphate

  • Non-traditional food

  • Novel food

Used for therapeutic purposes for anti-thrombotic effects. Safety not established in context of potential for increased dietary exposure when added to foods.

Desert lime fruit (Citrus glauca)

  • Traditional food

  • Not novel food

Tradition of use as a food in Australia.

Diacyl glycerol (DAG) oil

  • Non-traditional food

  • Novel food

Safety concerns based on structure and proposed pattern and level of use. Application to FSANZ (A505). Permission in Standard 1.5.1.

Diatomaceous earth

  • Non-traditional food

  • Not novel food

No safety concerns identified at proposed levels of use (one heaped teaspoon (6g) per day and as an ingredient in spelt bread (12g/620g loaf).

Members noted diatomaceous earth is also a generally permitted processing aid in Standard 1.3.3 of the Code. Use as a processing aid is required to meet the specification requirements for identity and purity referenced in Standard 1.3.4 of the Code. The ACNF considered that diatomaceous earth used as an ingredient should also meet these specification requirements. Therefore, this view relates only to diatomaceous earth that meets the specification requirements referenced in Standard 1.3.4 of the Code.



Dieffenbachia amoena (dried vegetable)

  • Non-traditional food

  • Novel food

Significant safety concerns identified.

D-Mannose

  • Non-traditional food

  • Novel food

Safety not established for proposed pattern and level of use.







Outcome view reaffirmed by ACNF in February 2015. Safety of use as a food not established. D-Mannose products appear to typically be marketed as supplements associated with the treatment or prevention of urinary tract infections. Potential medicinal type effects and possible adverse effects would need to be assessed before safety for use as a food in Australia and New Zealand can be established.

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) powder sourced from algae Crypthecodinium cohnii

  • Traditional food for infants

  • Not novel food

Traditional food for infants. Non-traditional in general population but no safety concerns identified.

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) sourced from Schizochytrium sp. marine algae

  • Non-traditional food

  • Novel food

Safety of source from which DHA is derived is not established – potential for presence of undesirable substances. Application to FSANZ (A428). Permission in Standard 1.5.1.

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) rich oil sourced from Schizochytrium sp. marine algae

  • Traditional food

  • Not novel food

DHA rich oil sourced from Schizochytrium sp. has been a permitted novel food ingredient in Australia and New Zealand since 2002. The DHA:EPA ratio in the DHA & EPA rich oil is similar to existing ratios in fish oils.

Dong quai (Angelica sinensis) powdered root

  • Non-traditional food

  • Novel food

Reports of adverse effects when used in Chinese medicine. Safety not established.

D-Ribose

  • Non-traditional food

  • Novel food

Safety not established for proposed pattern and level of use. Proposed levels of use are likely to result in patterns and levels of consumption of the free form of D-Ribose that are greater than existing intake from foods.

D-Tagatose

  • Non-traditional food

  • Novel food

Safety not established for proposed pattern and level of use. Application to FSANZ (A472). Permission in Standard 1.5.1

Edible insects Zophobas morio (super mealworm), Achaeta domestica (house crickets), and Tenebrio molitor (mealworm beetle)

  • Non-traditional food

  • Not novel food

Non-traditional in Australia and New Zealand. No safety concerns identified. Labelling of true nature of food required.

Equisetum arvense (horsetail)

(stem and strobilus as an ingredient in a powdered beverage base at a level of 0.008% - resulting in 8mg per serve of final product per day)



  • Non-traditional food

  • Not novel food

No safety concerns identified at intended level of use.

Essential oils as flavourings

  • Regulate as food additives (flavours)




So long as these are not listed in Standard 1.4.4, their use as flavourings would be permitted under Standard 1.3.1. Use as a flavouring assumes that they would be used in small amounts.

Evening primrose seed

  • Non-traditional food

  • Not novel food

No safety concerns identified at the proposed levels of use.

Finger lime (Citrus australasica)

  • Traditional food

  • Not novel food

Tradition of use as a food in Australia.

Flaxseed oil with added lignans (LinumLife)

  • Non-traditional food

  • Novel food

No tradition of use in the context presented. Some safety concerns related to the levels of phytoestrogens.

Fonio

grain from Digitaria exilis – White Fonio)



  • Non-traditional food

  • Not novel food

No tradition of use as a food in Australia and New Zealand. However, no safety concerns identified with intended use of Fonio in a variety of ways (steamed as couscous, cooked like porridge, milled into flour and otherwise used as an ingredient in foods).

Fragrant pepperbush (see Tasmannia glaucifolia)







Fresh bamboo shoots

  • Traditional food

  • Not novel food

Traditional food (particularly of canned product), however knowledge about appropriate preparation of fresh product required to ensure safe consumption. Requirement for preparation instructions in Standard 1.2.6 – Directions for Use and Storage.

Fulvic acid (see Humic – fulvic acid)







Gac (juice derived from the fruit of Momordica cochinchinensis, Spreng)

  • Non-traditional food

  • Not novel food

Non-traditional food in Australia and New Zealand. History of food use in Asia. No safety concerns identified based on composition of the fruit or the juice.

Galactooligosaccharides

Traditional in dairy based foods as a result of fermentation and/or hydrolysis of lactose. Detected in low-lactose infant formula manufactured for over 20 years, and numerous other dairy based products.

Proposal P306 in progress. Application A598 on hold awaiting outcomes of P306.



Ganoderma lucidum

  • Non-traditional food

  • Novel food

Little evidence of use of Ganoderma lucidum as a food in Australia and New Zealand. Safety is not established as a food – potential for pharmacological effects based on its use as a traditional medicine. In addition, potential adverse effects have been reported in scientific literature.

Garcinia cambogia (source of 5-hydroxycitric acid)

  • Non-traditional food

  • Novel food

Safety concerns based on potential for adverse effects in humans.

Ginkgo nut

  • Non-traditional food

  • Novel food

Non-traditional food in Australia and New Zealand. Safety concerns as it contains 4’-O-methylpyridoxine which is heat stable, cannot be deactivated by cooking and can only be removed by washing.

(High) β-Glucan cereals

  • Non-traditional food

  • Not novel food

Natural variety sourced from a cereal fraction with high natural levels of β-glucan. No safety concerns identified.

β-Glucan derived from barley, produced using a natural milling and separation process, potentially followed by further processing – e.g. enzymatic starch hydrolysis at elevated temperature with ethanol precipitation

  • Non-traditional food

  • Not novel food

No safety concerns identified with the production method employed.

β-Glucan derived from oats

  • Traditional food

  • Not novel food

Intended use likely to result in similar exposure to β-Glucans currently in the diet from consumption of oats and other β-Glucan containing foods. This view relates to the use of a 70% β-Glucan product derived from oats at up to 4% of in foods (resulting in up 3 grams of β-Glucan per serve).

β-Glucan derived from yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)

  • Traditional food

  • Not novel food

Derived from cell wall of this yeast that is commonly used and present in a wide variety of foods. Intended levels of use are similar to current intake from the diet in Australia and New Zealand.

Glucosamine sulphate

  • Non-traditional food

  • Novel food

Safety not established at the proposed level. Used as complementary medicine.

Goji juice derived from the goji berry (Lycium barbarum)

  • Non-traditional food

  • Not novel food

Both the fruit and the juice are non-traditional in Australia and New Zealand. No safety concerns identified based on composition of the berry or the juice. History of food use in central Asia.

Grape pomace extract

  • Non-traditional food

  • Not novel food

No concerns regarding composition or safety.

Grapeseed extract

  • Non-traditional food

  • Not novel food

No concerns regarding composition or safety.

Graviola (Annona muricata L) – frozen fruit pulp

  • Non-traditional food

  • Not novel food

Limited tradition of safe use in some population sub-groups. No concerns regarding composition or safety.

Green coffee beans – unroasted

  • Traditional food

  • Not novel food

Meets definition of coffee in Code.

Green coffee extract (Coffea Arabica)

  • Non-traditional food

  • Not novel food

Non-traditional use in food context. No concerns identified regarding composition or safety.

Guanabana fruit (Annona muricata L.)

  • Non-traditional food

  • Not novel food

No concerns identified regarding composition or safety.

Hawthorn-berry (Cratagegus oxyacantha) based jam

  • Non-traditional food

  • Novel food

Safety concerns based on potential for adverse effects in humans.

Hemp (Cannabis spp.)

  • Non-traditional food

  • Novel food

Safety not established. Application (A360) assessed. Rejected by ministers.

Hibiscus sabdariffa (flower)

  • Traditional food

  • Not novel food

Tradition of use in a number of food applications and also appears to have been available (in this context) in Australia and New Zealand for a number of years.

High Pressure Processed (HPP) yoghurt

  • Traditional food

  • Not novel food

No significant changes to the physical characteristics of yoghurt when produced using HPP technology to extend shelf-life. Tradition of use of yoghurt in Australia and New Zealand.

High Pressure Processed (HPP) foods
(for foods that do not require a prescribed pasteurisation step, or where HPP is used in addition to pasteurisation)

  • Traditional foods

  • Not novel foods

HPP is a well established food processing technology. The use of HPP for traditional foods that do not have a prescribed pasteurisation step (or where HPP is used in addition to pasteurisation) is not considered to make a food non-traditional.

Hoodia gordonii

  • Non-traditional food

  • Novel food

Consumed as an appetite and thirst suppressant. Potential for reduction in food intake and body weight, which may be considered adverse effects in certain population sub-groups. Proposed patterns and levels of consumption may be higher than traditional use.

Hu-hu grub (Prionoplus reticularis)

  • Traditional food

  • Not novel food

Traditional of safe use – eaten as a delicacy in Maori populations in New Zealand.

Humic – fulvic acid

(also known as Plant Colloidal Minerals)



  • Non-traditional food

  • Not novel food

No safety concerns identified at use levels that provide up to 100mg of humic – fulvic acid per serve. View relates only to the addition to food (including beverages) of humic – fulvic acid at the level described above. Use at higher levels may require a safety assessment.

Hydrolysed keratin from sheep’s wool

  • Non-traditional food

  • Novel food

Sheeps’ wool is not a traditional food source. Safety is not established – product is not adequately characterised.

Ilex guayusa

(leaf – infusion in hot water)



  • Non-traditional food

  • Not novel food

Plant native to South America. Leaves are used in preparation of hot beverage (similar to tea). No safety concerns identified when consumed in this way.

See next entry for leaf extract.



Ilex guayusa

(leaf extract in ready-to-consume beverage)



  • Non-traditional food

  • Novel food

Safety not established.

See above entry for leaf infusion in hot water.



Illawarra plum (Podocarpus elatus)

  • Traditional food

  • Not novel food

Tradition of use as a food in Australia.

Irvingia gabonensissee African mango seed







Isoflavones from red clover (Trifolium pratense L.)

  • Non-traditional food

  • Novel food

Safety not established for proposed pattern and level of use.

Isomalto-oligosaccharide (IMO)

  • Non-traditional food

  • Novel food




New food ingredient. Safety assessment of proposed patterns and levels of use required.

Isomaltulose

  • Non-traditional food

  • Novel food

Identified sub-groups for which there is the potential for adverse effects.

Approved novel food in Standard 1.5.1 (Application A578)



Kakadu plum (Terminalia ferdinandiana)

  • Traditional food

  • Not novel food




Long history of use in Australia.

Kelp – fermented

  • Non-traditional food

  • Not novel food

Tradition of consumption of kelp, but not fermented kelp. Intended use as an ingredient (at 50mg/kg) in a beverage product. No safety concerns identified at this use level.

Note: View applies only to fermented kelp as described above. High iodine intake may present safety concerns for some consumers. Therefore, the use of fermented kelp at higher levels and/or in other foods may require a safety assessment.



Kimchi (traditional Korean fermented dish)

  • Non-traditional food

  • Not novel food

Made from some traditional ingredients, but is fermented. History of use in Korea without adverse effects.

Kombucha tea

  • Traditional food

  • Not novel food

Although considered traditional, there are safety concerns regarding contamination with microorganisms such as mould.

Konjac (100% konjac in elastic, thermo-irreversible gel rather than as an additive)

  • Non-traditional food

  • Not novel food

History of safe use in Japan and other Asian countries with no known adverse effects.

Konjac glucomannans (flour/powdered product derived from tubers of Amorphophallus species)

  • Non-traditional food

  • Not novel food

History of safe use in Japan as a food ingredient, including production of konjac thermo-irreversible gel (see previous view above). No safety concerns identified when used as a food ingredient. However, please note the following:

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