Record of views formed in response to inquiries



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Phytosterol/phytostanol mixture derived from vegetable or tall oils

  • Non-traditional food

  • Novel food

Safety not established for proposed pattern and level of use Application to FSANZ – subsequently withdrawn by applicant.

Phytosterols - free phytosterols derived from tall oils

  • Non-traditional food

  • Novel food

Safety not established for proposed pattern and level of use.

Approved novel food in Standard 1.5.1 in spreads (A417) and low-fat milk (A508)



Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.)

Tradition of use as food with no safety concerns identified.

Pine bark extract

  • Non-traditional food

  • Not novel when used as a surface treatment for cut fruit at 18 mg/L.

  • Other uses considered as a food additive.

Intended use will have a minimal impact due to: the small amount used on cut fruit; and the small number of products anticipated on the market.

No application required when used as a surface treatment agent for cut fruit at this level.

Other food uses of pine bark extract would be considered to have food additive (preservative) function and an application would be required to amend Standard 1.3.1.


Pine bark extract (Enzogenol®)

This view relates to the use of pine bark extract as an ingredient, rather than as a preservative (see preceding view for preservative function)



  • Non-traditional food

  • Novel food

No tradition of use as a food in Australia and New Zealand. Pine bark is not a traditional food source. Safety of use as a food ingredient is not established at intended levels of use (greater levels than the use described above as a surface treatment for cut fruit).

Pistachia gum (for chewing) sourced from Pistachia terebinthus or Pistachia lentiscus (also known as turpentine gum and mastika gum)

  • Non-traditional food

  • Not novel food

Non-traditional in broad community in Australia and New Zealand. Long history of use overseas (Middle East) and been available in Australia for some time.

Plant colloidal minerals (see Humic – fulvic acid)







Polyglycitol syrup

(when used in hard confectionery at levels up to 97%)



  • Non-traditional food

  • Not novel food

Potential for laxative effect at high levels of consumption. Similar to other polyols that are already in use in foods in Australia and New Zealand. Standard 1.2.3 of the Code includes requirements for labelling of polyols.

Although polyglycitol syrup is not listed in Standard 1.2.3, the advisory statement for other polyols should be included on labels containing this ingredient. FSANZ will investigate amending Standard 1.2.3 to address this issue for polyglycitol syrup and other polyols that are not listed in the Standard.

View only relates to the use of polyglycitol syrup in hard confectionery at levels of up to 97%.


Potato protein isolate

  • Traditional food

  • Not novel food

Sourced from potato. Equivalent to potato protein consumed in the diet of general population. Similar, in principle, to other fractions of foods, such as whey from milk.

Pueraria mirifica

  • Non-traditional food

  • Novel food

Non-traditional food (herb grown in Thailand, root used). Some safety concerns related to phytoestrogenic effects.

Quandong fruit flesh (Santalum acuminatum)

  • Traditional food

  • Not novel food

Traditional food in Australia.

Quinoa (grain sourced from South America)

  • Non-traditional food

  • Not novel food

No safety concerns identified. No concerns regarding composition.

Rapeseed protein isolate

(derived from the seeds of Brassica napus and Brassica juncea, which are varieties of rape plants (sources of canola oil))



  • Non-traditional food

  • Novel food

Potential for allergenicity (due to either rapeseed sensitivity or cross-reactivity in consumers with mustard allergy) requires further assessment.

Red spinach extract

(from leaves of Amaranthus tricolour)



  • Non-traditional food

  • Novel food

The extract is a source of nitrates (9%). Nitrates are naturally present in vegetables and fruits in particular, but at low levels (up to 0.5%). An acceptable daily intake (ADI) for nitrate intake has been set by the WHO Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). Consumption of the extract may result in dietary exposure to nitrates above the ADI. Therefore, the ACNF considers an assessment of safety is required before the product is sold as a food or added to foods.

Resveratrol (extract)

sourced from some foods, particularly grapes (Vitis vinifera), and from the root of Japanese knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum)



  • Non-traditional food

  • Novel food

View relates to resveratrol when it is extracted and added to foods, and does not apply to resveratrol when it is naturally present in a food product. Safety of resveratrol extract not established as a food – potential for intake to be greater than when consumed as a natural component (at low levels) of foods.

Resveratrol

(sourced from grapes (Vitis vinifera) and added to wine at 100mg/Litre)



  • Non-traditional food

  • Not novel food

This view relates only to resveratrol contained in extracts from grapes, which are added to wine.
No safety concerns identified with the addition of resveratrol derived from grapes to wine at a level of 100mg/Litre. The addition of resveratrol to other foods and/or at different levels is subject to the view above.
This view does not take into account whether a particular resveratrol containing extract from grapes is permitted to be added to wine and wine products (eg grape skin extract) under wine-specific regulations in Australia and New Zealand, including:

• Standard 2.7.4 – Wine and Wine Product of the Code,

• Standard 4.5.1 – Wine Production Requirements (Australia only) of the Code,

• Standard 1.3.1 – Food Additives of the Code (as it relates to wine and wine products), and



• The requirements of wine-specific regulations in Australia and New Zealand.
(Note that concentrated resveratrol extracts from grapes are likely to be different from grape skin extracts which is a permitted food additive (in Schedule 1 of Standard 1.3.1 (category 14.2.2) and as a colour in Schedule 3 of Standard 1.3.1) or grape skin extracts that are commonly used in winemaking.)

Rhodiola crenulate

  • Non-traditional food

  • Novel food

Safety not established.

Rhodiola rosea

  • Non-traditional food

  • Novel food

Potential for adverse effects in humans. Safety is not established as a food – potential for pharmacological effects based on its use as a traditional medicine.

Riberry (Syzygium luehmanii), (small leaf lilli pilli, cherry alder)

  • Traditional food

  • Not novel food

Tradition of use as a food in Australia.

Rivermint (Mentha australis)

  • Traditional food

  • Not novel food

Tradition of use as a food in Australia.

Rooster combs extract

  • Non-traditional food

  • Not novel food

No history of use of rooster combs extract as a food in Australia and New Zealand. However, no safety concerns identified at intended levels of use (up to 80 mg/day in a variety of foods, including milk, milk based products, yoghurts, fresh cheeses, baked goods, breakfast cereals and fruit juices).

Rose petal extract (Sence rose nectar)

  • Traditional food

  • Not novel food

Tradition of use as foods or food ingredients in Australia and New Zealand in a variety of applications, including teas, water based beverages and baked products.

Round lime (Citrus australis)

  • Traditional food

  • Not novel food

Tradition of use as a food in Australia.

Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis) seed powder

  • Non-traditional food

  • Novel food

No tradition of use as a food in Australia or New Zealand. Limited information available to establish safety. Uncertainty in relation to the composition of the seed powder. Most available information relates to the oil of the seed, rather than the powder, which is a by-product of oil production. This view relates to the seed powder only. The seed oil has not been considered by the ACNF.

Saltbush

(Atriplex nummularia)



  • Traditional food

  • Not novel food

Tradition of use as a food in Australia.

Salvia columariae

  • Traditional food

  • Not novel food

No safety concerns identified.

Satinash

(Syzygium fibrosum)



  • Traditional food

  • Not novel food

Tradition of use as a food in Australia.

Sauco fruit (Sambucus peruviana)

  • Non-traditional food

  • Not novel food

Non-traditional in Australia and New Zealand. No concerns identified regarding composition or safety.

Scaevola spinescens

  • Non-traditional food

  • Novel food

Potential for adverse effects in humans.

Schizandra (Schizandra chinensis) – non-culinary herb

  • Non-traditional food

  • Not novel food when used in beverages at less than 100 mg/100 ml

No safety concerns identified at low levels of use. No application required when used in beverages at less than 100 mg/100 ml.

Sea buckthorn (juice derived from the berries of Hippophae rhamnoides L).

  • Non-traditional food

  • Not novel food

Non-traditional food in Australia and New Zealand. No safety concerns identified based on composition of the berries or the juice. History of food use in Asia and Russia and Europe.

Sea buckthorn leaf tea

(Hippophae rhamnoides L)



  • Non-traditional food

  • Not novel food

Non-traditional food in Australia and New Zealand. No safety concerns identified.

Sea parsley (Apium prostratum)

  • Traditional food

  • Not novel food

Traditional food in Australia.

Sheep’s placenta

  • Non-traditional food

  • Not novel food

No safety concerns identified.

Siberian chaga (Inonotus obliquus)

  • Non-traditional food

  • Novel food

Potential for adverse effects in humans. Safety is not established as a food – potential for pharmacological effects based on its use as a traditional medicine.

Slendesta potato protein extract powder

  • Non-traditional food

  • Novel food

Non-traditional food in Australia and New Zealand. Safety concerns regarding potential to cause appetite suppression.

Slippery elm bark powder (Ulmus fulva)

  • Non-traditional food

  • Novel food

Safety not established for proposed pattern and level of use.

Soy protein extract (soy ‘whey’ fraction)

  • Traditional food

  • Not novel food

Consumed as a natural component of soy products. Similar to milk whey protein; however is produced from soy. Has a tradition of use in Australia and New Zealand.

Stevia (crushed leaf)




Potential for adverse effects in humans. Stevioside and stevia extract considered as a food additive. Previous applications for stevioside (A397 & A457) as a food additive had deficiencies in safety data and were withdrawn.

Approved food additive in Standard 1.3.1 (Application A540 – Steviol Glycosides as intense sweeteners gazetted 8 October 2008).



Streptococcus salivarius - K12 strain (probiotic bacteria)

  • Traditional food

  • Not novel food

View relates to K12 strain only. Traditional in fermented milk products such as yoghurt.

Streptococcus salivarius – M18 strain (probiotic bacteria)

  • Traditional food

  • Not novel food

View relates to M18 strain only. Traditional in fermented and raw milk cheeses.

Sucromalt

  • Non-traditional food

  • Novel food

New food ingredient. Safety assessment of proposed patterns and levels of use required.

Sugarcane fibres (bagasse fibre and pith fibre)

  • Non-traditional food

  • Not novel food

Non-traditional food in Australia and New Zealand. No safety concerns identified.

Sugarcane fibre (Kfibre®)

  • Non-traditional food

  • Not novel food

Non-traditional in Australia and New Zealand. No concerns identified regarding composition or safety.

Sugarcane juice and juice concentrate (Saccharum officinarum)

  • Traditional food

  • Not novel food

Tradition of use in food in Australia and New Zealand as well as in other countries.


Tapioca fibre

  • Non-traditional food

  • Not novel food

Non-traditional food in form and context presented. Isolation of tapioca fibre and subsequent addition to foods that do not normally contain tapioca fibre is not consistent with its history of consumption. No safety concerns identified.

Tasmannia glaucifolia

Fragrant pepperbush (leaves and berries)



  • Non-traditional food

  • Not novel food

Non-traditional in Australia and New Zealand. No safety concerns identified.

Tasmannia pepper (Tasmannia lanceolata)

  • Traditional food

  • Not novel food

Traditional food (Australian native food).

Tempeh (fermented food made from soybeans) and Kefir (cultured milk beverage)

  • Traditional food

  • Not novel food

Traditional foods with no safety concerns identified.

Tequila worm in lollipops

  • Traditional food

  • Not novel food

History of safe consumption based on use in alcoholic beverages. No safety concerns identified.

Theanine

  • Non-traditional food

  • Novel food

Non-traditional food in Australia and New Zealand in the context presented (i.e. the substance itself), although theanine is present in green tea. Safety of theanine as a single chemical substance is yet to be established.

Theanine

(extracted or synthesised – added to carbonated non-alcoholic beverages at 100mg/250mL)



  • Non-traditional food

  • Not novel food

No safety concerns identified at use level of 100mg/250mL in carbonated, non-alcoholic beverages.

View relates only to the addition of theanine to carbonated, non-alcoholic beverages at the level described above. Use levels higher than this, or in other foods, remain subject to the general view for theanine in the above row.

Note: This view does not consider whether theanine may be subject to the nutritive substance requirements of Standard 1.1.1 of the Code. The nutritive substance provisions in this Standard should be taken into account before adding theanine to beverages.


Tigernut oil and tigernut milk extract (derived from Cyperus esculentus)

  • Non-traditional food

  • Not novel food

Non-traditional food in Australia and New Zealand. No indications of safety concerns. History of use in other countries.

Tomato concentrate – water based tomato concentrate (Fruitflow® also known as Water Soluble Tomato Concentrate I)

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