within the frame of a
Partly based on a field stay between May 21
and May 25
Greifswald, June 2014
Description of Deliverable 3 Pasture restoration activities, as from DUENE offer 3
Itinerary of field days in May 2014 .......................................................................... 4
20.05. – 22.05.2014: Travel Baku – Qax – SARIBASH – Ilisu – Baku .................... 4
24.05. - 25.05.2014: Travel Baku – Lahich – BUROVDAL – Lahich – Ismayilli
(EN, EO, JE) ...................................................................................................................... 4
Project interventions to decrease erosion ................................................................. 4
General approach .................................................................................................... 4
Tree nursery site in Burovdal village ....................................................................... 5
Restoration of the 16 pilote summer pastures ........................................................ 10
Annex ....................................................................................................................... 11
Bio-engineering methods ...................................................................................... 11
1 Description of Deliverable 3 Pasture restoration activities, as from DUENE
Restoration activities should already be started in 2014. However, full knowledge on the
extent of areas that need to be restored will be a result of the pasture inventory process and the
full catalogue of measures to be applied will be a part of the derived management
recommendations. Nonetheless, two activities for a successful implementation of restoration
measures are necessarily to be started in 2014.
Bio-engineering encompasses methods to halt erosion by means of natural materials,
preferably living and dead plant material (Begemann & Schiechtl 1994, Hacker & Johannsen
2011, Pflug 1988, Schiechtl 1973
greifswald.de/de/projekte.php_deicsa.php). These experiences can be used during the run of
our project here.
For producing significant amounts of autochthonic woody planting material (shrub and tree
species growing in the project region) the establishment of a tree nursery is advised,
preferably in the close village Burovdal, where permanent caring would be feasible.
Therefore, a tree nursery plot has to be fenced, provided with water supply, and a drip
irrigation system has to be installed. Planting of cuttings (living branch tips of native bush and
tree species) can already start in June/July. Seeding of seeds from available species can start
in late summer to autumn. With these measures and good care, already in 2015, small bushes
and trees could be planted at erosion/degradation hotspots. With good care, even already in
autumn 2014 plantable bushes or trees of some species might be available for planting.
This planting material can be as well used for planting hedgerows, preferably of thorny
species, as in other bio-engineering measures like so called brush layering.
Plantations need to be protected by fences in the first years. Later, if densely grown and
especially if thorny, fences can be removed again and used at other erosion sites. Therefore,
already in 2014 some pilot erosion/degradation hotspots might be identified, visually and by
means of remote sensing, and fenced in. For wider implementation in 2015 it will be useful to
observe, whether snow load/avalanches as well as theft are significant threats for this
In general, fencing would also allow for natural regeneration of a closed vegetation cover on
severely degraded sites.
Methodology for restoration
until end of May 2014
until mid of June 2014
Begemann, W. & Schiechtl, H.M. (1994): Ingenieurbiologie. Handbuch zum ökologischen Wasser und Erdbau.
Hacker, E. & Johannsen, R. (2011): Ingenieurbiologie. Lehrbuch. 1st Edition. Ulmer UTB- Verlag, Ulm: 383pp.
Pflug, W. (Ed.) (1988): Ingenieurbiologie: Erosionsbekämpfung im Hochgebirge. SEPiA-Verlag, Aachen:
Callwey, München: 244pp.
Planning of further planting, fencing and other restoration activities
end of November 2014
2 Itinerary of field days in May 2014
2.1 20.05. – 22.05.2014: Travel Baku – Qax – SARIBASH – Ilisu – Baku
In a joint delegation of ECO-GIZ-IEC-project (P. Sass (PS), E. Namazov (EN),
Serdar Hajiyev (SH)), UNDP-EU-Climate East (Silvija Kalnins, Eltekin Omarov
(EO) and Huseyn…) visit of the ICI Project DEICSA (“Decreasing erosion by
improving carbon stocks in the strongly degraded surrounding of the high-
mountain village Saribash in the Greater Caucasus of Azerbaijan”) in the village of
Saribash, presented by the implementing partners GABA (amongst others Vugar
Babayev) and DUENE e.V. (Jonathan Etzold (JE)). Evaluation of measures from
2013, including established tree nursery (lessons learnt see below at 3.2), fenced
plantations on erosion hotspots and bio-engineering measures.
2.2 24.05. - 25.05.2014: Travel Baku – Lahich – BUROVDAL – Lahich –
Visit of target area of the project UNDP-EU-Climate East around Burovdal
village. Discussion of steps for tree nursery establishment on already prepared plot,
identification of woody species to be propagated here.
Discussion of ways of joining forces between both projects, e.g. in exchange of
3.1 General approach
A high vegetation cover hinders erosion. Therefore, any measures to increase this cover are
helping to diminish erosion.
Grazing exclusion from parts that are particularly susceptible to or already heavily
By fencing which allows for undisturbed recovery of vegetation cover.
By planting bushes and trees at “hotspots” of erosion. For their successful
establishmend fences protecting the plantations are necessary.
By sowing autochthonous seeds e.g. from hay residues on eroded sites, best inside
By other bio-engineering measures on eroded sites.
By creating alternative income sources to reduce dependence of local population
on animal husbandry and by this finally decrease animal numbers and grazing
By better management of grazing regimes, adapted to site conditions driving
3.2 Tree nursery site in Burovdal village
bushes a tree nursery has to be established.
Necessary steps are based on the experience and many very valuable lessons learnt of the
establishment of a pilot tree nursery in 2013 in the village Saribash in Qax District.
Among these lessons learnt are:
a) Ploughing/ digging of the tree nursery plot as soon as possible, to allow for better
cleaning of plant parts and roots of the current meadow prior to planting of tree and
bush cuttings. This eases later efforts for weed control. This has to be done regularly.
b) Thourough protection of the plot from intruding livestock by fencing
c) Installation of professional shading systems from commercial glass house gardening
to protect sensitive tree and bush cuttings from too high sun radiation.
d) To create with drip irrigation permanently moist, however not wet conditions.
e) Arrange rows in a way that enough place remains for planting and cleaning without
destroying other rows. A pattern could be two narrow rows, a wider gap and then
again two narrow rows etc.
f) For seeding of especially large seeds/nuts to use containers of a depth of at least
10 cm. For seeds grown in open soil to replant them to single pots as soon you can
handle them. All pots should get casted into soil surface for better frost protection and
maybe also irrigation.
g) Methods for frost protection are necessary, as well for tree nursery and trees/bushes
planted to their permanent positions. Recommended is thick mulching with old
hay/other plant residues. These would also help for the following year to reduce
efforts of weed control.
Criteria for selecting a tree nursery plot were discussed in email and skype conversation
According to these criteria a plot for the nursery was identified in mid of April 2014 next to
close to the village, therefore allows for permanent care. It is close to a water source and now
fully protected by a brush fence and bushes. The size is approx. 23 x 14 m.
The villager Badal was selected to prepare the tree nursery plot.
On the field visit on 24.05.2014 the plot was found to be completely cleaned from the grass
and bush cuttings.
With continued cleaning of plant parts and roots until first plantings in the beginning of July
problems of weed control are regarded to be feasible. For later cleaning of weeds, additionally
to the tree nursery keeper, one or two women could be contracted.
Technical specifications for the installation of a drip irrigation system were discussed
who is experienced with this issue e.g. from Saribash in 2013. The preconditions for irrigation
with a slight sloping of the plot are perfect.
The same applies to the installation of a professional shading system from commercial glass
house gardening. To allow for experiments, this shading should only be installed over a part
of the nursery. It will be interesting to learn whether all species to be propagated here in
future are in need of this sophisticated protection.
Both installations have to be functioning before planting starts.
“Propagation from cuttings in early summer”) could be planted in the tree nursery. The
cuttings (i.e. 20-30 cm branch tips of bush and tree species, for summer planting soft fresh
wood) should be collected in the nearer surrounding of the village from as many plant
individuals as possible (to gain genetic diversity) and brought carefully and immediately to
the moist soil of the nursery. Personel and interested villagers will need to be trained in these
The preliminary list of the in total 26 species (Table 1) was developed on observations of the
will be their suitability for different site conditions, traits like thorns and non-palatibility for
effective planting as living fences and also the potential other benefits for villagers (fruit
collection, bee pasture, fire wood etc.). Guidelines for propagation worked out for the
Saribash tree nursery will be adapted to the Burovdal situation. A short version is given here.
Some of the species are said to be planted best in autumn only (see Table 1, column
“Propagation from cuttings in autumn”). However, for testing reasons, they should be
collected now as well.
For other bush and tree species seeding is the most perspective way of propagation (see Table
seeds could be collected.
For testing purposes experiments with planting/seeding into open soil and/or containers/pots
will take place. The latter shall have a depth of at least 10 cm.
During the field visit on 24. and 25.05.2014, we found seedlings of Quercus, Carpinus and
conditions for germination. The next bigger flood would destroy them. In the beginning of
July they should become carefully transplanted to deep containers and kept in the tree
nursery. They might be planted out already in autumn 2014.
All plant material planted in the tree nursery should be properly provided with water and with
with mulch might ease this work. In autumn mulching is recommended as frost protection
Table 1: Preliminary list of woody species occurring in the surrounding of Burovdal village. Short information on names, propagation methods and
fruit can cause
[further descriptions refer to
B. pendula only but might be
applicable to other Betula
spp. as well]
Qafqaz vələsi n
Filbert (C. maxima);
y (berries weakly
leaves can cause
Elaeagnaceae Hippophae rhamnoides
maybe partly still Qu. Iberica
in this altitude
different wild rose
species, e.g. Dog
Field maple, Hedge
minor, U. glabra, U. scabra
(= Syn. to glabra?!) for AZ.
3.3 Restoration of the 16 pilote summer pastures
Sensing, is the basic principle for pasture restoration.
However, direct interventions on erosion/degradation hotspots might become necessary. Such
severely degraded sites of all 16 summer pastures will become obvious after the Pasture
Inventory and a supervised classification have been conducted. .
On the most severely degraded sites, fencing would become necessary to allow for
undisturbed natural regeneration of a closed vegetation cover. In case of strong soil
dislocation bio-engineering measures using rooted and unrooted woody material can be used.
Already until July 2014 some pilot erosion/degradation hotspots might be identified, visually
and by means of remote sensing, to test the above mentioned methods.
Suitable plots which also do not interfere with the absolutely necessary cooperation of the 16
livestock farms and which are even more regarded as advantageous for their own purposes
should be chosen. These could be eroding slopes along necessary access roads to the camps.
Here, already in summer 2014 fences should be build up. This will stop disturbance of
grazing and trampling livestock and might allow already for recovery of the vegetation cover,
including the remaining strongly browsed bushes.
Building fences already in 2014 can also serve for testing the durability of these measures.
in the study region for these measures should, by a certain social control within the land
users’ community, prevent destruction or theft of the fences.
The pasture recovery could be supported by seeding already in late summer/early autumn
from hay storage places in the village.
With good care, already in autumn 2014 the tree nursery might have a certain output of
years. Those small bushes and trees available in autumn 2014 could be planted within the
fenced areas to ensure their undisturbed growth in the first years.
This planting material can be planted in rows mostly parallel to the slope creating in the future
a living fence or hedgerows, preferably of thorny or other not palatable species. Hence, after
some years the fence can be deinstalled and build up again at other erosion hotspots.
Depending on the site conditions, different ways of planting in rows parallel to slopes will be
tested, including bio-engineering methods. This includes the so called “brush layering” using
living branches of narrow-leaved willows (Salix spp.) or combined with already rooted
planting material from the tree nursery “bush brush layering” following Schiechtl 1973
Slightly inclined rows of woody species with a a water demand can also help draining moist
diminish gully erosion, e.g. by using living branches of narrow-leaved willows (Salix spp.) in
e.g. “gully brush filling”. These and other measures are described in more detail in Annex 4.1.
Schiechtl H. M. (1973): Sicherungsarbeiten im Landschaftsbau. Grundlagen - lebende Baustoffe - Methoden.
• Most species root while rest in winter and therefore should not be cut too early
• Shrubs are cut directly above soil, trees are pollarded using saws or loppers, not axes
• Tree-forming willows can only be propagated vegetatively by basal cuttings, cuttings
of shrub-forming willows can be taken of any plant part. Make sure to use only
narrow-leafed species, as round-leafed ones do not propagate vegetatively.
• Transport cuttings in whole length, shorten at building site.
• Cuttings of pear, apple and similar poorly rooting species should be taken rather from
near the trunk than from the tree tops; buckthorn cuttings are rooting regardless of
Gully brush filling
(for gullies up to 3 m
deep and 8 m wide)
• type 1: plug stakes in slope line into
ground of the gully, fill it up to the
surface with firmly packed branched
and foliate cuttings (coniferous
branches also suitable). Cut surfaces
should be buried in soil for some
decimetres to root.
• type 2: long branches are stacked in
a fishbone pattern into the gully and
secured by crossbars (Ø 10-16 cm,
distance 1-2 m) punched into the side
walls (see picture). Cut surfaces
should be buried in soil for some
decimetres to root. Max. thickness of
branch layer: 0.5 m.
(gullies up to 6 m width and 2-4 m depth)
• Cut straight, living, little
branched terminal shoots from
tree-forming willows or poplar
(1,5-2,5 m long, any diameter
> 5 cm) straight at the top and
sharpen them at the lower end.
• Punch them in for about 1/3 of
their length side by side to
form a line across the gully (5-
20 poles per lineal metre).
• Poles are connected to
crossbars (build in gully side
walls) with twine or willow
Gully brush filling
• pickets (Ø 3-10 cm, 100 cm long, to 2/3 in
ground) are placed in a horizontal line with a
distance of 100 cm, inbetween shorter live
stakes in a distance of ca. 30 cm
• stakes and pickets are braided with flexible
strong branches of willow (unbranched or
nearly so, at least 1,20 m long, one to three
years old; 3-7 stacked and pressed down
and at least the cut surface of every branch
must be embedded in the soil; the deeper
buried the fence the better
• Wattle/fascine: tube-shaped bundle of live
brush (willow cuttings Ø 2-4 cm), each 4-6
m long and Ø 20-40 cm in diameter, tied
• Place wattles in trench so that their surface
draws level with the surrounding soil
surface, ends overlapping. If necessary
because of trench depth, wattles can be
stacked (see picture below). Only upper
wattles will root.
• Punch one live stake of 30-60 cm length
and Ø 3-5 cm or steel bar Ø 10-20 mm per
lineal metre through wattle.
• Cover lightly with soil.
• For steep slopes, additional twines tied
around the wattles can serve to fix the
construction when connected to massive
stakes to the left and right of the trench.
(best depth effect)
• Construction direction: bottom-up
• Cut 0.5-0.7 m wide triangular
trenches with a 10° slope (depending
on site conditions horizontally to
vertically; the wetter, the steeper),
with a 1.5-3 m distance of rows.
• Insert 10-20 willow stakes (2 cm Ø,
1,5 m deep) per lineal metre
crosswise (1-2 bare-root shrubs can
be added if at hand).
• With the excavated material of the
next overlying trench covere the
stakes. They should stick out for
only ¼ –
of their length. Tamp
• Place 5-10 unbranched willow cuttings per m
(Ø 1-5 cm, 25-40(-60) cm long) for ¾
• Tamp firmly.
• Mulching with hay flowers: 0.5-2 kg/m
hay flowers (late summer swath or hayloft
forming a vegetation cover in the next growing season (but make sure that they do not
outcompete the aspired bushes).
• Surface layering: live cuttings are densely layed out between other protective
constructions, thick end covered with soil and secured against wind etc. by cross-bars,
wettle fences or riprap.
Plantation of rooted plants
• Autumn best season for planting
• Distance between individual plants 0,8-1,5 m
• When planted in groups of individuals of one species they will grow especially dense
Hacker/Johannsen: Ingenieurbiologie. UTB, 2011
Pflug [Hrsg.]: Ingenieurbiologie : Erosionsbekämpfung im Hochgebirge. SEPiA-Verl., 1988
Schiechtl: Sicherungsarbeiten im Landschaftsbau : Grundlagen, lebende Baustoffe, Methoden. Callwey, 1973.