he IUCN Committee (2000) for threatened
populations. In the study area traditional destructive practice of
commercial exploitation of wild plants for medicinal purpose is a
major threat and it affects the existence of many plant species.
The major threat for Chhatarpur district is human interference
Dhubelamuseum, Jhan-jhan Devi and near ken bridge is situated is
and important pilgrimage spot. Every year thousands of devotees from
Chhatarpur district and other part of the country visit this place.
Mostly bamboos as out by almost every pilgrim for using or walking
sticks for climbing hills. Many shrubs culled and burn by village to
keep themselves warm during the cold, winter night.
Unemployment and low labour wage problem lead the tribal for
some sort of income for their daily needs. A significant amount of
medicinal plant are collected from district and sold in local market at
Maharajpur, Bameetha, Bijawar of district, without entering major
market places and tribal co-operative societies. More than 50 sp.
including many endemic, rare and vulnerable plant species are
commercially exploited for sale, were recorded during the present
study which include trees, shrubs, herbs, epiphytes and climbers. It
was observed that harvesting the fruit, branches were lopped and for
destructive extraction of plant species will effect the population and
regeneration of the plant species being harvested.
To reduce the pressure of over exploitation on wild endemic and
cultivation of endemic and medicinal plants can be encouraged with
the participation of local tribes. To be little the negative impact of over
exploitation, the tribal who are involved in the collection of plant
species should be given sufficient training in the scientific way of
collection. Collection programmes should be planned properly and
restricted to a particular season. Cutting of tree branches to harvest
its fruit should be avoided. Annual herbaceous plant species can be
continued to be collected by leaving enough propagates for next
season's growth. Thus by rationalizing the collection of the plant
species a sustained yield from the forests and conservation can be
Secondary cause of biodiversity exploration is developmental
mountain, forest, water bodies are destruction for developmental
planning's like Rail way, road development, forelane development,
thousands of plant species are of 100-200 years old are distention for
Development and destruction have integral relationship with
district, for railway line, forelane, colony development and many other
accommodation. There are direct destruction of mountains and forest.
The biodiversity of the district is effecting by natural factor and by
human being. So the present work mainly have seen done conserve
biodiversity of plants. Ficus benghalensis key stone species so present
work mainly focused on F. benghalensis .
Plant Description :
: Ficus benghalensis Linn,
: Ficus Inida
: Eng; Banyan tree, Sanskrit: Vata
Bahupada, Hindi : Bar, Bargad, Bengali:
Bot, Bar, Gujarati: Vad, Vadlo, Kannada:
Alada, Mara, Malayalam: Ala, Vatam,
No village was found in India without the Banyan tree. There are
childless couple usually offers prayers to this venerable tree during
the month of 'Jyesta' to fulfill their desire. According to
Mahabhagavata, Savitri worshipped Banyan for saving her husband
Satyavan from Yamaraj. Hindus believe that Lord Mahavishnu sleeps
on the Banyan leaf at the end of creation when the earth completely
'Vatapatrasai' as he slept on Banyan leaf during his childhood. The
popular lore is that the name "Banyan tree derived from Hindi word
"Baniya" which means "merchant". In ancient days, the members of
Indian merchant class used to carryout trade in Persian Gulf, with
pearl, diamonds and textile products. These Baniyas frequently sit
under this tree to discuss about business. Hence Europeans named
the tree as Banyan. Hindus usually plant the trees near the temples,
shrines and burial ground and seen with respect. In villages, Banyan
trees forms the club-houses and rallying points because of its cool
shade during hot day. Much gossip will be exchanged on politics
under the Banyan tree in rural areas. The trees should not be planted
near the homes and buildings. The long roots grow both vertically and
horizontally and penetrate into the foundations. After few years, the
walls and verandahs will be cracked.
The plant is one of the giant trees of the world. Under prop roots
These pillars support the heaviness of branches. Some of the oldest
venerable trees are found in Royal Botanical Garden, Sibpur near
Calcutta, Adayar Theosophical Society near Chennai, Gopper in Bihar
and Kampto with some state. The Banyan tree, which is present in
Kampto, spread in two-hectare field.
The original stem of Sibpur (Kolkata) Banyan reached to a girth
and reached more than 500 meters. The spread is so surprising that
one battalion of army can take shelter under the crown of tree. These
trees are principal attractions to be foreign tourists.
It is a sacred tree for Hindus and Buddhists. Lord Buddha got
Banyan tree is symbolic, because it sends sap from above to the earth.
This resembles the function of the world, as it also needs sap or
energy for its survival from above, God. Married Hindu ladies worship
the Banyan tree for nuptial prosperity. It is a member of the
Naalpamara, a set of four trees to be planted around temples. The tree
enjoys a highly esteemed position in the Indian culture and society.
(Purohit and Vyas, 2004).
The tree is broadly scattered throughout the forest of India
extensively, in avenue plantations or for shade in village and
Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and some Asian countries.
The plant is a large milky, evergreen tree with aerial roots and
large leaves. Leaves are simple, alternate, and broadly elliptic to ovate,
sub-cordate at base, lamina 10-30 cm long, 7-20 cm wide, very
coriaceous, pubrulous beneath, lateral veins 5-7 pairs the basal pairs
reaching 1/3 of lamina length, petiole 1.5-7 cm long, 5mm wide,
puberulous, stipules thick1-1.5 cm long and wide puberulous, figs
maturing orange to red; ostiole broadly unbonate, enclosed by 3 flat
apical bracts; basal bracts 3, foliaceous, obtuse, 3-7 mm long, 10-15
mm wide, puberulous. Male flowers pedicellate, tepals 2 or 3. Female
flowers sessile, tepals 3 or 4. Gall flowers pedicellate tepals 3 or 4,
The fruit (Syconium or Fig) and reproduction systems of species
species of agaonid wasp (Hymenoptera: Chalcoidea: Agaonidue). Ficus
species can only be pollinated by their associated agaonid wasps and
in turn, the wasps can only lay eggs within their associated Ficus
fruit. For successful pollination and reproduction of Ficus species to
occur, its associated pollinator wasp must be present. Conversely, for
successful reproduction of aganoid wasp to occur, their associated
Ficus species must be present (Janzen, 1979). The pollinator wasp for
Ficus benghalensis is Eupristina masoni saunders (Nadel et al., 1991).
Ficus seed can not germinate directly it can germinate after
eating birds. Because there is one enzyme which is found in insects
alimentary canal it break seed dormancy of Ficus benghalensis. Ficus
species propagate from seed and many can be propagated from
cuttings. Trees can begin life as epiphytes on other trees.
Plant are initially spread by humans who grows the plant for
ornament and use the trees in reforestation. Because the pollinator
wasp is not yet present, Ficus benghalensis seeds are not viable. Other
species of Ficus that do have wasps present are spread by fruit eating
birds. Various birds observed by the authors foraging and roosting in
tristis tritis), blue faced doves (Geopelia striata), lace necked doves
(Streptopelia chinensis) and house sparrows passer domesticus).
Pest and diseases:
Brickell and Zuk (1997) report the following pests associated
with Ficus species: mealybugs scale insects, spider mites, root knot
nematodes, and thrips occur under most environmental conditions,
fungal and bacterial leaf spots, crown gall, twig dieback, and southern
During study period of phytosociological data shows
the month of July and August. So there are more frequent flora of
herbaceous plants but in summer season with temperature ranging
up to 41ºC no such herbaceous plant can be seen, only few parts of
plants are present. In winter season both type of plants herbaceous
and tree can be seen.
In the present phytosociological work have been done during
Data reveals Abrus-precatorius L., Achyranthes-aspera L.,
In the present research phytosociological studies were done on
district (Table 5.1). Out of 72 species belonging are as - 30
endangered, 5 critical endangered and 37 species recorded vulnerable.
The phytosociological data most frequent species include as
it is possible to affirm that there is high diversity of medicinal plants
at the district. On the basis of above phytosociological data maximum
The soil parameters were appropriately related with the type of
programmes like aforestation, re-forestation, Social forestry, agro-
forestry and reduce environmental problems.
Anthelmintic activity of Ficus-benghalensis stem and roots are
earthworms were reported in above table. The essay was performed on
adult Indian earthworm, Pheretima posthuma due to its anatomical
and physiological resemblance with the intestinal roundworm parasite
of human being (Nirmal et al., 2007 and Vaishali et al., 2009; Aswar et
al., 2008) because of easy availability earthworm have been used
widely for the initial evaluation of anthelmintic compound in vitro
(Shivkar et al., 2003).
As shown in Table 6.1, 6.2, 6.3 concentrated leachet of leaves of
So we can say that leaves are also effective but stem and roots have
more effective, from the result, it is conclude that the leachet of Ficus
benghalensis stem and root showed significant anthelmintic activity,
when compared with the drug may be further exploited for its
phytochemical profile to identity the active constituent responsible for
Phenological observation in Ficus benghalensis is very important
can not germinate directly they can germinate with the help of birds
dormancy of these members. So from germination till fruit maturation
this plant shows much variations. In Ficus benghalensis there are no
leaf fall in dry deciduous forest.
On the basis of above observation we can say that the plant of
phenological observation than forest. Because the plant which
situated near water body is rich in nutrients and there is much
diversity of birds, the diversity and dispersal rate of seed is higher
near water body and forest but less in road side plant. Due to
pollution, population exploitation and Industrialization the bird
diversity are lesser on road side so this plant sows different
India has an ancient heritage of traditional medicine. The
folklore practices and traditional aspects of therapeutically important
natural products. Indian traditional medicines based on various
systems including Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Homeopathy. The
evaluation of these plants drugs is primarily based on phytochemical
pharmacological and allied approaches including various instrumental
techniques. With the emerging worldwide interest in adopting and
studying traditional system and exploiting their potential based on
different health care systems, the evaluation of the rich heritage of
Medicinal importance of F. benghalensis show very effective and
valuable plant because this is not only holly plant but Leucorrhoea,
Toothache, Improving memory, Dysentery, Pimple, Piles, Arthritis,
Hair falling and Gyanic disorder can be cured by Ficus benghalensis.
Each and every part, stem, roots, leaves, bark, milky latex, flower bud,
fruits, aerial roots are important. This is ever green plant. Beside
ethnomedicinal importance it is also known as antibacterial