Review of all reported species of predators of puff adders



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Table 1: Review of all reported species of predators of puff adders (Bitis arietans). Species marked with * based on observations in captivity.

Order

Family

Species

Primary sensory modality

Source

Siluriformes

Clariidae

sharp-toothed catfish (Clarius gariepinus)

Olfactory/Tactile

[1]

Accipitriformes

Accipitridae

tawny eagle (Aquila rapax)

Visual

[2–3]







augur buzzard (Buteo augur)

Visual

[4]







jackal buzzard (Buteo rufofuscus)

Visual

[5]







western banded snake-eagle (Circaetus cinerascens)

Visual

[5]







southern banded snake-eagle (Circaetus fasciolatus)

Visual

[6]







brown snake-eagle (Circaetus cinereus)

Visual

[5]







black-chested snake-eagle (Circaetus pectoralis)

Visual

[5]







pale chanting goshawk (Melierax canorus)

Visual

[6]







martial eagle (Polemaetus bellicosus)

Visual

[6]







bateleur (Terathopius ecaudatus)

Visual

[5]







white-headed vulture (Trigonoceps occipitalis)

Visual

[7, 5]




Sagittariidae

secretary bird (Sagittarius serpentarius)

Visual

[5]

Coraciiformes

Bucerotidae

southern ground hornbill (Bucorvus leadbeateri)

Visual

[8]

Gruiformes

Otididae

kori bustard (Ardeotis kori)

Visual

[6]

Passeriformes

Corvidae

pied crow (Corvus albus)

Visual

[5]

Pelecaniformes

Ardeidae

black-headed heron (Ardea melanocephala)

Visual

[6]

Artiodactyla

Suidae

warthog (Phacochoerus africanus)

Visual

[9]

Carnivora

Canidae

black-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas)

Olfactory/Visual

[10]







domestic dog (Canis familiaris)

Olfactory/Visual

[6]




Felidae

caracal (Caracal caracal)

Olfactory/Visual

[6]







african wild cat (Felis sylvestris)

Olfactory/Visual

[11]







serval (Leptailurus serval)

Olfactory/Visual

[6]







leopard (Panthera pardus)

Olfactory/Visual

[12]




Herpestidae

yellow mongoose (Cynictis penicillata)

Olfactory/Visual

[11]







slender mongoose (Galerella sanguinea)

Olfactory/Visual

[6]







large grey mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon)

Olfactory/Visual

[10]







meerkat (Suricata suricatta)

Olfactory/Visual

[8]




Hyaenidae

spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta)

Olfactory/Visual

[12]




Mustelidae

honey badger (Mellivora capensis)

Olfactory/Visual

[10]




Viverridae

small-spotted genet (Genetta genetta)

Olfactory/Visual

[10]







large-spotted genet (Genetta tigrina)

Olfactory/Visual

[10]

Primates

Hominidae

human (Homo sapiens)

Visual

[13]

Squamata

Colubridae

olive whip snake (Psammophis mossambicus)

Visual

[14]




Elapidae

Anchieta's cobra (Naja anchietae)

Olfactory/Visual

[15]







snouted cobra (Naja annulifera)

Olfactory/Visual

[15–16]







Mozambique spitting cobra (Naja mossambica)

Olfactory/Visual

[15]







black spitting cobra (Naja nigricinta woodi)

Olfactory/Visual

[6]







Cape cobra (Naja nivea)

Olfactory/Visual

[17]




Varanidae

white-throated monitor (Varanus albigularis)*

Olfactory/Visual

[18]




Viperidae

variable bush viper (Atheris squamigera)*

Visual

[19]







puff adder (Bitis arietans)*

Visual

[20]

 

 

gaboon adder (Bitis gabonica)*

Visual

[21]

References

  1. Thorne, S. C., & K. C. D. Hamman. 1981. Predation by the Sharptooth Catfish Clarias gariepinus (Siluriformes: Clariidae) on the Common Puff-Adder Bitis arietans (Squamata: Viperidae). Journal of the Herpetological Association of Africa 25:14–15.

  2. Steyn, P. 1973. Observations on the tawny eagle. Ostrich 44:1–22.

  3. Steyn, P. 1974. Eagle days. MacDonald Publishers, London.

  4. Lendrum, A. L. 1979. The Augur Buzzard in the Matopos, Rhodesia. Ostrich 50:203–214.

  5. Hockey, P. A. R., W. R. J. Dean, and P. Ryan. 2005. Roberts birds of southern Africa. 7th edition. Trustees of the John Voelcker Bird Book Fund. Cape Town.

  6. Maritz, B. 2013. Natural History Note: Bitis arietans Predation. African Herp News 59:21–28.

  7. Attwell, R. I. G. 1963. Some observations on feeding habits, behaviour, and inter- relationships of northern Rhodesian vultures. Ostrich 34: 235–247.

  8. Phelps, T. 2010. Old World Vipers, A Natural History of the Azemiopinae and Viperinae. Edition Chimaira. Frankfurt.

  9. Broadley, D. G. 1983. FitzSimons' snakes of southern Africa. Delta Books, Cape Town.

  10. Skinner, J. D., and C. T. Chimimba. 2005. The mammals of the southern African sub-region. Cambridge University Press, Cape Town.

  11. Swanepoel, L. H. 2008. Ecology and conservation of leopards, Panthera pardus, on selected game ranches in the Waterberg region, Limpopo, South Africa (MSc dissertation, University of Pretoria).

  12. Kruuk, H. 1972. The spotted hyena: a study of predation and social behavior. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

  13. Asibey, E. O. A. 1971. The present status of wildlife conservation in Ghana. Wildlife Conservation in West Africa 22:15–21.

  14. Alexander, G. J., and J. M. Marais. 2007. A guide to the reptiles of southern Africa. Struik Publishers, Cape Town.

  15. Shine, R., W. R. Branch, J. K. Webb, P. S. Harlow, T. Shine, and J. S. Keogh. 2007. Ecology of cobras from southern Africa. Journal of Zoology272:183–193.

  16. Alexander, G. J., and B. Maritz. 2010. Natural History Note: Bitis arietans partial resistance to Naja venom. African Herp News 50:34–36.

  17. Phelps, T. 2007. Observations of the Cape cobra, Naja nivea (Serpentes: Elapidae) in the DeHoop Nature Reserve, Western Cape Province, South Africa. Herpetological bulletin 99:29.

  18. Branch, B. (1991). Everyone's Guide to Snakes of Southern Africa: Includes Other Reptiles and Amphibians. CNA Publishers, Johannesburg.

  19. Wallach, V. 1980. Interspecific and intraspecific predation in captive bush vipers, (Atheris squamiger Hallowell, 1854), with notes on different colour phases. Journal of the Herpetological Association of Africa 24:2–3.

  20. Broadley, D. G. 1974. Predation on reptiles and amphibians in south-eastern Africa. Honeyguide 78:11–19.

  21. Warner, J. K., and K. J. Kyle. 2010. Natural History Note: Bitis gabonica Diet. African Herp News 51:13–15.



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