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Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 57(2): 209–212, June 2013

Revista Brasileira de Entomologia

Calycomyza Hendel (Diptera, Agromyzidae) is a genus

with a little more than 60 species in the Neotropical region

(Boucher 2010), 21 of them recorded from Brazil (Spencer

1967; Martinez & Etienne 2002). Species of this genus are

characterized for the distinct and contrasting coloration, usu-

ally with scutum black and notopleuron yellow.  The pres-

ence of large and wide spines on male epandrium is also

characteristic. The larvae are leafminers; some of them show

a high degree of specificity, while others are oligophagous

(Spencer 1973b).

Calycomyza hyptidis Spencer was originally described

from Florida in Hyptis pectinata L. (Lamiaceae) by Spencer

(1966). Three years before, Spencer (1963) described the male

of Calycomyza allecta (described by Melander (1913) based

on females), based on two males from Brazil, one from Santos

(São Paulo), miner in Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae), and the

other from Nova Teutônia (Santa Catarina) with no reference

to the host plant. The illustrated terminalias of the two males

are completely distinct from each other, as it can be seen in

Figs. 52a,b and 53a,b of Spencer (1963: 338). Spencer &

Stigmaier (1973: 74–75) made reference to these illustra-

tions arguing the following: “It now seems clear that the speci-

men from Brazil, Nova Teutonia, tentatively referred to C.

allecta s. lat (Spencer 1963 Fig. 53a) represents hyptidis.

The species presumably occurs in central America and the

Greater Antilles, from where it has reached southern Florida”.

Under  C. allecta they wrote (p. 182): “With only females

available in the type series, there has been uncertainty about

the exact status of this species. Spencer (1963: Figs. 52–53)

illustrated entirely different aedeagus of two specimens from

Brazil, which appeared to represent this species. However,

with no males available from the general type locality, it was

uncertain which was the true allecta. The aedeagus of the

specimen now seen from Dominica agrees almost exactly

with the specimen “ex Bidens pilosa” from Santos, Brazil

and it can therefore now be accepted that this represents the

true allecta (= lateralis Williston)”. So, the males represented

by Spencer (1963) truly refer to C. hyptidis (Fig. 53) and to

C. allecta (Fig. 52). Spencer & Stigmaier (1973) also recorded

in the same paper C. hyptidis in Hyptis pectinata (Lamiaceae).

In Costa Rica C. hyptidis was recorded in Hyptis capitata

Jacq. (Spencer 1983) and more recently, Esposito (1994) re-

corded it from Marajó Is. (Pará, Brazil), as a leaf miner in

Hyptis mutabilis (Rich.) Briq. and presented an illustration

of the male aedeagus and of the mine. Spencer et al. (1992)

recorded  C. hyptidis miner in H. capitata, H. pectinata,

Ocimun basilicum L. and Salvia sp from Guadalupe. In Ven-

ezuela C. hyptidis was recorded from Hyptis sp., O. basilicum

and Salvia sp. forming an irregular star-shaped mine (Spen-

cer 1973b).

Until now, all known host records for C. hyptidis in Bra-

zil belong to the genus Hyptis Jacq. This genus has about

300 species with a wide geographical distribution in the tropi-

cal areas of Americas and Africa. In northeastern Brazil H.

pectinata and Hyptis suaveolens (L.), commonly known re-

spectively as “alfazema-brava” and “alfazema-de-caboclo”,

are used in popular medicine (Basílio et al. 2006) while H.

mutabilis has medicinal use.

We are recording for the first time C. hyptidis in another

genus of the same plant family Lamiaceae. This large family

has a world-wide distribution, with about 7,780 species de-

scribed in 295 genera (Stevens 2001). It has many important

species with different uses as medicine, cosmetics (through

the extraction of essential oils) and also as condiments (Men-

tha L., Lavandula L., Marrubium L., Nepeta L., Ocimum L.,

Origanum L., Rosmarinus L., Salvia L., Satureja L., Thymus

L.), among others. Other many species have a decorative

potential and some species of Leonotis R.Br. (Africa) and

Leonurus L. (Europe and Asia) are invasive in agricultural


Calycomyza hyptidis Spencer (Diptera, Agromyzidae): descriptions,

redescriptions and first record in Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae) in Brazil

Viviane Rodrigues de Sousa


& Márcia S. Couri



Departamento de Entomologia, Museu Nacional, 20940–040 Rio de Janeiro-RJ, Brazil.,




Scholarship CNPq fellow.

ABSTRACT. Calycomyza hyptidis Spencer (Diptera, Agromyzidae): descriptions, redescriptions and first record in Ocimum basilicum

(Lamiaceae) in Brazil. All phases of the leafminer Calycomyza hyptidis Spencer are for the first time described, including the larva,

puparium and adult female. Illustrations are presented for male and female terminalia, mine, larva and pupa. The species is first

recorded in leaves of Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae) in Brazil.

KEYWORDS. Economic importance; leafminer; morphology; new record.




& Couri

Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 57(2): 209–212, June 2013

The new host plant, Ocimum basilicum, is a culinary herb

used in many cuisines, commonly known as basil. There are

some known pathogens, including fungi, that can attack this

plant causing damage to the crop, and this new record may

be highly significant considering the economic importance

of this plant.

Some other species of Agromyzidae have been recorded

as pests in the same plant family Lamiaceae, such as

Phytomyza petoei (Hering, 1924) which occurrs in Mentha

longifolia (L.) and Mentha spicata L., and Phytomyza

horticola (Goureau, 1851) in Mentha spp. (Spencer 1973a).

Spencer (1990) recorded Calycomyza menthae, Liriomyza

strigata, Liriomyza trifolii and Phytomyza platensis miners

in plants of the genus Ocimum.

This paper also gives description and illustrations of all

phases of C. hyptidis.


Small branches with leafs of Ocimum basilicum L. with

mines and larva (Figs. 2–3) were collected in Rio de Janeiro

(Barra da Tijuca) and transferred to the Diptera laboratory at

Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro.

The branches were placed in small vials with water and sugar

Figs. 1–9. Calycomyza hyptidis: 1, male, sternite 5; 2, cercal plate, dorsal view; 3, male terminalia, lateral view; 4, aedeagus, ventral view; 5, ejaculatory

apodeme, dorsal view; 6, female, segment 7, dorsal view; 7, segment 7, lateral view; 8, segment 9, dorsal view; 9, spermatheca.


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Calycomyza hyptidis: descriptions, redescriptions and first record in Ocimum basilicum in Brazil

Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 57(2): 209–212, June 2013

which were placed inside plastic pots covered with tissue

(Fig. 4) until the emergence of the adults. The plant was in a

garden and about 50% of it leafs were infested by the mines.

The larvae were clarified in 10% potassium hydroxide

for 24 hours, and afterwards treated with acetic acid, 70%

alcohol, absolute alcohol, then fixed with butyl acetate and

mounted on slides and coverglass. The adults were mounted

on entomological pins. Male and female terminalia were clari-

fied with 10% potassium hydroxide and placed on slides with

glycerin before dissection. The illustrations of the leaf and

the pupa were made using a stereomicroscope and the larvae

and terminalia using an optic microscope, both with camera

lucida. The terminology follows McAlpine (1981), except

for “postpedicel”, used for “antennal flagellomere”, follow-

ing Stuckenberg (1999).


Calycomyza hyptidis (Spencer, 1966)

Male. Body length. 1.4–1.5 mm. Wings. 1.5–1.6 mm.

General coloration. Frons and face yellow; fronto-orbital

plate yellow and slightly darkened to upper ors; ocellar tri-

angle shining black, ocellus yellow; lunule yellow; antenna and

arista black; gena yellow; palpus black; proboscis yellow;

mesonotum shining black, with a contrasting yellow lateral band

on postpronotal lobe, notopleuron and part of anepisternum

and anepimeron; halter yellow; calypter light yellow, with mar-

gin and fringe black; legs black, with fore femuro-tibial joint

yellow; abdomen shining black; pulvilli light yellow.

Head. Four pairs of fronto-orbital setae, the two upper

ones stronger than the two lower ones; ocellar setae thin and

medium size, forward directed; postocellar setae divergent,

stronger and longer than the ocellar pair, inner vertical setae

long and convergent; outer vertical setae a little shorter than

the inner and divergent; postpedicel rounded minutely pu-

bescent; arista long, with short cilia; vibrissa short and strong;

palpus and proboscis with long cilia.

Thorax. Acrostichals not differentiated; dorsocentrals 0:2;

postpronotal 1; notopleurals 2; supralars 2; intralars 2;

katepisternals 0:1; anepisternals 4; pre-scutellars absent;

scutellum with a long pair of basal and apical setae.

Abdomen. Sternite 5 large, with setae on almost the whole

surface (Fig. 1).

Figs. 10–16. Calycomyza hyptidis: 10, Larvae; 11, cephalo-pharingeal skeleton; 12, anterior spiracles of larva; 13, posterior spiracles of larva; 14, anal

region of larva; 15, puparium; 16, host plant.

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& Couri

Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 57(2): 209–212, June 2013

Terminalia. Hypandrium large with conspicuous patch of

spines at apex, cercal plate long with two setae at apex and

many cilia on entire surface; surstylus with short and long

spines (Figs. 2–3); aedegus with distiphallus long and bifur-

cate and basiphallus rounded (Figs. 3–4); ejaculatory apode-

me moderately enlarged (Fig. 5).

Female. Similar to male.

Ovipositor. Segment 7 large with long setae (Figs. 6–7);

segment 9 long with spines (Fig. 8); spermathecae rounded;

sperm ducts with pleated aspect (Fig. 9).

Larvae. (Fig. 10). General color yellow. Cephalopharyngeal

skeleton with simple mandible (Fig. 11); anterior spiracles with

seven pores, two well defined (Fig 12); posterior spiracles with

three digitiform projections (Fig. 13); anal region with orna-

mentation (Fig. 14).

Puparium. General color brownish, shape as in Fig. 15.

Host plant. Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae), first record

for Brazil. Mine expanded forming a bubble (Fig. 16).

Comment. As already stated by Spencer (1973b) this spe-

cies is oligophagous, occurring on several genera of Lamiaceae.

Pupation occurs outside of the mine, in the ground. The adult

male can be easily identified by the characteristic terminalia,

especially the aedeagus.

Material examined. Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, Barra da Tijuca, 02.x.2011

and 19. xii.2011, Couri, M.S. coll., 2 males, 1 female, 1 larvae, 3 pupae.


We are grateful to Dr. Rachel Alexandre de Carvalho

(Museu Nacional – Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro),

for the help with the Automontage photographs. MSC is grate-

ful to Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e

Tecnológico (CNPq, process 3013012007–7) for the finan-

cial support and VRS for the PIBIC/UFRJ scholarship.


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& Zumbado, M.A. (eds.). Manual of Central American Diptera, Vol.

1. Ottawa, NRC Research Press, 1343 p.

Basílio, I.J.L.D., Agra, M.F., Rocha, E.A., Leal, C.K.A. & Abrantes, H.F.

2006. Estudos farmacobotanicos comparativo das folhas de Hyptis

pectinata (L.) Poit. e Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit. (Lamiaceae). Acta

Farmaceutica Bonaerence 25: 518–25

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Received 15 June 2012; accepted 7 February 2013

Associate Editor: Silvio S. Nihei

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