Revolutionary government of zanzibar



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ANNEX D: MITIGATION MEASURES FOR SMALL CIVIL WORKS

The following annex presents mitigation measures that can be applied by contractors and the PMT broadly to mitigate environment, health and safety impacts of the types of urban upgrading activities (e.g. road rehabilitation, roadside drainage, street lighting) that would be undertaken by the ZMC and PTCs. ESMPs will be tailored to each subproject, which can draw from the following mitigation measures. It should be noted that the sanitation investments under the AF will require more specific mitigation measures for landfill and sludge management facilities, in addition to considering the following.




Impact

Mitigation Measure

Time Frame

Responsible Institution

Relative Cost/ Source of Funds

Monitoring

Increased air pollution due to transportation of construction materials and stockpiling

  • Avoid excavation, handling and transport of erodible materials under windy conditions.

  • Institute traffic management and safety programme including proper signage and training of heavy machine/vehicle operators and drivers, enforcement of speed limits, maximum loading restrictions and compliance with Zanzibari transportation laws and standards especially when crossing inhabited or sensitive areas.

  • Vehicles carrying fine construction materials must be covered during transportation.

  • Wet working areas without causing erosion or runoff.

  • Ensure regular cleaning of access roads and unpaved areas to avoid dust pollution due to wind or movement of vehicles and equipment.

During Mobilization and Construction

Contractor

Under the Contract TOR

Construction Supervision Consultant and Independent Supervision Consultant

Increased noise pollution and vibrations

  • Adopt and maintain moderate vehicle speed and traffic when crossing inhabited or sensitive areas.

  • Noise emissions shall comply with applicable national laws, standards and regulations.

  • Maintain construction equipment in good running condition, enforce vehicle/road restrictions and carry out routine inspection of construction equipment

  • Operate noise generating equipment for short periods or during the times they will cause less community disturbance i.e. daylight.

  • Stationary noise generating equipment shall be placed as far away as possible from sensitive receptors and/or shall be housed inside a shed or covered to reduce the propagation of noise

During Mobilization and Construction

Contractor

Under Contract TOR

Construction Supervision Consultant and Independent Supervision Consultant

Surface and groundwater pollution

  • Ensure appropriate handling of fuels, oils, cement and other materials to avoid spills including storing them in impermeable, bunded containers and undertaking fuelling of machinery and vehicles in concrete floors previously identified within the site.

  • Ensure that all construction activities that could endanger water quality is avoided or controlled, through site planning and design of construction activities and preparation of site procedural protocols.

  • No discharge of muddy water should be permitted from the work areas into the adjacent water courses and/or bodies.

  • Ensure that waste water containing pollutants like cement, concrete, lime, chemicals and fuels are discharged into temporal tank for subsequent removal from site.

  • Contaminated water should in no way be discharged into municipal sewer systems.

  • Avoid deliberate disposal of wastes (even temporarily), on the banks and beds of water drainage lines.

  • Maintenance of equipment and vehicles should be done on concrete ground/floor to avoid soil and surface and underground water pollution.

  • Establish awareness raising programme for city dwellers to avoid disposing waste and contaminated effluents into the storm water drainage systems.

  • Undertake appropriate and regular cleaning and maintenance of ditches and channels to avoid water stagnation.

During Mobilization and Construction

Contractor

Under Contract TOR

Construction Supervision Consultant and Independent Supervision Consultant

Soil erosion and sedimentation

  • Stockpiling of soil overburden should be confined to areas previously disturbed or ploughed and clearly marked and accessible by vehicles.

  • Plant vegetation with properties to prevent soil erosion, like indigenous creepers and herbs where necessary.

  • Material stockpiles must be appropriately protected against wind and water erosion

During Mobilization and Construction

Contractor

Under Contact TOR

Construction Supervision Consultant and Independent Supervision Consultant

Traffic disruption and congestion

  • Institute traffic management and safety programme including proper signage and training of heavy machine/vehicle operators and drivers, enforcement of speed limits, maximum loading restrictions and compliance with Tanzanian transportation laws and standards especially when crossing inhabited or sensitive areas.

  • Prohibit construction of new roads unless it is absolutely necessary.

  • Access to the construction site and work areas should be confined to existing roads.

  • Construction of physical barrier such as road humps should be undertaken where necessary to control speed

  • Make arrangements for traffic diversions via establishment of Traffic Management Plan.

During Mobilization and Construction

Contractor

Under Contract TOR

Construction Supervision Consultant and Independent Supervision Consultant

Waste generation and stockpiling

  • Small volumes of organic waste that can easily decompose must be disposed-off in environmental friendly manner such as the use of pits.

  • Large volumes of wastes produced, including construction and demolition debris, must be collected by licensed private/municipal service providers for appropriate disposal e.g. in land-fills.

  • Office wasteshould be sorted and storage in four different types of waste bins i.e. for paper materials; organic materials; glass wastes; and plastics; and separately disposed.

  • Construction sites, temporary warehouses and yards should be cleaned to prevent indiscriminate fires, burial or abandonment of waste.

  • Burning, burying and/or dumping of wastes by the contractor is prohibited

During Mobilization and Construction

Contractor

Under Contract TOR

Construction Supervision Consultant and Independent Supervision Consultant

Lack of/slow restoration of areas damaged by construction

  • Restore cleared areas such as exhausted borrow pits, disposal areas, workers’ camps immediately after completion of construction works followed by appropriate landscaping, adequate drainage and re-vegetation of open areas using indigenous species.

  • Spoil heaps and excavated slopes shall be re-profiled to stable batters, and grassed to prevent erosion.

  • Plant trees on exposed land and on slopes to prevent or reduce land slippage or collapse and keep slopes stable.

  • Remove any soil contaminated with chemicals or hazardous substances and dispose them appropriately.

During construction

Contractor

Under Contract TOR

Construction Supervision Consultant and Independent Supervision Consultant

Occupational and community health and safety risks

  • Comply with Tanzanian and World Bank and other international standards and regulations on health and safety requirements

  • Develop and implement in-house manual/guidelines on health and safety

  • Keep detailed incident reports in the case of accidents

  • Implement community sensitization programs on the risk for public health and safety caused byproject implementation.

  • Attach warning signs, barriers, and other precautionary signs on all areas of potential risk.

  • Prepare and implement action plan to cope with risks and emergencies including having emergency first aid equipment available at construction sites.

  • Train workers in occupational health and safety regulations.

  • Provide separate passageways for pedestrians and vehicles within and outside construction areas.

  • Ensure that workers wear/use appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE), such as safety glasses, face shields, hard hats, safety shoes, noise protection ear muffs etc.

  • When working in confined spaces, such as deep excavation (trenches) use dewatering, adequate side-wall supports (shoring) and slope gradients that minimize the risks of collapse, entrapment or drowning.

During Mobilization and Construction

Contrator

Under Contract TOR

Construction Supervision Consultant and Independent Supervision Consultant

Risks to historical, archaeological or cultural resources

  • Adhere to the UNESCO 2003 Convention for Safeguarding Living Heritage; International Council of Museum (ICOM); the International Centre for the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property (ICCROM) and the International Network on Cultural Policy (INCP).

  • Adhere to the Stone Town Conservation Master Plan and relevant guidelines

  • In case any historical/cultural remains or artifacts are incidentally found, the workers shall be educated to stop works and notify Antiquities Department or Archaeologist and work will only resume when the conservation specialist (Archaeologist) has completed the work.

  • Should graveyards and any sacred places be found in the project area, the contractor shall take precaution to avoid disturbing or destroying them and the process for their relocation shall be in accordance with Graveyard Removal Act (No. 9 of 1969) and local customs.

During Construction

Contractor

Under Contract TOR

Construction Supervision Consultant and Independent Supervision Consultant

Vegetation clearance

  • Prepare a clearance, re-vegetation and restoration management plan for prior approval by the Construction Supervision Engineer and ensure strict complience.

  • Prohibit cutting of any tree unless explicitly authorized in above-referred plan.

  • When needed, erect temporary protective fencing to effectively protect all trees before commencement of any works within the site..

  • Confine overburden material to specificall designated sites away from sensitive locations.

During Construction

Contactor

Under Contract TOR

Construction Supervision Consultant and Independent Supervision Consultant

Soil pollution/contamination

  • Ensure that soil overburden removed before construction is stored and immediately re-used for replacement at the closure of opened trenches.

  • Undertake appropriate cleaning maintenance of ditches and channels.

  • Ensure immediate replacement of the soils removed during the opening of trenches

  • Provide training of personnel in proper storage, handling and clean-up of contaminating materials into the environment.

During Mobilization and Construction

Contractor

Under Contract TOR

Construction Supervision Consultant and Independent Supervision Consultant

Change in scenic and aesthetic quality

  • Minimize soil and landscape disturbance/change by re-planting vegetation with indigenous species

  • Confine overburden material to specificall designated sites away from sensitive locations.

  • Ensure that soil overburden removed before construction is stored and immediately re-used for replacement at the end of construction.

During Mobilization and Construction

Contractor

Under Contract TOR

Construction Supervision Consultant and Independent Supervision Consultant

Increased risk of HIV/AIDS and STDs

  • Workers must be educated about STDs, HIV and AIDS.

  • Disseminate information on HIV/AIDS and STDs through education promotion materials such as leaflets, placards, shirts, arts, etc.

  • Provide Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT) centres for HIV/AIDs at work place,

  • Enforce HIV/AIDS law and regulations

During Mobilization and Construction

District Health Authorities; PMO-RALG/Contractor/DLAs;

NGOs


PMO-RALG/District Authorities

Construction Supervision Consultant and Independent Supervision Consultant in collaboration with Resident Engineer

Destruction/desruption of utility services

  • Undertake prior consultation and contingency planning with utility providers (TANESCO, DAWASCO and TTCL) and local authorities about the consequences of particular service failures and establish appropriate construction schedules and alternative service provision.

  • Install lighting at night (where necessary), to ensure safe traffic movement.

During Mobilization and Construction

Contractor

Under Contract TOR

Construction Supervision Consultant and Independent Supervision Consultant

Increased burden on local authorities

  • Maintain open communication with the local government and concerned communities on agreed schedules of construction activities nearby sensitive places or at sensitive times.

  • Copies of the ESMPs and of other relevant environmental safeguard documents in Kiswahili be available to local communities and workers at the site.

  • Maintain early consultations on any loss of amenities such as playground space, car parking with those affected, providing opportunities for investigation and implementation of alternatives.

  • Disseminate project information to affected parties through community meetings before construction starts;

  • Monitor community concerns and information requirements as the project progresses;

  • Respond to telephone inquiries and written correspondence in a timely and accurate manner.

During Construction

Contractor

Under Contract TOR

Construction Supervision Consultant and Independent Supervision Consultant

Increased risks of accidents

  • Impose speed limits at work sites and place appropriate traffic signs along access roads.

  • Comply with all applicable laws and regulations regarding road transport and safety.

  • Prohibit construction of new roads unless it is absolutely necessary.

  • Access to the construction site and work areas should as much as possible be confined to existing roads.

  • Construction of physical barrier such as road humps should be undertaken where necessary to control speed

  • Make arrangements for traffic diversions via establishment of Traffic Management Plan.

  • Provide hard hats and industrial boots and enforce their proper use.

  • Develop, operationalise (including carrying out regular rehearsals) of contingency plans for dealing with incidents and hazards.

  • Train and enforce occupational health and safety practices (including PPE) to workers

  • Provide First Aid and evacuation facilities

  • Abide to national and international quality standards

Contractor

During Mobilization and Construction

Under Contract TOR

Construction Supervision Consultant and Independent Supervision Consultant

Disruption of local hydrology

  • Ensure the drainage designs utilize as much as possible the existing channels and drains

  • Where possible, the designs shall leave some unpaved space alongside the road for water to seep into the ground

  • The design shall provide controlled and effective storm water dispersion by installation of appropriate drainage structures.

Contractor

During Design and Construction

Under Contract TOR

Construction Supervision Consultant and Independent Supervision Consultant

Excavation and deplition of construction materials

  • Consult Local Government Authorities on authorised borrow pits or quarry sites for exploitation of construction materials.

  • Under no circumstances would materials like sand be excavated and exploited within the boundaries of the City of Dar es Salaam

  • All mined construction minerals (gravel, stone, sand etc.) must be procured from authorized sites with licenses per the Mining Act (2010)

Contractor

During mobilization and construction

Under Contract TOR

Construction Supervision Consultant and Independent Supervision Consultant



1 Paul Watkiss (2012) Economic Impacts of Climate Change in Zanzibar. UK Department for International Development

2 Abdul A. J. Mohamed, Ibrahim Abdul Rahman , Sadri A. Said , Lee H. Lim , Islam S. Mchenga (2013). Levels of Hexavalent Chromium, Copper, and Total Hardness in Springs and Underground Water in Zanzibar Island. Asian Journal of Applied Sciences (ISSN: 2321 – 0893) Volume 01– Issue 05, December 2013.

3 Abdul A. J. Mohamed , Ibrahim Abdul Rahman , Lee H. Lim (2014). Effect of Rainfall Variability on pH and Electrical Conductivity of Springs and Groundwater in Zanzibar Urban West Region. Asian Journal of Applied Sciences (ISSN: 2321 – 0893) Volume 02 – Issue 01, February 2014 .

4 ZAWA Laboratory Report taken during the Environmental Scoping of the Kibele Landfill Site in July 2015.

5 Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar (2014) Ministry of Lands, Housing, Water and Energy. Zanzibar Water Authority Report: Zanzibar Water Supply and Sanitation Project - Water Resources Management Component: Water Resources Assessment

6 KOICA (2010) Feasibility Study: Zanzibar Irrigation Master Plan.

7POFEDP (2013) Technical Assistance for the Preparation of a Diagrammatic Indicative Structure Plan for Zanzibar Municipality and Its Immediate Periphery and Urban Development Policy for Zanzibar Town Review Report October 2013

8Proponent refers to an institution or investor who is responsible for promoting or investing in a project

9The estimated costs for implementing the mitigation measures are usually indicative. Appropriate bills of quantities should provide actual figures for implementation of mitigation measures for individual subprojects.

10 The number and type of team members will depend on the nature and scope of the sub-project under consideration.

11 Other opted specialists appointed by the Council Executive Director on need basis depending on nature of project

1210% of project funds are to be allocated to the EMO for environmental and social management activities and to cover monitoring, allowances, review costs, fuel and stationary (See capacity building chapter 7)

13 Experts are required to register with ZEMA following a process similar to project registration and using the same registration form.

14The estimated costs for implementing the mitigation measures are usually indicative. Appropriate bills of quantities should provide actual figures. The ESIA consultant must use informed judgement to determine the figures.

15RC’s Office, Municipal and Town Councils office: Environment Management , Community Development, Health, Natural Resources, Human Resource, Land Management, Civil Works Engineers, Water Engineer

16 http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/19708/0

17 http://avibase.bsc-eoc.org/checklist.jsp?region=TZznza

18 R.H.W. Pakenham (1983) THE Reptiles and Amphibians of Zanzibar and Pemba Islands (With a Note on Freshwater Fishes). The Journal of East Africa Natural History Society and National Museum. Issue No. 177. Pp 1 -40.

19 http://www.amphibiaweb.org:8000/cgi/amphib_query?where-genus=Kassina&where-species=jozani


20 http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/136136/0


21 Moynihan, Molly, "Water Quality and Eutrophication: The Effects of Sewage Outfalls on Waters and Reefs Surrounding Stone Town, Zanzibar" (2010). Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection. Paper 827.
http://digitalcollections.sit.edu/isp_collection/827

22
 Lopez, Socorro, "Pollution in Stone Town’s Coastal Waters: An Assessment of Environmental Infuences on Fecal Contamination" (2014). Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection. Paper 1767. http://digitalcollections.sit.edu/isp_collection/1767
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