Rkn is a parasitic nematode



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  • Parasitic Nematodes are responsible for the lose $100 billion annually (Sasser,97)



RKN is a parasitic nematode

  • RKN is a parasitic nematode

  • The life cycle is 17 to 57 days (Widmer,06)











SCN Resistant Soy is not affected by parasitic nematodes (Tilka,06)

  • SCN Resistant Soy is not affected by parasitic nematodes (Tilka,06)

  • In under 3 years RKN mutations can render it useless



Rhizobium is nitrogen fixing bacteria

  • Rhizobium is nitrogen fixing bacteria

  • Can supply half of the plants nitrogen needs





Copper Sulfate is a popular Heavy Metal Pesticide

  • Copper Sulfate is a popular Heavy Metal Pesticide









The purpose of this experiment is to find the most ecological way to limit RKN populations without hurting the Rhizobium

  • The purpose of this experiment is to find the most ecological way to limit RKN populations without hurting the Rhizobium



Alternate- Is that Chitin combined with another biocontrol will do the best at limiting RKN w/o harming the Rhizobium populations

  • Alternate- Is that Chitin combined with another biocontrol will do the best at limiting RKN w/o harming the Rhizobium populations

  • Null- Is that all the treatments will be the same in terms of the data collected







RKN is obtainable from Cornell University Cooperative program



Becker "Seeking New Controls for Costly Nematodes". Agricultural Research. March 1999. FindArticles.com. 18 May. 2008.

  • Becker "Seeking New Controls for Costly Nematodes". Agricultural Research. March 1999. FindArticles.com. 18 May. 2008.

  • Beremer, Eric. "Nitrogen Benefits From Rhizobia." Micro Biology 14 (1996). Demands of Gene , Individual and Group Selection. Evolutionary Biology 12 (1999): 80-93. Abstract.

  • Chen, S.Y., et al., “Investigation of Fungal Antagonists of Heterodera Glycines in Minnesota”, Journal of Nematology, 31 (4), Abstract, p. 527, (Dec. 1999).

  • 2001 Nematology Research Project List, Senyu Chen. University of Minnesota, Southern Research and Outreach Center.

  • The Soybean Cyst Nematode, S. Chen, University of Minnesota Extension Service, College of Agricultural, Food, and Environmental Sciences.



Meyer, J., The influence of fungal parasites on the population dynamics of Heterodera schachtii on oil radish, Nematologica, XXVIII, Abstract of Papers at the XVIth International Symposium, p. 161, (1982).

  • Meyer, J., The influence of fungal parasites on the population dynamics of Heterodera schachtii on oil radish, Nematologica, XXVIII, Abstract of Papers at the XVIth International Symposium, p. 161, (1982).

  • Dose-Response effects of clove oil from Syzygium aromaticum on the root-knot nematode, Susan, Meyer, Pest Management Science. 64:223-229

  • Opperman, Charles, “Sequence and Genetic Map of Meloidogyne hapla: A compact nematode genome for plant parasitism” , Center for the Biology of Nematode Parasitism, June 20,2008

  • Population Changes in Heterodera glycines and its Bacterial Parasite Pasteuria sp.in naturally infested soil, G. R. Noel, Journal of Nematology 30(1):81-92.1998.

  • Control of Soybean Cyst Nematode by Chitnolytic Bacteria with Chitin Sbustrate, Honglin Tian, Journal of Nematology 32(4):370-376.2000.




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