S. S. Samant G. B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment & Development, Kosi-Katarmal, Almora (U. P.) 263 643, India



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Conservation and management perspectives

To maintain the population and increase the production of fodder species, the following measures seem appropriate for the conservation and management of fodder resource of west Himalaya:-

  1. Extensive and intensive surveys to prepare a comprehensive inventory/ database of fodder resources of west Himalaya. Information on annual quantum of collection, species preference, probability of use, resource use index, multiple utility and chemical composition of fodder species.

  2. Chemical analysis of plants used as fodder to identity the nutritive status.


  3. Surveys and research on local/ indigenous knowledge of fodder species and forests and their uses to improve planning and implementation of sustainable forest management.
  4. Surveys, development and implementation of land use plans for appropriate planting, afforestation, reforestation and forest rehabilitation.


  5. Promote ex-situ and in-situ conservation of fodder resource.

  6. Large scale propagation of highly preferred fodder species and dissemination of packages to local inhabitants.

  7. Identify biotechnological means to improve germination/ propagation of fodder species.

  8. Impart training on lopping, nursery, propagation and plantation techniques.

  9. Ensure people's participation and create awareness through training and extension programmes and by means of mass media.


References

Anonymous 1883-1970. Index Kewensis Plantarum Phanerogamarum Vol. I-II (1883-1885 and 15 Suppl. (1886-1970), Clarendon press, Oxford..

Anonymous 1988. Animal Census of Uttar Pradesh, Lucknow.

Anonymous 1991. Census of Uttar Pradesh, Lucknow.

Chatterjee, D., 1939. Studies on the endemic flora of India and Burma. J. Royal Asiatic Soc. Bengal, 5: 19 –67.

Dhar, U. and S.S. Sammant, 1993. Endemic plant diversity of Indian Himalaya I. Ranunculacease and Paeoniaceae. J. Biogeography, 20 : 659- 668.

Gutteridge, R.C., 1995. The potential of nitrogen fixing tress in livestock production systems. Paper presented in International Workshop on Nitrogen Fixing Trees for Fodder held in Pune, India, March 20-25, 1995.

Nayar, M.P. and A.R.K. Sastry, 1987. Red Data Book of Indian Plants. Vol. I. Botanical Survey of India, Howrah.

Purohit, K. and S.S.Samant, 1995. Fodder trees and shrubs of Central Himalaya. Gyanodaya Prakashan, Naintal.

Samant S.S. and U.Dhar, 1997. Diversity, Endemism and Economic Potential of Wild Edible Plants of Indian Himalaya. Intern. J. Sustain. Dev. & World Ecology, 4: 179-191.

Singh, J.S., S.P. Singh and Jeet Ram, 1998. Fodder and Fuelwood Resources of Central Himalaya: Problems and Solutions. Report Submitted for Study Group on Fuel and Fodder, Planning Commission, Government of India, New Delhi.



Table 1: Diversity, distribution, feeding season, nature, nativity, endemism and use values of fodder species in West Himalaya

Taxa

Altitudinal range (m)

Feeding season

Nature

Nativity

Endemism

Other uses

Tress



















Acer

2400-3600

W, S

D

Reg. Himal.

NE

-

A. caesium

1500-3000

W, S

D

Reg. Himal.

NE

Fl, Hb

A. cappadocium

1800-2700

S

D

Japan

-

Fl, Hb

A. oblongum

500-2100

W, S

E

Reg. Himal.

-

-

A. villosum

2100-2700

S, R

D

Reg. Himal.

NE

Fl, Hb

Adina cordifolia

Upto 1000

S

D

Ind. Or.

-

Fl, Hb

Aesculus indica

1500-2800

W, S

D

Reg. Himal.

NE

M,Ed

Alangium salviifolium

900-1800

S

D

Ind. Or., China, Japan

-

-

Albizia chinensis

300-1500

S

D

Ind. Or.

-

Fl, Hb

A. lebeck

Upto 1000

S

D

Geront. Trop.

-

Fl, Hb

A. procera

Upto 900

S

D

As. Trop.,

-

Fl, Hb

Alnus nepalensis

1200-2700

W

D

Austr.

-

Fl, Misc

Anogeissus latifolia

Upto 1200

S

D

Reg. Himal.

-

Ed

Bauhinia purpurea

300-800

S

D

Ind. Or.

-

M

B. racemosa

300-600

S

D

Ind. Or., Burma, China

-

M

B. retusa

300-1200

S

D

Reg. Himal.

NE

M,Ed

B. variegata

300-1800

S, R, A

D

Ind. Or., Burma, China

-

M,Ed, Fl

Betula alnoides

1500-2700

S, R, A

D

Reg. Himal.

-

-

B. utilis

2800-4000

S, R, A

D

Reg. Himal., Japan

-

M, Fl, Misc

Boehmeria rugulosa

500-1600

W,S

E

Reg. Himal

-

Ed, Misc

Bridelia montana

300-1500

W

E

Ind. Or.

-

Ed

B. retusa

Upto 900

W,S

E

Ind. Or. Malaya

-

-

Bischoffia javanica

Upto 1100

S

D

Ind. Or., Malaya Ins. Pacif.

-

-

Bombax ceiba

800-1500

S

D

Amer., Austr.

-

M, Ed

Brassaiopsis aculeata

1200-1400

S

E

Reg. Himal.

NE

-

Casearia glomerata

Upto 1500

S

D

Ind. Or.

-

Fl

Callicarpa arborea

Upto 1500

W,S

E

As. Trop.

-

AT

Carpinus viminea

1800-2600

S

D

Reg. Himal.

-

Hb

Castanopsis tribulodies

900-2000

W,S

E

Reg. Himal., Burma

-

Ed, AT, Fl

Celtis australis

1600-2700

S

D

Europe, As. Trop.

-

Ed, Fl

C. eriocarpa

900-1800

S

D

Ind. Or.

-

Ed, Fl

C. tetrandra

300-1800

W,S

D

Ind. Or., Malaya

-

Ed, Fl

Cordia vestita

300-1200

W,S

D

Reg. Himal.

-

Ed, Fl

C. obliqua

Upto 1500

W,S

D

Ind. Or.

-

Ed, Fl

Cornus capitata

1500-2200

W,S

E

Reg. Himal.

-

Ed, Fl

Corylus jacquemontii

2200-2700

S

D

Europe .Or., As. Minor, Reg. Himal.

-

Ed, Fl

Dalbergia sericea

600-1500

S

D

Reg. Himal.

NE

Misc

Debregeasia longifolia

600-1500

W,S

E

Ind. Or.

-

Ed

D. salicifolia

800-2100

W,S

E

Ind. Or.

-

Ed

Dendrocalamus strictus

300-1500

W

E

Ind. Or.

-

Ed , Misc

Diploknema butyracea

Upto 1200

W

D

Ind. Or.

-

Ed , Fl

Dodecadenia grandiflira

2100-2600

Th

E

Reg. Himal

-

-

Ethetia acuminata

Upto 1800

W

D

AS. Et austr. Trop

-

Ed , Fl

E. Laevis

Upto 1200

W

D

AS. Et austr. Trop

-

Ed , Fl

Emblica officinalis

Upto 1500

S

D

As. Trop.

-

M , ed, Fl, Rel

Eurya acuminata

1200-2600

W

E

Reg. Himal., Malaya

-

Fl, Misc

Ficus benghalensis

Upto 1200

S

E

Ind. Or., Afr. Trop

-

M, Ed, Rel

F. glomerata

Upto 900

S,W

D

Ind. Or., Burma

-

Ed

Ficus hispida

Upto 1200

W,S

E

As.et Austr. Trop

-

Ed

F. nemoralis

1200- 2000

W,S

SD

Reg. Himal

NE

Ed

F. palmata

Upto 1800

W

D

Afr. Trop., Arab., Ind. Or.

-

M, Ed

F.religiosa

Upto 1500

W,S

D

Indo. Or.

-

Ed, Rel

F.roxburghii

500-1700

W,S

D

Reg. Himal Burma

-

Ed, Misc

F.rumphii

Upto 1200

W,S

D

Reg. Himal Malaya

-

Ed

F. semicordata

Upto 1500

Th

E

Ins. Selebes

-

Ed

F. subincisa

500-1500

Th

E

As. Trop.

-

Ed

F. virens

300-1800

W

D

Indo. Occ.

-

Ed

Glochidion velutinum

300-1800

S

SD

Indo. Or.

-

Fl, Misc

Grewia elastica

Upto 1500

W,R

E

Indo. Or.

-

Ed, Fl, Fb

G. oppositifolia

300-1200

W

E

Reg. Himal

NE

Ed, Fl, Fb

Ilex dipyrena

1500-3000

W

E

Reg. Himal

-

Fl

Leucomeris spectabilis

Upto 1500

S

E

Nepal

NE

-

Litsea monpetala

Upto 1500

Th

E

Indo. Or., Malaya

-

-

Litsea umbrosa

1500-2700

S

E

Reg. Himal

-

Ed

Madhuca indica

Upto 1000

S

D

Indo. Or.

-

Ed, Fl

Mallotus philippensis

Upto 1500

S

E

As.et Austr.

-

FL, Misc

Melia azedarach

Upto 1500

S

D

Reg. Himal

-

Hb, Misc

Meliosma dilleniaefolia

1800-2700

W,S

D

Reg. Himal

-

-

M. pungens

2000-2700

W,S

D

Reg. Himal., Japan

-

-

Morus laevigata

300-600

W,S

D

Indo. Or.

-

Ed

M. serrata

1000-2700

W,S

D

Reg. Himal

NE

Ed, Misc

Myrica esculenta

1500-2100

W

E

As. Trop. Et. Subtrop.

-

M, Ed

Ougeinia oojeinensis

300-1500

Th

SD

Indo. Or.

-

Ed, Misc

Persea duthiei

1500-2700

W,S

E

Reg. Himal.

NE

Fl

P. gamblei

500-1500

W,S

E

Reg. Himal.

NE

Fl

P. odoratissima

800-2100

W,S

E

Indo. Or., Malaya China

-

Fl

Phoebe lanceolata

300-1400

W,S

E

Indo. Or., Burma

-

Fl
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