Сardiac failure Cause acute right ventricular failure can be



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Сardiac failure

1. Cause acute right ventricular failure can be

a) Aortic insufficiency

b) failure of the mitral valve

c) Aortic stenosis

+ d) pulmonary stenosis

e) Mitral stenosis



2. The cause of right heart failure may be:
a) aortic valve insufficiency; b) failure of the mitral valve;
c) coarctation of the aorta; + d) hypertension of pulmonary circulation;
e) hypertension of the systemic circulation.
3. One of the signs of right heart failure is
a) pallor; b) asthma attacks; c) hemoptysis;
d) pulmonary edema; + e) cyanosis of the skin and visible mucous, ascites.

4. One of the signs of right heart failure is:
a) asthma attacks; b) hemoptysis; c) pulmonary edema;
d) expressed pale skin; + e) edema of the lower extremities, ascites.

5. One of the causes of left ventricular failure is

a) Lung disease

b) stenosis of the pulmonary artery

c) the tricuspid valve

d) right ventricular infarction

+ e) failure of the mitral valve



6. One of the reasons of the left ventricular heart failure is:
a) pulmonary hypertension; b) stenosis of the pulmonary artery;
c) the tricuspid valve insufficiency; d) pulmonary emphysema;
+ e) primary arterial hypertension.
7. One of the signs of left ventricular failure is
a) cyanosis; b) swelling of the lower extremities;
c) pulsation of the neck veins; d) enlargement of the liver; + e) asthma attacks (cardiac asthma).

8. For the left ventricular heart failure is observed:
a) ascites; b) swelling of the lower extremities; c) pulsation of neck veins;
d) enlargement of the liver; + e) pulmonary edema.

9. Overload form of heart failure results:

+ a) hypervolemia

b) Myocardial ischemia

c) Myocarditis

d) Extrasystole

e) myocardial



10. Leads to the overload form of heart failure:
+ a) arterial hypertension; b) myocardial ischemia; c) myocarditis; d) extrasystolia;
e) myocardiodystrophy.
11. Leads to the overload form of heart failure:
+ a) pulmonary hypertension; b) coronary insufficiency; c) myocarditis;
d) extrasystolia; e) myocardiodystrophy.

12. Overload of heart by blood volume may develop in
+ a) hypervolemia; b) arterial hypertension; c) arterial hypotension;
d) stenosis of the mitral valve; e) stenosis of the aortic valve.

13. Overload heart "resistance" develops in

a) eritremia

+ b) Hypertension

c) physical exertion

d) hypervolemia

14. Overload of heart by "resistance" develops in
a) failure of the heart valves; b) erythremia; + c) coarctation of the aorta;
d) physical exercise; e) hypervolemia.
15. Overload form of heart failure develops in:
a) reduction of blood volume; b) myocardial ischemia; c) myocarditis; + d) heart defects;
e) myocardiodystrophy.

16. Overload form of heart failure develops in:
a) reduction of blood volume; b) myocardial ischemia; c) myocarditis;
+ d) failure of the mitral valve; e) myocardiodystrophy.
17. Overload form of heart failure develops in:
  a) reduction of blood volume; b) myocardial ischemia; c) myocarditis;
  + d) heart defects; + e) hypervolemia.

18. Long-term adaptation of cardiac function provides

a) Tachycardia

+ b) myocardial hypertrophia

c) Heterometric mechanism

d) Homeometric mechanism

e) Myogenic dilatation



19. For compensation stage heart failure is characterized by:

+ a) tonogenic dilatation of heart

+ b) Tachycardia

+ c) myocardial hypertrophy

d) Myogenic dilatation

e) Increase in residual blood in the cavities of the heart



20. Name extracardiac compensation mechanisms in heart diseases

+ a) Increased erythropoiesis

b) Tonogenic dilatation of heart

c) Hypertrophia myocardium



21. Emergency hyperfunction stage heart on Meerson characterized

+ a) Hyperfunction non hypertrophic infarction

b) Hyperfunction hypertrophic myocardium

c) normalization of energy production per unit mass of the myocardium

d) growth of connective tissue

e) reduction of protein synthesis per unit of muscle mass.



22. The emergency phase of heart hyperfunction is characterized by:
+ a) increased energy production and amplification of protein synthesis;
b) reduction of energy production and the reduction of protein synthesis.
23. Myogenic dilatation - is
+ a) expansion of the cavities of heart due to distension of the muscle fibers;
b) reduction of heart cavities.

24. Myocardial form of heart failure occurs when
a) valvular heart disease; b) hypertension;
c) arteriovenous shunting of blood; d) coarctation of the aorta; + e) myocardial infarction.
25. Myocardial form of heart failure is consequence of:
a) valvular heart disease;
b) arterial hypertension;
c) arteriovenous shunting of blood;
d) coarctation of the aorta;
+ e) myocarditis.

26. Myocardial form of heart failure is consequence of:
a) hypertension of pulmonary circulation;
b) hypertension of the systemic circulation;
c) aortic stenosis;
+ d) primary violations of metabolic processes in the heart muscle;
e) hypervolemia.
27. Myocardial form of heart failure develops in
a) hypervolemia;
b) stenosis of the heart valves;
c) failure of the heart valves;
d) primary arterial hypertension;
+ e) ischemic heart disease.

28. The ion imbalance in damaged cardiomyocytes is manifested by:
+ a) increase in the intracellular concentration of sodium;
+ b) increase in intracellular calcium concentration;
c) increasing the concentration of potassium;
d) decrease in the concentration of sodium;
+ e) a decrease in the intracellular concentration of potassium.

29. Stage decompensation heart failure manifests itself:

+ a) cyanosis

+b) Edema

c) increase in systolic volume

+ d) increased residual volume of blood in the cavities of the heart

e) increase in blood pressure.



30. Hemodinamic indicators in chronic heart failure characterized by

a) reduction of central venous pressure

+ b) reduction of cardiac output

c) increasing the flow velocity

d) increasing the capacity of the left ventricle contraction

e) increasing the total peripheral vascular resistance.



31. How changes the intensity of the functioning of hypertrophic cardiomyocytes in a stable phase of compensation?
a) maximum increases
+ b) decreases to the normal
c) progressively falls

32. How changes the intracardiac hemodynamic when myogenic dilatation of the ventricles of heart?
a) the rate of systolic ejection of blood from the ventricles increases
+ b) diastolic blood volume increases in the ventricular cavity
+ c) end-systolic volume of blood in the ventricular cavity increases
d) blood pressure in the right atrium and the mouths of the vena cava reduces
+ e) stroke volume of heart reduces.
33. Specify the factors, condition and disease, which can cause heart failure by direct myocardial injury:
a) failure of the tricuspid valve
+ b) lack of vitamin B1 (thiamine)
c) hypertension
+ d) septic states
+ e) alcohol.

34. Specify the features characteristic for right ventricular failure:
+ a) the tendency to development of ascites
+ b) enlargement of Jugular veins
+ c) edema of lower limbs
+ d) hepatomegaly
e) pulmonary edema

35. What type of heart failure can cause the development of pulmonary edema?
a) right ventricular
+ b) left ventricular
+ c) total
36. Heart failure is characterized by:
+ a) a decrease in myocardial contractility
+ b) usually a decrease in stroke volume
+ c) usually a decrease in cardiac output
d) a decrease in the residual systolic blood volume
+ e) dilatation of the heart cavities

37. Overload of cardiomyocytes by Ca2+ in heart failure leads to:
+ a) uncoupling of oxidation and phosphorylation in mitochondria
+ b) activation of Ca2+ -dependent phospholipases and damage of the sarcolemma
+ c) an increase of lipid peroxidation
+ d) breach of relaxation of myofibrils
e) an increase in the strength and rate of contraction of the myocardium

38. When myocardial ischemia is not:
a) reduced the activity of oxidative phosphorylation
b) intensified glycolysis
c) lactic acid accumulates
d) rapidly depleted ATP stores
+ e) increases in the concentration of phosphocreatine
39. Specify urgent cardiac mechanisms of compensation of hemodynamic disturbances in heart failure:
a) bradycardia
+ b) tachycardia
+ c) homeometric mechanism
+ d) heterometric mechanism of Frank-Starling
e) myocardial hypertrophy.


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