Sex sex the biological distinctions between females and males



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SEX

  • SEX

  • GENDER

    • PERSONAL TRAITS AND SOCIAL POSITIONS THAT MEMBERS OF A SOCIETY ATTACH TO BEING FEMALE AND MALE
  • DIFFERENCES

    • BIOLOGICALLY BASED
    • SOCIOLOGICALLY BASED






Gender, not biology, determines the roles of males and females

  • Gender, not biology, determines the roles of males and females

  • Belief in gender roles results in power distribution between the sexes



Role- socially or culturally defined behavioral expectation that is presumed to apply to all individuals in a category.

  • Role- socially or culturally defined behavioral expectation that is presumed to apply to all individuals in a category.

  • Gender Roles-specific behaviors and attitudes associated with and established for men and women. Being masculine or feminine means displaying these roles appropriate for a person’s biological sex.



DOL-Individuals specialize to perform economic tasks

  • DOL-Individuals specialize to perform economic tasks

  • Men and women expected to do different work

  • Men- economic support and safety

  • Women- childcare, domestic * changing in US





THE ISRAELI KIBBUTZIM

  • THE ISRAELI KIBBUTZIM

  • MARGARET MEAD’S RESEARCH

    • IS SEX LINKED TO A SPECIFIC, UNIVERSAL SOCIAL DISTINY?
      • STUDIES FOUND
        • ARAPESH
        • MUNDUGUMOR
        • TCHAMBULI
  • FAFAFUNGIE OF TONGA

  • NIUE NEW ZEALAND

  • FULNAI NORTH AFRICA





SELECTIVE ABORTION

  • SELECTIVE ABORTION

  • SOCIALIZATION BEGINS AT BIRTH-IS IT A BOY OR GIRL?

    • COLOR-CODING GENDER
  • HANDLING OF CHILDREN

    • BE A GOOD “LITTLE MAN” “ACT LADY LIKE”
  • NURSERY RHYMES

  • IT’S OK TO BE A TOM-BOY

    • WHY WOULDN’T A GIRL WANT TO BE A BOY?
    • BUT, WHAT IF A BOY ACTS TOO MUCH LIKE A GIRL?


HIGH SCHOOL

  • HIGH SCHOOL

    • GIRLS
      • SECRETARIAL, VOCATIONAL, ENGLISH, THE ARTS, AND HOME ECONOMICS
    • BOYS
      • MATH, SCIENCE, WOODWORKING AND AUTOMECHANICS ATTRACT BOYS
  • COLLEGE

    • MEN
    • WOMEN
      • THE HUMANITIES, FINE ARTS, AND THE SOCIAL SCIENCES


PEER GROUPS USE NORMATIVE CONCEPTIONS OF GENDER

  • PEER GROUPS USE NORMATIVE CONCEPTIONS OF GENDER

    • PRESSURES TO TAKE PART IN BEHAVIORS THAT ARE NORMATIVE TO AGE AND GENDER
  • GAMES WITH SERIOUS IMPLICATIONS

    • BOYS
      • “VICTORY” TEAM SPORTS
    • GIRLS
      • “COOPERATIVE” GAMING




WHITE MALES HAVE CENTER STAGE

  • WHITE MALES HAVE CENTER STAGE

  • MINORITIES OF ALL KINDS LOCKED OUT

  • WOMEN RECEIVE ROLES BASED ON SEX APPEAL

  • THE “BEAUTY MYTH”

    • EATING DISORDERS
    • EMOTIONAL STRESS
    • IDEAL IMAGING


A former Ralph Lauren model Filippa Hamilton, whose image in a roundly criticized advertisement was digitally slenderized said …that the apparel maker did not renew her contract because she was “too large.”

  • A former Ralph Lauren model Filippa Hamilton, whose image in a roundly criticized advertisement was digitally slenderized said …that the apparel maker did not renew her contract because she was “too large.”





Gender Stereotyping in advertisements

  • Gender Stereotyping in advertisements







MATRIARCHY

  • MATRIARCHY

  • INEVITABILITY OF PATRIARCHY?

    • IS BIOLOGY DESTINY? SHOULD WOMEN RULE?
    • MARGARET MEAD’S TACHAMBULI
    • MOSUO IN SOUTH EAST CHINA


Sexism- belief that by nature one sex is superior to the other

  • Sexism- belief that by nature one sex is superior to the other

  • Misogyny- hate women-believe them inferior

  • Misandry- hate men-believe them inferior

  • Men historically had the country and economy and have accepted this as the norm

  • Creation of self-fulfilling prophecy

  • 1. Male choices are based on beliefs so beliefs are reinforced

  • 2. Men often do not accept women in powerful positions

  • 3. Women often do not attempt to gain powerful positions



  • SOCIOLOGISTS INTERESTED IN THE INEQUALITY OF MEN AND WOMEN IN THE D.O.L.

  • ERNESTINE FRIEDL’S THEORY

  • Power is based on who exchanges goods with non-family members. Men are the ones normally in this position

  • HUNTER-GATHERS: men hunted, women gathered food used for family while hunted food was shared

  • Inuet (Eskimo)

  • Washo Indians

  • 3. Hadza Tanzania



HISTORY IN THE HOME

  • HISTORY IN THE HOME

  • Women have historically worked in the home in industrial societies

  • CHANGES TODAY

  • People are living longer; most of adult life is no longer spent in child care

  • Jobs are no longer (necessarily) too difficult physically for women

  • CONFLICT THEORISTS

  • claim gender roles are a reflection of male dominance

  • Males control money, power, and law









Number of women in college has risen from being underrepresented to outnumbering men since 1980

  • Number of women in college has risen from being underrepresented to outnumbering men since 1980

  • As of 2006:

    • Bachelors degrees Men 43% -Women 57%
    • Masters degrees Men 41%- Women 59%
  • Ph. D’s- 2001-2006 women earned more Ph.D.’s than men in Humanities, social science, education, and life sciences

  • Women are less likely to pursue professional and doctoral degrees in engineering, science (women earn 24% of science Ph.D.’s)

  • Major in areas that lead to low paying jobs- humanities or become Nurses instead of Doctors

















Majority 59.5% of women over age 16-work but in low paying, low status jobs

  • Majority 59.5% of women over age 16-work but in low paying, low status jobs

      • 1. 2005- Median female income $31,858 a year
      • 2.2005- Median male income $ 41,386 a year
      • 3. $0.77 on every male dollar
  • Sometimes women will earn less for the same job

  • Feminization of Poverty

  • Feb 2009 New York Times reported Recession “Women are poised to surpass men on the nation’s payrolls, taking the majority for the first time in American history.”

  • 82% of job losses have been men













The Economist- Report on Oppertunities for Women World Wide

  • The Economist- Report on Oppertunities for Women World Wide



THE MILITARY

  • THE MILITARY

    • 14-15% OF THE ARMED FORECES ACTIVE AND RESERVE WERE WOMEN IN 2008
      • THE COAST GUARD OPENS ALL ASSIGNMENTS TO WOMEN
      • THE UNTIED STATES MARINE CORPS DENIES ACCESS TO TWO-THIRDS OF ITS MILITARY OCCUPATIONAL FIELDS


Women are 50% of voting population, yet men have the majority of elected positions (2009)

  • Women are 50% of voting population, yet men have the majority of elected positions (2009)

  • 112th congress 17% Women

  • 1. Senate 17 Serving =17%

  • 2. Representatives 75

  • serving=17%

  • 3. State Governors 6= 12%

  • Worldwide- only 18.6% of seats in world parliaments

  • THESE NUMBERS ARE GROWING BUT STILL ARE FAR FROM EQUAL

  • Global Stats for Women in Parliaments



GIVEN THE ECONOMIC REALITIES, WOMEN CERTAINLY QUALIFY

  • GIVEN THE ECONOMIC REALITIES, WOMEN CERTAINLY QUALIFY

  • AT ALL LEVELS IN THE CLASS SYSTEM, WOMEN HAVE:

    • LESS INCOME
    • LESS WEALTH
    • LESS POWER THAN MEN
  • PATRIARCHY PROVIDES WOMEN WITH SOCIAL STANDING, FIRST THEIR, AND THEN THEIR HUSBANDS

  • ADDRESSING A LETTER





IN THE HOME

  • IN THE HOME

    • SOME WOMEN BELIEVE THAT A “RAPE CULTURE” EXISTS IN AMERICA
  • IN PUBLIC

  • THE WORKPLACE

    • SEXUAL HARASSMENT REMAINS PROBLEMATIC FOR WOMEN
  • PORNOGRAPHY

    • POWER ISSUE WHICH MAY TELL MEN IT’S OK TO OBJECTIFY WOMEN


STRUCTURAL-FUNCTIONALISM

  • STRUCTURAL-FUNCTIONALISM

    • MEN, WOMEN, AND THE FUNCTIONALITY OF CLEAR-CUT GENDER ROLES
  • SOCIAL CONFLICT

    • WOMEN, CLASS POSITION, AND CAPITALISM
  • SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONISM



IMPORTANCE OF CHANGE

  • IMPORTANCE OF CHANGE

  • EXPANSION OF HUMAN CHOICE

  • NO GENDER STRATIFICATION

    • EQUALITY UNDER THE LAW
  • ENDING SEXUAL VIOLENCE

  • SEXUAL AUTONOMY



LIBERAL FEMINISM

  • LIBERAL FEMINISM

  • SOCIALIST FEMINISM

    • BELIEF IN SOCIALIST REVOLUTION
  • RADICAL FEMINISM

    • ELIMINATE IDEA OF GENDER
    • EGALITARIAN, GENDER-FREE REVOLUTION
  • OPPOSITION TO FEMINISM
























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