Somerset schools’ plan for The People’s Health, c 1250 to present



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Somerset schools’ plan for The People’s Health, c 1250 to present

Some guiding principles



  • The default setting should be 2 lessons a bullet point and then work out which need less e.g. 1 lesson is usually enough for the overview of the characteristic features of each chronological period and which need more e.g. living conditions in Industrial Britain.

  • Work from the specific i.e. using specific events people etc. as hooks to get them to understand the more general features.

  • The four bullet points you need to cover for each chronological period are: (i) Characteristic features of the period (ii) the impact of living conditions on health (iii) the response to epidemics (iv) attempts to improve public health.

  • The living conditions bullet point should usually cover housing, food/diet, water and waste.

  • Make sure that at the end of each chronological period the students make some sort of topic web where they look at how each of the 5 factors identified in the spec influence changes and continuities in this period and also across the periods.

  • Start each time period with a hook picture or clip & then follow up with a lesson based on pictures from the textbook/Dynamic Learning (DL) or other sources of your choice.

  • Draw contemporary parallels wherever possible to make the history more meaningful and accessible to all.

Chronological period


Enquiry Question

Lesson

Lesson Focus & Content

Medieval Britain

c.1250 – c.1500

Conceptual focus in textbook is diversity & characteristic features


Matters of life and death: Did anyone really care about health in Medieval England?

The point of this enquiry focus is to make them question the stereotypical ‘dirty city’ image of Medieval Britain

The note structure on page 14 of the textbook of identifying elements which are either helpful or hazardous to health is a good structure for this chronological period


1

Overview of the characteristic features of Medieval Britain

Each student should know about 6 specific features of each chronological period. A* pupils should probably know more.

  • Use the picture of a medieval child’s tooth enamel as hook (from Canterbury archaeological dig) & compare to modern day pictures. Worse today due to processed diet.

  • Make initial links to characteristic features of the medieval period through brainstorming in groups their knowledge from KS3

  • Divide the class into groups of about 3, issue each group with a picture of a characteristic feature (there are 10 in the text & on DL), but you could different images.

  • Students could make an A3 spider diagram with information about 6-10 features (what does it show/tell us) written in one colour and how it is linked to medicine in a different colour

  • Students could make tableaux which explains what it shows

  • Use a similar activity at the beginning of each chronological period



2

Life in the Countryside

  • Start with the interpretation of Wharram Percy on DL or on the Historic England Website, consider how accurate they think it might be & why.

  • Set up the note structure of ‘Helpful for Health’ and ‘Hazardous for Health’

  • Silent reading using textbook pages 14-16 to make notes under the headings & discuss (could use Luttrell Psalter clips or the copy of the old KS3 programme on Wharram Percy if not used before to illustrate)

3

Life in Towns

  • Use the stereotypical pic of the med town from pg. 8 or DL or you could use an alternative image to revisit the enquiry question

  • Use the Dan Snow Filthy City prog on Medieval London and the note structure to find details of life in towns; get students to focus on the 4 features (houses, food, water & waste). Can top up with notes from book pages 17-19

  • Have they changed their mind about whether they cared?

4 & 5

The Black Death

  • Foci – What is the Black Death? How do they respond to it and why?

  • Could do it from the text or from the wealth of TV docs e.g. The Medieval Apocalypse, Simon Schama’s History of Britain.

6 & 7

Attempts to improve Public Health

  • Focus - Church v Town Authorities

  • Use Glastonbury Abbey for local case study examples of the role the Abbey took during the Black Death

  • Students become the town authorities (of the towns on page 25, also there is a wealth of info about London from pg. 26, the Filthy City prog & the old white SHP medicine textbook) and research what each town does in a sort of competition of which town in England is doing the most.

  • Compare the ‘winner’ to Exeter Mortimer’s story of Exeter’s Shitbrook (in Ian Motimer, A Time-Traveller’s Guide to Medieval England pp. 6-7) (and then the ‘closer look’ on pages 28-9 of the textbook)

  • Case study of Glastonbury Abbey’s food, water and sanitation. Compare what monasteries and town did to improve health.

8

Practice Question

  • Mid mark (9 or 10 mark) question based around how people did care about health in the medieval period or question 2 from the SAMs

  • Either in the lesson or for homework do the topic web where they look at how each of the 5 factors identified in the spec (beliefs/attitudes/values; local & national govt.; science & technology; urbanisation; wealth & poverty) influence changes and continuities in this period.




Early Modern Britain c.1500 – c.1900

Conceptual focus in textbook is change & continuity


More of the same? How much did Public Health change?


The point of this enquiry focus is to make them continually question how much and what had changed since Medieval Britain

This could be a plenary/consolidation exercise at the end of each lesson


1

Overview of the characteristic features of Early Modern Britain

Each student should know about 6 specific features of each chronological period. A* pupils should probably know more.

  • Use Visscher picture page 30/31 of textbook or DL to discuss what it tells us about life in this period

  • Make initial links to characteristic features of the early modern period through brainstorming in groups their knowledge from KS3

  • Divide the class into groups of about 3, issue each group with a picture of a characteristic feature (there are 11 in the text & on DL




2


Food

  • Start with a selection of ‘exotic’ foods brought in during this period e.g. the potato, the tomato, chocolate, peanuts, vanilla, pineapples, French beans, red and green peppers & sugar and ask where they come from and why they are now in Britain

  • Who would eat them? Use the Cobham pic page 36 in textbook, interactive presentation on DL. Leads into social class & difference between rich & poor (make sure poor see burial register). Divide class & do reading ex on rich and poor diet pgs. 36-37 of text beginning to fill a note pro-forma as suggested in book (differentiated one is provided in DL materials)

  • Consolidation – How had diet changed? People still dying from hunger then as they were in medieval times, rich have a wider range of food types especially veg. After 1700, no real mass starvation in Britain

3

Urban Environment & Water

  • Start with the Ralph Agas map on page 40 – link to website https://mapoflondon.uvic.ca/agas.htm gives an overview of what Elizabethan London was like; get them to drill more & more into the detail of the map e.g. theatres, houses, drill down to the women & their washing & what it tells us about London

  • Go deeper now with the Ivan Lepper interpretation at street view level (pgs38-39 book & also DL). Could start with a what would you see, hear smell etc. and then look at the problems and then speculate on the options for dealing with the problems and focus down further into looking at the issues of water (pages 40 – 41) & DL has podcasts on water & waste








4

Waste

  • Start with the invention of the WC by sir John Harrington (use clips about this from the What did the Tudors do for us? There is a good history of the toilet in the BBC4 prog ‘ The Unspoken History of the Toilet’

  • Link this to the info in the book pg41 & the Agas picture which shows them discharging into rivers.

  • Explain most used cesspits & illustrate the problems using the suitable quotes from Samuel Pepys Diary.




5

Practice Question

  • Do a mid-mark question perhaps one of the summary types

6

The Plague 1665

  • Focus question = what made the Plague so terrifying? Key facts are well laid out on pages 42-43 of text & the recording exercise at the bottom of the page is a good one.

  • Consolidation exercise should look at similarities and differences between Black Death & plague outbreaks (there are differentiated proformas on DL)

  • Recommended resources Channel 4 The Great Plague Documentary,

7

Responses to the Plague

  • National, local and people (pages 44-47 in the textbook) could easily be an expert group jigsaw (first time national plague orders published due to dev of printing press)

  • Local Case Study on Newcastle on pages 52-53, could be turned into a role play could adapt and make it in your local town

8

Attempts to improve Public Health

  • Local and National Government (remember they did not know about germs so the focus was to make it a more pleasant place to live) Text does local govt on pages 48-49 & DL has a podcast

  • National govt is focused on the evil of Gin – there are differentiated proformas to use with Gin Lane Engraving on DL. Or get them to label the problems of excess drinking on Gin Lane & then look at the changes introduced. Good to make some comparisons with the problems of alcohol today.

9

Practice Question

  • Nice 10 mark one on the SAMs

  • Either in the lesson or for homework do the topic web where they look at how each of the 5 factors identified in the spec (beliefs/attitudes/values; local & national govt.; science & technology; urbanisation; wealth & poverty) influence changes and continuities in this period

  • Could also do a changes and continuities overview between medieval & early modern

Industrial Britain

c.1750 – c.1900

Conceptual focus in textbook is causation


Revolution! Why were there such huge changes in the people’s health 1750-1900?


The point of this enquiry focus is to make them really focus on the massive changes that took place in this period: firstly with industrialisation causing the public health crisis; then with cholera striking fear and shocking the authorities into action & then finally the public health campaigns that ultimately led to mass improvements

There still needs to be a focus on change within & across the periods & these could still take the form of plenary/consolidation exercises at the end of each lesson

1

Overview of the characteristic features of Early Modern Britain

Each student should know about 6 specific features of each chronological period. A* pupils should probably know more.

  • Use any combination you like of: (i) the pic on p.54/55 of the text (also on DL), (ii) the clip on Ancoats, Manchester from Timelines TV and (iii) the story of James Palfreyman (first cholera sufferer in Manchester) to get them looking at the problems of industrialisation

  • Make initial links to characteristic features of the industrial period through brainstorming in groups their knowledge from KS3

  • Divide the class into groups of about 3, issue each group with a picture of a characteristic feature (there are 11 in the text & on ppt on DL.

  • It may well be useful to share ‘The Enquiry’ information in the blue box on page 55 of the text to get the pattern of the changes that took place in the period 1750-1900

2 & 3

(It might be possible to do it one lesson)



Growth of Industrial Towns & Cities

  • Students need to gather notes on the growing public health crisis in the early 19th century under the 4 usual headings of Housing, Food, Water & Waste. The target method (differentiated proformas on DL) with summary notes in the centre & notes explaining the reasons for the crisis in the outer circle. Notes could be gathered from the text or from the podcasts etc. on DL or from the rich resources most schools already hold on this topic. Could be done in an expert group jigsaw.

  • A nice exercise to demonstrate their learning could be to get them to design headlines for newspapers reporting the awful conditions which could then be used in prompts for revision diagrams

  • Get them to speculate on why they are so bad and what might they be able to do to deal with them.

  • Plenary/Consolidation – compare the problems to medieval & early modern and what makes these problems worse?




4

Responses to Cholera

  • You need to tell the story of the coming of cholera to Britain in the 1830s, the text uses the Leeds outbreak, and schools’ probably have their own favourite! It lends itself to some form of role play

  • Focus on responses and make a comparison with responses to Black Death and early modern Plague)







5

Improvements to Public Health

  • Cut up the changes to Public Health headings on pages 70-71 of the textbook, issue them to students and get them to form a human timeline. Get them to consider what is holding improvement back, things that are changing and the significance of each in bringing improvement by stepping forward, back etc. and record with notes on their own copy of the timeline.

  • Consider the improvements and changes under the usual headings of food, housing, water and waste possibly using the fight on filth proforma or under the GIT format







6

Role of Individuals

As students are credited for any detailed knowledge you may wish to do a lesson on one significant improver of this period e.g. Joseph Bazalgette.



7

Practice Question

  • Question 2 or 3 practice

  • Either in the lesson or for homework ask students to make a topic web to explain how each of the 5 factors identified in the spec (beliefs/attitudes/values; local & national govt.; science & technology; urbanisation; wealth & poverty) influenced changes and continuities in this period

  • Could also do a changes and continuities overview between Medieval, Early Modern & Industrial

Modern Britain

Since c.1900

Conceptual focus in textbook is change and continuity


Better than ever?

Do the changes in public health since 1900 tell a simple story of progress?


The point of this enquiry focus is to make them understand that new types of problems have emerged i.e. we no longer have an issue with starvation in this country but consumption of sugar etc. is a new type of problem hence it is not a simple story of progress.

There still needs to be a focus on change within & across the periods & these could still take the form of plenary/consolidation exercises at the end of each lesson

1

Overview of the characteristic features of Early Modern Britain

Each student should know about 6 specific features of each chronological period. A* pupils should probably know more.

  • Use picture page 76 of textbook or DL or any other picture of a street in 1900 to discuss what has changed between 1900 & now

  • Make initial links to characteristic features of the 20th century through brainstorming in groups their knowledge from KS3

Divide the class into groups of about 3, issue each group with a picture of a characteristic feature. The final task could be to do the comparison between 1900 & 2000 again

2

Living Conditions

Introduce the class of the concept of ‘on the one hand’ using rubber gloves attached to a broom stick



  • Divide the four factors amongst groups of students; allocate housing and food to more able groups and air and inactivity to the less able. They need to read, research & present the information so that the whole class can complete the proforma from the text book (also on DL). Opportunity for expert jigsaw groups.

3

Responses to Epidemics – Spanish Flu & Aids

  • Notes can still be added to the ‘hands’ proforma using the same premise of progress or not (both Spanish flu and Aids are named in the spec and could therefore be a question focus. Use the documentary ‘Spanish Flu: the forgotten epidemic’ or the BBC drama mentioned in the text (The Forgotten Fallen) has lots of clips included on YouTube. There is a clear parallel to be made between the blaming of the gay community for the Aids epidemic & the scapegoating of Jews for the Black Death in the Middle Ages (there is a wealth of material on YouTube to use with care!)

4

Government Involvement in public health

  • Most schools already have a wealth of material on this topic of government involvement from 1902 but the suggestion is to abandon the textbooks and to use the wealth of NHS information films that are widely available.

  • Need to cover: pollution control, anti-smoking & healthy lifestyles

5

Practice Question

  • Question 4 or 5 practice, obvious question in the SAMS

  • Either in the lesson or for homework do the topic web where they look at how each of the 5 factors identified in the spec (beliefs/attitudes/values; local & national govt.; science & technology; urbanisation; wealth & poverty) influence changes and continuities in this period

  • Could also do a changes and continuities overview between Medieval, Early Modern, Industrial & 20th century





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