Study conducted for karnataka evaluation authority



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District-wise Apiculture Activities in Suvarna Bhoomi Yojane - Physical Target & Achievement for the year 2011-12


Sl. No.

Name of District

No.of Taluks

Target Benefi ciaries (Nos.)

Achieve ment (Nos.)

Dist.-wise % age Allocation of beneficiaries

Dist.-wise % age Achieve ment

1

Bangalore Urban

4

160

119

2.61

74

2

Bangalore Rural

4

160

360

2.61

225

3

Kolar

5

200

49

3.27

25

4

Tumkur

10

300

493

4.90

164

5

Chitradurga

6

140

19

2.29

14

6

Shimoga

7

280

498

4.57

178

7

Mysore

7

200

42

3.27

21

8

Mandya

7

225

276

3.67

123

9

Kodagu

3

425

88

6.94

21

10

Hassan

8

250

160

4.08

64

11

Dakshina Kannada

5

800

468

13.06

59

12

Chickmagalur

7

280

124

4.57

44

13

Belgaum

10

350

276

5.71

79

14

Bijapur

5

50

28

0.82

56

15

Dharwad

5

150

93

2.45

62

16

Uttara Kannada

11

400

382

6.53

96

17

Gulbarga

7

50

28

0.82

56

18

Raichur

5

50

20

0.82

40

19

Bidar

5

50

34

0.82

68

20

Bellary

7

75

42

1.22

56

21

Davanagere

6

150

6

2.45

4

22

Chamarajanagar

4

200

103

3.27

52

23

Bagalkot

6

75

32

1.22

43

24

Gadag

5

50

5

0.82

10

25

Haveri

7

100

105

1.63

105

District-wise Apiculture Activities in Suvarna Bhoomi Yojane - Physical Target & Achievement for the year 2011-12 contd.


Sl. No.

Name of District

No.of Taluks

Target Benefi ciaries (Nos.)

Achieve ment (Nos.)

Dist.-wise % age Allocation of beneficiaries

Dist.-wise % age Achievement

26

Koppal

4

75

94

1.22

125

27

Udupi

3

450

300

7.35

67

28

Chikkaballapur

6

200

285

3.27

143

29

Ramanagara

4

180

20

2.94

11

30

Yadgir

3

50

1

0.82

2




Total

176

6125

4550

100.00

74

Source: Department of Horticulture, Government of Karnataka, Bangalore.



The Department has achieved coverage of 4,550 beneficiaries out of 6,125 which is 74%.

Madhuvana & Beekeeping Development Scheme (S-21): The scheme has been implemented for the year 2012-13 target to cover 3,750 beneficiaries and provide 3,750 bee boxes with bee colony to the beneficiaries. The target has been achieved 100% by the Department. The budget provided for the scheme during the reference period is Rs.150 lakhs. Out of Rs.150 lakhs budget, Rs.147.90 lakhs has been utilised, which is 99.93%. The details of the beneficiaries coverage is provided in the table below:

Achievement of Madhuvana & Beekeeping Development Scheme

Sl. No.

Name of District

Target & Achievement of Beneficiaries (Nos.)

Dist.-wise Allocation of beneficiaries % age

1

Bangalore U

100

2.67

2

Bangalore R

100

2.67

3

Kolar

100

2.67

4

Tumkur

150

4.00

5

Chitradurga

150

4.00

6

Shimoga

150

4.00

7

Mysore

150

4.00



Sl. No.

Name of District

Target & Achievement of Beneficiaries (Nos.)

Dist.-wise Allocation of beneficiaries % age

8

Mandya

150

4.00

9

Kodagu

100

2.67

10

Hassan

150

4.00

11

Dakshina Kannada

150

4.00

12

Chickmagalur

150

4.00

13

Belgaum

150

4.00

14

Bijapur

100

2.67

15

Dharwad

100

2.67

16

Uttara Kannada

150

4.00

17

Gulbarga

100

2.67

18

Raichur

100

2.67

19

Bidar

100

2.67

20

Bellary

150

4.00

21

Davanagere

100

2.67

22

Chamarajanagar

150

4.00

23

Bagalkot

150

4.00

24

Gadag

150

4.00

25

Haveri

150

4.00

26

Koppal

100

2.67

27

Udupi

100

2.67

28

Chikkaballapur

100

2.67

29

Ramanagara

100

2.67

30

Yadgir

100

2.67




Total

3750

100.00

Source: Department of Horticulture, Government of Karnataka, Bangalore

Achievement of Madhuvana & Beekeeping Development Scheme contd.

.

It is observed from the above table that the fund assistance has been extended to all the 30 districts of Karnataka for promoting beekeeping activity across the State. Maximum beneficiaries covered per district are 150 and minimum is 100.




District Sector Scheme
The promotion of beekeeping activity has also been carried out under District Sector Scheme for only selected 17 districts during the year 2012-13. The scheme is similar to Madhuvana Development & Beekeeping Scheme aiming to train beneficiaries and provide bee box with bee colony for future beekeeping activity. District-wise training of beneficiaries and bee colonies details are given in the table below:
District Bee Keeping Development Yojane - 2012-13


Sl. No.

Districts

Training

Bee Boxes with Colony

%age of trainees received bee box with colony

1

Bangalore ( R )

120

80

67

2

Bangalore ( U )

120

97

81

3

Belgaum

30

30

100

4

Chickmagalur

180

150

83

5

Dharwad

60

30

50

6

Hassan

120

120

100

7

Kodagu

420

420

100

8

Mandya

60

40

67

9

Ramanagara

120

40

33

10

Shimoga

210

40

19

11

Tumkur

90

120

133

12

Udupi

90

93

103

13

Uttara Kannada

90

90

100

14

Chamarajanagar

150

-

-

15

Chikkaballapur

240

-

-

16

Dakshina Kannada

75

-

-

17

Mysore

150

-

-

 

Total

1,710

1,350

79

Source: Department of Horticulture, Government of Karnataka, Bangalore.

From the above table, it is observed that 57% (17 districts) of districts in the State has been covered in this scheme based on the necessity. Out of 17 districts, beneficiaries from 13 districts are provided training & bee colonies, whereas four districts viz., Chamarajanagar, Chikkaballapur, Dakshina Kannada & Mysore have been provided only training. The bee boxes with colony are not given during the reference period due to lack of interest from the trained beneficiaries.


The percentage of trained beneficiaries taken bee boxes with colony is 100% or more in Belgaum, Hassan, Kodagu, Tumkur, Udupi & Uttara Kannada. The beneficiaries from remaining 11 districts have collected bee boxes with colony less than 100%. The least number of beneficiaries covered is 19% in Shimoga, whereas the State average is 79%.

Chapter – 4 : Bee Life Cycle

4.0 Beekeeping activity involves honey bee of different species for collection of honey, other bye-products and mainly pollination services for improvement of quality and increase in crop yield of agriculture & horticulture produce. In India and in Karnataka mainly two bee species are practiced beekeeping activity in boxes. They are Apis cerana (indigenous species) and Apis mellifera (imported / European bee species adopted in Indian conditions). Apis cerana bee colonies are raised by majority of the beekeepers in the State. In selected few coastal areas in Karnataka have Apis mellifera beekeeping activity. The bee life of Apis cerana and Apis mellifera are similar in many areas, so common details of bee life cycle and other details pertaining to beekeeping are provided below. Wherever, there is difference between these two species will be mentioned suitably to provide information in this regard.



4.1 Scientific Names

Scientific classification - Kingdom: Animalia, Phylum: Arthropoda, Class: Insecta, Order: Hymenoptera, Family : Apidae, Sub family: Apinae, Tribe: Apini Latreille, 1802, Genus : Apis Linnaeus, 1758, CBottom of Form

CCommon name: European honey bee, Scientific name: Apis mellifera Linnaeus and sub-species (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Apidae) and Apis cerana.

4.2 Biology & Life Cycle

Honey bee have highly social life history and a colony can be considered super organisms. It means the entire colony is viewed as a biological unit rather than individual bee. So, they produce not only bees but also produce more colonies.

In the bee colony, labour is divided among individuals. A bee colony will have mainly three types of bees viz., queen bee, drons & female worker bees.

Drones: Males or drones are typically haploid, having only one set of chromosomes. They are produced by the queen, if she chooses not to fertilize an egg; or by an unfertilized laying worker. Diploid drones may be produced, if an egg is fertilized but is homozygous for the sex-determination allele. Drones take 24 days to develop and may be produced from summer through autumn. Drones have large eyes used to locate queens during mating flights. Drones do not have a sting.https://encrypted-tbn2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:and9gctaaxcfeoxcdmpt6pmyd7pyutxsgigmjhvzewbhew8vuotjmc66

Workers: Workers are female and have two sets of chromosomes. They are produced from an egg that the queen has selectively fertilized from stored sperm. Workers typically develop in 21 days. A typical colony may contain 20,000 to 25,000 worker bees. Workers exhibit a wider range of behaviors than either queen or drone bees. Their duties change upon the age of the bee in the following order (beginning with cleaning out their own cell after eating through their capped brood cell): feed brood, receive nectar, clean hive, guard duty, and foraging. Some workers engage in other specialized behaviors, such as "undertaking" (removing corpses of their nest mates from inside the hive).https://encrypted-tbn2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:and9gctaaxcfeoxcdmpt6pmyd7pyutxsgigmjhvzewbhew8vuotjmc66

Workers have morphological specializations, including the corbiculum or pollen basket, abdominal glands that produce beeswax, brood-feeding glands, and barbs on the sting. Under certain conditions (for example, if the colony becomes queenless), a worker may develop ovaries.



Queens: Queen honey bees, like workers, are female. They are created at the decision of the worker bees by feeding a larva only royal jelly throughout its development, rather than switching from royal jelly to pollen once the larva grows past a certain size. Queens are produced in oversized cells and develop in only 16 days. Queens have a different morphology and behaviour from worker bees. In addition to the greater size of the queen, she has a functional set of ovaries and a spermatheca, which stores and maintains sperm after she has mated. The sting of queens is not barbed like a worker's sting, and queens lack the glands that produce beeswax. Once mated, queens may lay up to 2,000 eggs per day. They produce a variety of pheromones that regulate behaviour of workers, and helps swarms track the queen's location during the migratory phase.https://encrypted-tbn2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:and9gctaaxcfeoxcdmpt6pmyd7pyutxsgigmjhvzewbhew8vuotjmc66

All honey bees undergo complete metamorphosis. This means that they have distinct developmental stages (egg, larvae, pupa, and adult). Typical developmental time from egg to adult varies by caste. Drones have the longest development (24 days), workers are intermediate (21 days) and queens are the fastest (15-16 days).https://encrypted-tbn2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:and9gctaaxcfeoxcdmpt6pmyd7pyutxsgigmjhvzewbhew8vuotjmc66



Eggs: Honey bee eggs look like a tiny grain of rice. The queen lays eggs in individual hexagonal wax cells in the brood area of the comb. After 3 days, eggs hatch and larvae emerge. Honey bee eggs can be difficult to see, but their presence indicates a laying queen is present in the colony.

Larvae:  They are referred to as “open brood” because the cells are uncapped. The number of days a honey bee spends as larvae varies by caste. When the mature larvae are ready to molt into pupae they extend their bodies into an upright position in the cell and adult workers tending to the brood cover the pre-pupal larvae with a wax capping.https://encrypted-tbn2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:and9gctaaxcfeoxcdmpt6pmyd7pyutxsgigmjhvzewbhew8vuotjmc66https://encrypted-tbn2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:and9gctaaxcfeoxcdmpt6pmyd7pyutxsgigmjhvzewbhew8vuotjmc66

Pupae: Beneath the wax capping, pre-pupal honey bee larvae molt into pupae. The pupae remain under the wax capping until they molt into an adult and chew their way out of the cell. Similar to the larval stage, pupal developmental time varies by caste.

Adults: Adult honey bees can be divided into three body regions: head, thorax and abdomen. The primary features of the head are the compound eyes and antennae. Two pairs of wings and three pairs of legs that are attach to the thorax and a slender waist. The most notable external feature of the abdomen is the stinger. Only female honey bees have a stinger.https://encrypted-tbn2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:and9gctaaxcfeoxcdmpt6pmyd7pyutxsgigmjhvzewbhew8vuotjmc66

Functions: Queen bee for laying eggs to increase the population of the unit. Drons are male bees for mating with queen bee of other unit. Worker bees are females to collect nectar, convert in to honey, store in the hive, raise the colony and protect the colony. https://encrypted-tbn2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:and9gctaaxcfeoxcdmpt6pmyd7pyutxsgigmjhvzewbhew8vuotjmc66

Sting is a defensive tool of worker bees use to protect the colony. When a colony intruder is detected guard bees release an alarm through chemical (pheromone) to activate defence to protect the colony.



Apis cerana is a smaller size bee compare to Apis mellifera.

4.3 Management

  • Inspect the beehives at least once in a week during the honey-flow seasons preferably during the morning hours.

  • Clean the hive in the following sequence, the roof, super/supers, brood chambers and floorboard.

  • Observe the colonies regularly for the presence of healthy queen, brood development, storage of honey and pollen, presence of queen cells, bee strength and growth of drones.

  • Look for the infestation by any of the following bee enemies.

  • Wax moth (Galleria mellonella): Remove all the larvae and silken webbings from the combs, corners and crevices of bee box.

  • Wax beetles (Platybolium sp.): Collect and destroy the adult beetles.

  • Mites: Clean the frame and floorboard with cotton swabs moistened with freshly made potassium permanganate solution. Repeat until no mites are seen on the floorboard.

Management during lean season

  • Remove the supers and arrange the available healthy broods compactly in the brood chamber.

  • Provide division board, if necessary.

  • Destroy queen cells and drone cells, if noted.

  • Provide sugar syrup (1:1) @ 200 g sugar per colony per week for Indian bees.

  • Feed all the colonies in the apiary at the same time to avoid robbing.

  • Management during honey flow season

  • Keep the colony in sufficient strength before honey-flow season.

  • Provide maximum space between the first super and the brood chamber and not above the first super.

  • Place queen excluder sheets in between brood and super chamber to confine the queen to brood chamber.

  • Examine the colony once in a week and frames full of honey should be removed to the sides of the super. The frames, which are three-fourth filled with honey or pollen and one-fourth with sealed brood should be taken out of brood chamber and in its place empty combs or frames with foundation is added.

  • The combs, which are completely sealed, or two-third capped may be taken out for extraction of honey and returned to supers after honey extraction.

Equipment:

  • Hive: It is a simple long box covered with a number of slats on top. The rough measurements of the box should be around 100 cm of length, 45 cm of width and 25 cm in height. The box should be 2 cm thick and the hive must be glued and screwed together with entrance holes of 1 cm wide. The slats (top bars ) must be as long as the hive is wide in order to fit across and the thickness of about 1.5 cm is sufficient to support a heavy honey comb. The width of 3.3 cm needs to be given to give the bees the natural spacing they need to easily build one comb to each separate top bar.

  • Smoker : It is the second important piece of equipment. This can be made from a small tin .We use the smoker to protect ourselves from bee stings and to control the bees.

  • Cloth: to protect our eyes and nose from stings at the time of work near the apiary.

  • Knife: It is used to loosen the top bars and to cut of the honey bars.

  • Feather: To sweep the bees from the comb.

  • Queen Excluder & Match box

Harvesting Honey

  1. Harvest the honey by smoking (optional) the bees off the parts, which needs to be harvested and cut the combs carefully.

  2. A ripe comb is light in colour and filled with honey. More than half of the honey cells on both the sides are sealed with wax.

  3. Extract honey by using centrifugal mechanical extractor.

  4. Harvests are normally possible during and shortly after the two main flowering seasons, namely October/November and February-June.

    1. Winter survival: In cold climates, honey bees stop flying when the temperature drops below about 10°C (50°F) and crowd into the central area of the hive to form a "winter cluster ". The worker bees huddle around the queen bee at the center of the cluster, shivering to keep the center between 27°C (81°F) at the start of winter (during the broodless period) and 34°C (93°F) once the queen resumes laying. The worker bees rotate through the cluster from the outside to the inside so that no bee gets too cold.

The outside edges of the cluster stay at about 8–9°C (46–48°F). The colder the weather is outside, the more compact the cluster becomes. During winter, they consume their stored honey to produce body heat. The amount of honey consumed during the winter is a function of winter length and severity, but ranges in temperate climates from 15 to 50 kg (30 to 100 pounds).

Foragers coming in loaded with pollen on the hive landing board

4.5 Swarming & Absconding

There are two type of swarming – reproductive & absconding. Reproductive swarming involves splitting of colony and movement of the old queen to a new nest site, while the new queen stage with the remaining colony and all its resources – honey, pollen, brood in the old nest site. It generally occurs when conditions are favourable and floral resources are abundant. Absconding is also behavioural trait common in Apis cerana during unfavourable conditions. Absconding are of two types – seasonal / migration (movement of a whole colony due to resource depletion, declining nest site quality, disturbance due to natural calamities). Seasonal absconding involves a period of time preparing for the move prior to moving when foraging, honey & brood levels are reduced.



4.6 Communication: Honey bees are known to communicate through many different chemicals and odors, as is common in insects, but also using specific behaviours that convey information about the quality and type of resources in the environment, and where these resources are located. The details of the signalling being used vary from species to species; for example, the two smallest species, Apis andreniformis and A. florea, dance on the upper surface of the comb, which is horizontal (not vertical, as in other species), and worker bees orient the dance in the actual compass direction of the resource to which they are recruiting.

Apis mellifera carnica honey bees use their antennae asymmetrically for social interactions with a strong lateral preference to use their right antenna.



4.7 Predators

The predators are of small size to the biggest. These are insects, ants, lizards, snakes, birds, monkey, bear, etc. Pesticides spray to other crops is lethal to honey bees.



4.8 Products & Services

  • Pollination: Species of Apis are generalist floral visitors, and will pollinate a large variety of plants, but by no means all plants. Of all the honey bee species, only Apis mellifera has been used extensively for commercial pollination of crops and other plants. The value of these pollination services is commonly measured in the billions of dollars. Bees collect 66 pounds of pollen per year, per hive.



  • Honey: Honey is the complex substance made when the nectar and sweet deposits from plants and trees are gathered, modified, and stored in the honeycomb by honey bees as a food source for the colony. All living species of Apis have had their honey gathered by indigenous peoples for consumption, though for commercial purposes, only A. mellifera and Apis cerana have been exploited to any degree.

  • Nectar: Nectar, a liquid high in sucrose, is produced in plant glands known as nectaries. It is an important energy resource for honey bees and plays a significant role in foraging economics and evolutionary differentiation between different subspecies. It was proposed through an experiment conducted with the African honey bee, A. M. scutellata, that nectar temperature impacts the foraging decisions of honey bees.

  • Beeswax: Worker bees of a certain age will secrete bees wax from a series of glands on their abdomens. They use the wax to form the walls and caps of the comb. As with honey, beeswax is gathered by humans for various purposes.

  • Pollen: Bees collect pollen in the pollen basket and carry it back to the hive. In the hive, pollen is used as a protein source necessary during brood-rearing. In certain environments, excess pollen can be collected from the hives of A. mellifera and A. cerana. It is often eaten as a health supplement.

  • Propolis: Propolis or bee glue is created from resins, balsams, and tree saps. Those species of honey bees that nest in tree cavities use propolis to seal cracks in the hive. Dwarf honey bees use propolis to defend against ants by coating the branch from which their nest is suspended to create a sticky moat. Propolis is consumed by humans as a health supplement in various ways and also used in some cosmetics.

  • Economic Importance: Pollination by honey bees contributes significantly to global food production. Bees pollinate more that 30% of the food we eat. In addition to providing pollination services, honey bees also produce other products that people use including honey, pollen, wax, royal jelly, and propolis and bee venom.

4.9 Comparison of Apis cerana vs Apis mellifera

Sl. No.

Details

Apis cerana

Apis mellifera

1

Native

India

Australia – European

2

Size of Bee

Smaller

Bigger

3

Active / Quickness

Quick

Sluggish

4

Type of Beekeeping

Stationery

Migratory

5

Honey yield

Low

Very high

6

Pollen collection

Low

High

7

Propolis

Nil

Yes

8

Sugar feeding

Low

High

9

Susceptibility to predator

Low

Very high

10

Impact of Climate

Low

High


4.10 Competition between Apis cerana & Apis mellifera: These two species have competition for same floral resources. They do have preference for different floral species to harvest nectar. Robbing honey from other hives is also observed between these two bee species when floral resources are declined / exhausted. Smaller hives are more susceptible by the attack. Apis mellifera guards its colony better than Apis cerana. It is observed that, the interference by one species on the other. Drons of Apis cerana are attracted by queen of Apis mellifera and vice-versa. As a result, the disaster is queen does not lay eggs. So, colony propagation halts. It is also notice that the mating season of these two species are at the similar times results in this kind of disaster.
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