Study conducted for karnataka evaluation authority



Yüklə 1.31 Mb.
səhifə3/9
tarix19.08.2017
ölçüsü1.31 Mb.
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9

4.11 Defense

Apis cerana japonica forming a ball around two hornets: The body heat trapped by the ball will overheat and kill the hornets.


All honey bees live in colonies where the workers sting intruders as a form of defense, and alarmed bees release apheromone that stimulates the attack response in other bees. The different species of honey bees are distinguished from all other bee species (and virtually all other Hymenoptera) by the possession of small barbs on the sting, but these barbs are found only in the worker bees. The sting and associated venom sac of honey bees are also modified so as to pull free of the body once lodged (autotomy), and the sting apparatus has its own musculature and ganglion, which allow it to keep delivering venom once detached. The worker dies after the sting becomes lodged and is subsequently torn loose from the bee's abdomen.

This complex apparatus, including the barbs on the sting, is thought to have evolved specifically in response to predation by vertebrates, as the barbs do not usually function (and the sting apparatus does not detach) unless the sting is embedded in fleshy tissue. While the sting can also penetrate the membranes between joints in the exoskeleton of other insects (and is used in fights between queens), in the case of Apis cerana japonica, defense against larger insects such as predatory wasps (e.g. Asian giant hornet) is usually performed by surrounding the intruder with a mass of defending worker bees, which vibrate their muscles vigorously to raise the temperature of the intruder to a lethal level.[13] Previously, heat alone was thought to be responsible for killing intruding wasps, but recent experiments have demonstrated the increased temperature in combination with increased carbon dioxide levels within the ball produce the lethal effect.  This phenomenon is also used to kill a queen perceived as intruding or defective, an action known to beekeepers as 'balling the queen', named for the ball of bees formed.

In the case of those honey bee species with open combs (e.g., A. dorsata), would-be predators are given a warning signal that takes the form of a "Mexican wave" that spreads as a ripple across a layer of bees densely packed on the surface of the comb when a threat is perceived, and consists of bees momentarily arching their bodies and flicking their wings.

Chapter – 5 : Floral Cycle with Botanical Names of Flowering

Plants

The floral cycle is nothing but flowering season of plant flora. It is providing pollen and nectar to bees. Nectar will be converted into honey – reserve food and pollens as immediate food for the bees. The floral cycle is directly helpful for beekeeping activity. It is an essential information required for every beekeeper to organize annual Apiculture activity by mapping geographical flora in the vicinity of the apiary / apiculture activity. All the beekeepers should prepare floral cycle and update from time to time regarding the flowering plants and flowering season to avail maximum economical benefit from beekeeping activity. So, the floral cycle is given for selected flowering plants, provide nectar & pollen to the bees. This list may be extended based on local geographical condition of the flora.



Floral Cycle with Botanical Names of Flowering Plants

Sl. No.

Crops / Flowering Plants

Flowering Months in a Year

Common Name

Botanical Name

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

1

Albizia

Albizia lebbeck



































2

Annonaceous

Anona reticulata


































3

Antigonon

Antigonon leptopus

























4

Arecanut

Areca catechu

























5

Aster

Aster amelius

























6

Bael Fruit

Eagle marmelos



































7

Bajra

Pennisetum glaucum



































8

Banana

Musa paradisiaca

























9

Beans

Phaseolus vulgaris

























10

Bengal Gram

Cicer aritinum L




































11

Benzoin

Styrax benzoin



































12

Ber

Ziziphus jujuba


































13

Blackberry

Rubus fruticosus



































14

Blackgram

Vigna mungo L.



































15

Bottle brush

Callistemon acuminatus

























16

Brinjal

Solanum melongena
































17

Cardamom

Elettaria cardamomum




































Floral Cycle with Botanical Names of Flowering Plants contd.

Sl. No.

Crops / Flowering Plants

Flowering Months in a Year

Common Name

Botanical Name

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

18

Carrot

Daucus carota



































19

Cashewnut

Anacardium occidentale (LINN.)



































20

Castor

Ricinus communis






























21

Catchu

Acacia catchu




































22

Cauliflower

Brassica oleracea


































23

Century Plant

Agave americana



































24

Chilly

Capsicum annuum

























25

Champaka

Michelia champaca

























26

Chrysanthemum

Chrysanthemum indicum L.



































27

Cinnamon

Cinnamomum zeylanicum



































28

Citrus Fruits

Citrus species



































29

Clove

Syzygium aromaticum


































30

Coconut

Cocos nucifera

























31

Cocoa

Theobroma cacao L



































32

Coriander

Coriandrum sativum






























33

Cotton

Gossypium hirsutum
































34

Cow peas

Vigna unguiculata



































35

Coffee

Coffea arabica L/robustae
































36

Cucumber

Cucumis sativus






























37

Curry

Murraya Koenigii



































38

Date Palm

Phoenix dactylifera


































39

Dattur

Datura metel



































40

Drumstick

Moringa oleifera

































41

Eucalyptus

Eucalyptus camaldulensis


































42

Gourd-Bottle

Lagenaria siceraria S.






























43

Bitter gourd

Momordica charantia


































44

Gingelly Seeds

Sesamum Indicum




































45

Grapes

Vitis species

































1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9


Verilənlər bazası müəlliflik hüququ ilə müdafiə olunur ©azkurs.org 2016
rəhbərliyinə müraciət

    Ana səhifə