Study conducted for karnataka evaluation authority



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6.2 Response Analysis
The following table gives the response received from the beneficiaries and the effectiveness of the scheme based on the coverage of 605 respondents.


Sl. No.

Parameter

%age of response

1

Type of assistance

 

a)

Training

100

b)

Supply of bee boxes with bee colony

100

2

Gender

 

a)

Male

83

b)

Female

17

c)

Youth – Male & Female

52

3

Social category

 

a)

SC/ST

17

b)

General / Others

83

4

Boxes supplied as per the Scheme

 

a)

Yes

100

b)

No

-

5

Quantity of production of honey / box

 

a)

Upto 4 kg

40

b)

4 kg to 8 kg.

55

c)

8 kg & above

5



Sl. No.

Parameter

%age of response

6

No. of persons engaged in beekeeping activity

 

a)

One

80

b)

One & above

20

7

Average annual income from beekeeping

 

a)

Upto Rs.10,000

72

b)

Rs.10,001 to Rs.50,000

22

c)

Rs.50001 & above

6

8

Source of Honey from (Bee Species)

 

a)

Apis cerana

81

b)

Apis mellifera

2

c)

Apis dorsata

15

d)

Apis florea & Apis trigona

2

9

Marketing of the honey / bee products

 

a)

Directly to the Consumers

76

b)

Local Market

5

c)

Through Society

19

10

Market Rate for Honey

 

a)

Apis cerana & Apis mellifera (Rs./kg)

350 - 650

b)

Apis dorsata (Rs./kg)

250

c)

Apis florea & Apis trigona (Rs./kg)

1000 - 1200

11

Quality of Honey

 

a)

Raw honey

81

b)

Processed honey (societies)

18

c)

Certified honey

1

12

Mode of honey extraction and processing

 

a)

Manual

21

b)

Mechanical

79

13

Awareness of Floral mapping based on flowering season

 

a)

Yes

3

b)

No

97



Sl. No.

Parameter

%age of response

14

Problem faced if any

 

a)

Supply of bee boxes with colony after the training

 

i)

Yes

-

ii)

No

100

b)

Disease (Bees)

39

i)

TBD

17

ii)

Wax moth

16

iii)

Others

6

c)

Marketing Problem

 

i)

Yes

12

ii)

No

88

15

Suggestions for improvement in the scheme for encouraging beekeeping activity.

 


6.3 Status of Madhuvanas
Madhuvanas have been established in chosen few locations based on potential existed for beekeeping. The role of Madhuvana is for propagation of bee colonies and honey production. In addition to this, Madhuvanas in few locations are utilised for practical training of beneficiaries in beekeeping. Some of the Madhuvanas are in open field and others are in the metallic cage like structure for providing security and ideal conditions for beekeeping. The present status of these Madhuvanas located in 22 districts comes under all 10 agro climatic zones is provided in Annexe – 3.
TECSOK Team has visited to Madhuvanas at Doddaballapur & Hosakote in Bangalore Rural District, Horticulture Department Madhuvana in Tumkur, Gubbi, Tumkur District, Belur Madhuvana in Hassan District, Chandrapalli – Konchavara in Chincholi Taluk, Gulbarga District, B R Hills in Chamarajanagar District (not operating), Shanthahalli & Madapura (not working), Somwarpet Taluk, Kodagu District.

Madhuvanas & Training Centres are located at Bhagamandala at Kodagu District; Kukundoor village, Karkala Taluk, Udupi District; Iide village, Puttur Taluk, Dakshina Kannada District; Bilagi village, Siddapur Taluk, Uttara Kannada District; Alnavar Madhuvana & Training Centre in Dharwad District, Jamboti in Belgaum District, Mudigere Madhuvana & Training Centre (not working), Hesagal in Chickmagalur District.


It is observed that, some Madhuvanas are involved in multiplying bee colonies and production of honey similar to the practices adopted by some of the prominent beekeepers. There is no facility to develop disease resistant bee colonies in Madhuvanas and supply them to the farmers, which is the mandate of the scheme. However, bee colonies are being given to farmers from these Madhuvanas on routine basis. The colony multiplication and supply of bee colonies to the farmers is much less compare to the demand in respective locations. The process of bee colony multiplication needs to be enhanced to meet the present demand and future expansion across the State. Presently, some of the prospective beekeepers are multiplying colonies and selling at the rate fixed by the Department of Horticulture to other beekeepers. The list of prospective beekeepers met during the field visit is given in Annexe – 4.
The bee colony collection from natural sources and multiplying the colony has also been observed during field visit by some of the prospective beekeepers. If, this activity is encouraged by the department, helps both colony suppliers and colony purchasing beekeepers. The stress on Madhuvana and maintenance will be reduced.
Some of the Madhuvanas viz., B R Hills, Maddapura in Somwarpet Taluk, Kodagu District and others are not operating. Other Madhuvanas need activation to gear up in meeting the supply demands for quality bee colonies to the beekeepers. Apis mellifera colony is not found in Madhuvanas. Some of the beekeepers expressed willingness to raise Apis mellifera colonies in their fields. Few Madhuvanas with training facility are in poor condition. These may be upgraded to operate efficiently. In the present circumstances, there is need for activation of existing Madhuvanas instead of setting up new Madhuvanas in the state. There is no facility for raising disease-free bee colonies in Madhuvanas.
During the visit to some of the Madhuvanas, had discussions with Beekeeping Assistants of Department of Horticulture, ascertained that, majority of the Madhuvanas are operating and providing requisite support with available capacity to beekeepers in the respective districts. Only few Madhuvanas are requiring renovation.
Based on the interaction with beneficiaries and the stakeholders the constraints, thrust area and opportunities in the Apiculture sector are as follows:

  • Lack of infrastructure for producing genetically superior queen bees for supply to beekeepers.

  • Technical knowledge for efficient management of bee colonies for higher honey yield.

  • Awareness about yield increase in crops by BK through pollination.

  • Research for disease management & control.

  • Financial Institutional support

  • Consumer awareness about honey and its products

  • Poor quality control for production of honey

  • De-forestation

  • Indiscriminate use of insecticides, pesticides, weedicides, etc.

  • Global warming & unforeseen changes in climatic conditions.

Opportunities

  • Beekeeping industry does not require sophisticated technology, high capital investment or infrastructure.

  • Diversified agro-climatic conditions provide great potential and opportunities for development of beekeeping.

  • Potential & requirement for 15 million bee colonies which will provide employment to 16 lakh persons.



  • Beekeeping industry has great self help potential for the rural people, tribals, marginal and small farmers, land less labour, etc., and great opportunities as under:

a) Honey has great food value and provides cash income.

b) Bees wax which is twice as much costly as honey is in great demand.

c) Other products, viz., bee collected pollen, propolis, bee venom and royal jelly are several times costlier than honey and bees wax.

d) About one million people will get part time employment without displacing them from their homes and without sacrificing their main occupation.



e) Providing bee pollination services to farmers for increasing crop production and productivity of honey bees – A double benefit service and processing and value added products of bee products.

Thrust Areas

  • Development of quality Nucleus stock for Apis cerana & Apis mellifera.

  • Queen rearing and colony multiplication

  • Management of colony for crops pollination

  • Control of bee diseases

  • Awareness about role of honey bees in increasing crop yield through pollination

  • Awareness about NBB and its membership

  • Honey testing laboratory

  • Backward & forward linkages for overall development of beekeeping in the area

  • Designing proper area specific crop rotations for making available flora and fauna round the year



  • Designing of floral maps / charts

  • Planning for intensive orchards for diversified flora and fauna in the area

  • Setting up of demonstration-cum-training centres

  • Setting up of honey processing plants (HPP) and collection centre

  • Adoption of integrated approach in implementation of activities

  • Integration of various schemes of beekeeping and crop production.

Chapter – 7 : Snapshot of Economic Contribution of Apiculture
7.1 Creation of Employment in Rural Areas
Beekeeping is an associated activity with Agriculture & Horticulture activity. As such the manpower requirement for beekeeping is meagre due to less maintenance. The employment generation is prominent, if commercial and migratory beekeeping is practiced. The employment creation is one person for every 50 bee boxes in case of Apis cerana and one person for every 20 boxes in case of Apis mellifera. Since, Apis mellifera is not there in the State except few in coastal districts so, the employment generation is not substantial due to few number of bee boxes kept by each beneficiary supported under the scheme is less than 10 boxes with majority of the beneficiaries.
The employment generation in rural area among farming community is presently insignificant. It is observed during the field visit, discussions held with focus groups, LAMP societies, beekeepers cooperative societies and other stakeholders revealed that most of the beneficiaries are hobby beekeepers and not very serious about honey yield, collection of other products like pollen grains, bees wax, royal jelly and bee venom. They are not able to percept about the effect of beekeeping in increasing crop yield and improvement of quality. If commercial beekeeping is taken up by the farmers, then only the employment creation will be large on account of maintaining large number of bee boxes, transportation of bee boxes with colony for migratory beekeeping purpose. In addition to this, during migration the colonies have to be guarded and maintained to yield desirable results.
It is observed from the field visit that, the specific employment generation in rural areas is not felt due to lack of commercial beekeeping activity in these areas.


7.2 Economic Contribution to Households, Marginal & Small Farmers
The beekeeping activity has been largely practiced by Marginal & Small Farmers with land holding ranging from half an acre to ten acres of farm land. This land has mainly plantation crops like coconut, areca nut, ginger, betel leaves, fruit crops, vanilla, etc. The beekeeping activity is handy for households to look after the bee colonies, since it does not require full time attention to maintain the colonies. The mechanical honey extraction is a simple process can be handled by ladies with little bit of practice. In addition to this, it yields continuous revenue by selling raw honey and bees wax locally at lucrative price.
The colony multiplication and sale of bee colonies yield revenue to the households. It is observed during field visit, majority of the beekeepers have less than five boxes in their premises. So, the colony multiplication helps to expand beekeeping activity in the premises as well as sell the colonies to other farmers in order to propogate beekeeping activity in the surrounding area. It is a continuous income generating activity in a household scale. A single colony can be multiplied in to three colonies in a year. The income from additional two colonies will be available to households.
As mentioned below, indicates that there is tremendous increase in crop yield and improves quality of the crop. It is perceptible in case of oil seeds, onion seeds, gourd variety of vegetables, coconut, areca nut, coffee, etc. Majority of the crops yield additional income due to increase in quantity and quality of crops. In fact, beekeeping activity is predominently useful for increase in quality and quantity of crop yield. Honey and other products are of secondary importance to the crop yield. The marginal farmers of small land holdings are greatly benefitted by the pricy horticulture crops. The impact is tremendous and easily noticeable. The farmers who have colonies are aware of this fact. Unfortunately, it is difficult to convince non-beekeepers to enter into beekeeping activity unless extensive awareness needs to be taken up for the future of apiculture activity in the state.
Based on the responses received from some of the beneficiaries the increase in yield of crops due to Apiculture is given below;


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