Supplementary Appendices



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Appendices: Jew et al., Miombo woodland under threat.

Supplementary Appendices


Table S: Utilisation and land cover variables used to determine the level of utilisation of each site. The average value of each variable for each level was calculated (Sites: High n=2; Medium n=4; Low n=3). One way ANOVA results (df = 2 for all variables) are given to demonstrate differences between each level. Where a significant difference was demonstrated between the levels the post-hoc test Tukey HSD was performed to ascertain which levels differed. P< 0.05 indicates a significant difference.

Variable

Site utilisation level

One-way ANOVA

P-value for Tukey HSD post-hoc test

High

Medium

Low

Sum of Squares

Mean squares

F value

P-value

Low-High

Low-Medium

Medium - High

Approximate distance (km)

From settlement

4

5

11

88.17

44.09

2.44

0.167

-

-

-

From road

2

4

10

108.24

54.12

5.764

0.0401

0.0534

0.0686

0.7738

Age (years)

Of agriculture

17

13

1

374.3

187.15

4,287

0.0698

-

-

-

Land use (% cover)

Agricultural area

49

21

0

2812

1406

25.05

0.00122

0.0009

0.0244

0.0131

Regenerating miombo

20

1

0

605

302.5

10.56

0.0108

0.0146

0.982

0.0136

Seasonal floodplain

2

8

2

70.15

35.07

3.225

0.112

-

-

-

Open miombo

30

70

97

5499

2749.3

16.21

0.00381

0.003

0.0777

0.0261

Utilisation (%)

Cut poles and timber

29

20

3

939.2

469.6

15.35

0.00437

0.0045

0.0163

0.1915




Cattle tracks present

13

31

3

1428

714

0.732

0.519

-

-

-

Utilisation Activity (number of incidents)

Access

46

31

6

2081

1040.3

41.34

0.00031

0.0003

0.0016

0.0274

Agriculture-related

6

2

0

33.81

16.917

16.46

0.00366

0.0033

0.3526

0.0092

Charcoal production area

2

0

0

6.222

3.1111

9.333

0.0144

0.021

1

0.01673

Honey-related activity

13

26

25

279

139.49

2.114

0.202

-

-

-

Marked trees

55

30

16

1755.6

877.8

6.197

0.0347

0.0292

0.3654

0.11578

Non-Timber Forest Product

8

18

7

227.9

113.94

1.477

0.301

-

-

-

Settlement - related

8

5

0

66.97

33.49

2.052

0.209

-

-

-

Timber products

26

31

4

1327.6

663.8

5.111

0.0506

-

-

-




Stumps

27

6

4

1871

935.5

13.49

6.28E-06

0.0000032

0.094

0.001

Table S2: Differences between tree species abundance, richness and diversity at different utilisation levels, using one-way ANOVA (df =2 for all variables). The post-hoc test Tukey HSD was performed on significant ANOVA results to determine how the levels differed. Two sites from each utilisation level were used to ensure even sampling. P< 0.05 indicates a significant difference.




One-way ANOVA

P-values for Tukey HSD

Tree

Sum of Squares

Mean squares

F value

P-value

Low-High

Low-Medium

Medium - High

Abundance

1756

878.1

1.109

0.336

-

-

-

Richness

59.3

29.67

0.854

0.431

-

-

-

Diversity

4.48

2.2417

4.094

0.0214

0.01627

0.51736

0.1935


Table S3: Frequency of occurrence of tree species per plot per utilisation level







Frequency per utilisation plot

Family

Species

Low

Medium

High

Mimosoideae

Acacia gerrardii

0.03

0.00

0




Acacia hockii

0.08

0.00

0




Acacia macrothyrsa

0.03

0.00

0




Acacia sieberiana

0.08

0.00

0




Acacia xanthophloea

0.11

0.08

0.4




Acacia zeyheri

0.00

0.00

0.3

Fabaceae

Afzelia quanzensis

0.08

0.00

0

Mimosoideae

Albizia adianthifolia

0.08

0.00

0




Albizia antunesiana

0.00

0.04

0.35




Albizia glaberrima

0.00

0.02

0.2




Albizia harveyi

0.08

0.04

0

Sapindaceae

Allophylus africanus

0.03

0.00

0.1




Allophylus sp.

0.00

0.06

0

Anisophylleaceae

Anisophyllea boehmii

0.00

1.47

0

Annonaceae

Annona senegalensis

0.05

0.02

0

Phyllanthaceae

Antidesma venosum

0.24

0.00

0

Fabaceae

Bauhinia petersiana

0.68

0.00

0

Melianthaceae

Bersama abyssinica

0.03

0.00

0

Fabaceae

Bobgunnia madagascariensis

0.08

0.37

0.35

Capparaceae

Boscia mossambicensis

0.00

0.08

0




Boscia salicifolia

0.00

0.00

0.05

Fabaceae

Brachystegia boehmii

1.46

2.06

0.25




Brachystegia glaucescens

0.70

0.00

0




Brachystegia longifolia

0.57

0.71

0.15




Brachystegia manga

0.00

0.90

0




Brachystegia spiciformis

1.16

2.04

0




Brachystegia utilis

0.05

0.02

0

Euphorbiaceae

Bridelia duvigneaudii

0.03

0.00

0.7




Bridelia micrantha

0.08

0.00

0

Fabaceae

Burkea africana

0.27

1.06

0.1

Rubiaceae

Canthium sp.

0.00

0.02

0

Rhizophoraceae

Cassipourea mollis

0.16

0.16

0.3

Rubiaceae

Catunaregam spinosa

0.32

0.10

0.9

Lamiaceae

Clerodendrum sp.

0.00

0.00

1.65

Combretaceae

Combretum collinum

0.27

0.22

0.4




Combretum molle

0.30

0.16

0.3




Combretum pentagonum

0.03

0.27

0.15




Combretum zeyheri

1.86

0.14

6

Burseraceae

Commiphora africana

0.46

0.31

0.05




Commiphora mossambicensis

0.32

0.02

0.05

Araliaceae

Cussonia arborea

0.32

0.00

0

Fabaceae

Dalbergia nitidula

0.08

0.20

0.2

Fabaceae

Dichrostachys cinerea

0.32

0.06

0.55

Ebenaceae

Diospyros fischeri

0.11

0.00

0

Apocynaceae

Diplorhynchus condylocarpon

0.51

1.20

1.55

Streculiaceae

Dombeya rotundifolia

0.05

0.00

0

Meliaceae

Ekebergia capensis

0.00

0.06

0

Papilionoideae

Erythrina abyssinica

0.08

0.02

0

Proteaceae

Faurea rochetiana

0.24

0.08

0

Salicaceae

Flacourtia indica

0.24

0.06

0.15

Clusiaceae

Garcinia huillensis

0.00

0.04

0

Rubiaceae

Gardenia ternifolia

0.03

0.00

0

Malavaceae

Grewia pachycalyx

0.11

0.00

0

Annonaceae

Hexalobus monopetalus

0.19

0.49

0.6

Phyllanthaceae

Hymenocardia acida

0.35

1.04

1.1

Rubiaceae

Hymenodictyon floribundum

0.03

0.00

0

Fabaceae

Isoberlinia angolensis

0.51

0.27

1.95

Fabaceae

Julbernardia globiflora

1.62

4.84

0.95

Rubiaceae

Keetia venosa

0.03

0.00

0

Bignoniaceae

Kigelia africana

0.03

0.02

0

Anacardiaceae

Lannea schimperi

0.78

0.90

0.45

Fabaceae

Lonchocarpus capassa

0.24

0.16

0.05

Chrysobalanaceae

Magnistipula butayei ssp. Bangweolensis

0.27

0.16

0.35

Anacardiaceae

Mangifera indica

0.00

0.00

1.3

Euphorbiaceae

Maprounea africana

0.08

0.06

0

Phyllanthaceae

Margaritaria discoidea

0.14

0.00

0

Bignoniaceae

Markhamia obtusifolia

0.03

0.10

0.2

Celastraceae

Maytenus mossambicensis

0.00

0.18

0




Maytenus senegalensis

0.03

0.02

0.05

Melastomataceae

Memecylon flavovirens

0.00

0.04

0

Dipterocarpaceae

Monotes africanus

0.51

0.16

0




Monotes sp.

0.00

0.06

0

Ochnaceae

Ochna mossambicensis

0.14

0.61

0.15




Ochna schweinfurthiana

0.22

0.39

0.3

Picrodendraceae

Oldfieldia dactylophylla

0.46

0.35

0.5

Fabaceae

Ormocarpum kirkii

0.08

0.04

0

Anacardiaceae

Ozoroa insignis

0.27

0.04

0

Chrysobalanaceae

Parinari curatellifolia

0.65

0.39

0.5

Fabaceae

Pericopsis angolensis

0.65

0.92

1.75

Arecaceae

Phoenix reclinata

0.05

0.00

0

Phyllanthaceae

Phyllanthus sp.

0.08

0.00

0

Ixonanthaceae

Phyllocosmus lemaireanus

0.03

0.71

0.05

Fabaceae

Piliostigma thonningii

0.16

0.18

1.45

Celastraceae

Pleurostylia africana

0.05

0.04

0.05

Proteaceae

Protea sp.

0.00

0.06

0

Rosaceae

Prunus africana

0.03

0.00

0

Phyllanthaceae

Pseudolachnostylis maprouneifolia

0.97

1.61

4.45

Ixonanthaceae

Psorospermum febrifugum

0.11

0.00

0

Fabaceae

Pterocarpus angolensis

0.51

1.08

0.6




Pterocarpus tinctorius

0.03

0.08

0

Anacardiaceae

Rhus anchietae

0.08

0.00

0

Rubiaceae

Rothmannia engleriana

0.05

0.00

0

Oleaceae

Schrebera trichoclada

0.08

0.06

0.35

Anacardiaceae

Sclerocarya birrea

0.03

0.00

0

Polygalaceae

Securidaca longipedunculata

0.03

0.04

0

Fabaceae

Senna singueana

0.00

0.02

0

Sapotaceae

Sideroxylon sp.

0.00

0.04

0

Umbelliferae

Steganotaenia araliacea

0.00

0.02

0

Loganiaceae

Strychnos cocculoides

0.00

0.02

0




Strychnos innocua

0.05

0.04

0




Strychnos madagascariensis

0.03

0.10

0




Strychnos potatorum

0.16

0.22

0




Strychnos pungens

0.05

0.22

0




Strychnos spinosa

0.16

0.02

0.1

Myrtaceae

Syzygium cordatum

0.59

0.00

0




Syzygium guineense

0.30

0.18

0.05

Combretaceae

Terminalia mollis

0.54

0.18

0.25




Terminalia sericea

0.43

0.02

1.6




Terminalia stenostachya

0.54

0.00

0.35

Hibiscus

Thespesia garckeana

0.03

0.29

0

Rubiaceae

Tricalysia sp.

0.08

0.00

0

Meliaceae

Turraea robusta

0.00

0.14

0

Phyllanthaceae

Uapaca kirkiana

0.95

0.59

0




Uapaca nitida

0.30

0.06

0.1

Verbenaceae

Vitex doniana

0.22

0.04

0.25




Vitex mombassae

0.03

0.06

0

Olacaceae

Ximenia americana

0.00

0.41

0




Ximenia caffra

0.05

0.04

0

Sapindaceae

Zanha africana

0.22

0.02

0

Rutaceae

Zanthoxylum chalybeum

0.00

0.08

0

Rhamnaceae

Ziziphus abyssinica

0.05

0.12

0.15

 

Ziziphus mucronata

0.00

0.08

0





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