ANALYSIS OF NEW CALEDONIAN ONISCIDEA (TERRESTRIAL ISOPODS) The following data were extracted from the global check-list of terrestrial isopods (Schmalfuss, 2009). These illustrate how much biogeographic information can be obtained from studies based on extensive global collecting and traditional taxonomic methods, even without detailed phylogeny or molecular analyses.
There are nine genera endemic to New Caledonia (Caledonillo, Emydodillo, Heroldia, Mesodillo, Nesoniscus, Ochetodillo, Oroscia, Pseudosphaerillo, Wahrbergia). Other genera present in New Caledonia show interesting distributions outside the country, as follows (numbers of species in brackets).
Australiodillo: Lord Howe I. (5), Queensland, New South Wales (1), New Caledonia (2). Track 5.
Merulana: Eastern Australia (Cape York to Victoria) (7), New Caledonia (2), Chatham Is. (2). Track 6.
Merulanella: Burma (1), Flores I. (Indonesia) (3), New Caledonia and Loyalty Is. (3). Track 21.
Nagurus sundaicus: China; Indonesia: Sumatra, Java, Sulawesi; Loyalty Is.; Hawaii. Tracks 21 and 23.
Neodillo: New Guinea (1), New Caledonia (1). Track 12.
Nesodillo: Sri Lanka (1), south-western India (1), north-eastern India, Burma, Taiwan, Ryukyu Is. (the single named species in these countries probably comprises several species), Borneo (1), Taiwan (1), Gilbert Is. (1), Burma (2), Flores (1), Aru Is. (1), New Guinea (2), New Caledonia and Loyalty Is. (8). Cf. track 21.
Orodillo: New Caledonia (1), Taiwan (1). Track 21.
Plymophiloscia: eastern Australia (Queensland; Melbourne) (3), Tasmania (4), New Caledonia (1). Track 6.
Pseudolaureola: St Helena I. (1), Madagascar (1), Western Australia (1), New Caledonia (1). Track 1.
Pyrgoniscus: Kenya (1), Tanzania (1), Madagascar (2), Lord Howe I. (2), New Caledonia (1). Track 1.
Schismadillo: New Guinea (2), Queensland (1), Victoria (1), New Caledonia (1). Track 6.
Scyphax: Victoria (1), New Zealand (1), New Caledonia (1). Track 5.
Spherillo pygmaeus: New Caledonia, Marquesas Is. (there are other central Pacific species of Spherillo). Track 22.
Xestodillo: Vanuatu and Loyalty Is. (1), New Caledonia and Loyalty Is. (1), New Caledonia (1). Track 15.
CORRELATED LOCAL AND GLOBAL PATTERNS OF NEW CALEDONIAN GROUPS Loyalty Is. – central Pacific This pattern is exemplified by Cyrtandra (Fig. 9, main text). Another clear example is in the passerine Myzomela (Meliphagidae), with M. sanguinolenta on Grande Terre, Australia – Sulawesi, and its close relative M. cardinalis on the Loyalty Is., Melanesia and Micronesia (but not mainland New Guinea). The differentiation between the Loyalty Is. and Grande Terre is discussed elsewhere (Heads, 2008). Two examples have been retrieved since that paper was written. The dragonfly Xiphiagron cyanomelas (Coenagrionidae) is known from ‘the Paramalayan islands to the west of Sumatra’ to the Solomon Islands and the Loyalty Islands, but not on Grande Terre (where the genus is absent) (Lieftinck, 1976). The hornbills are occur throughout the Old World tropics to the Solomon Islands and are also known fossil on the Loyalty Islands, but there are no records on Grande Terre (Steadman, 2006). Steadman suggested that ‘it must have lived also on Grande Terre’ (p. 159) but absence of Loyalty Islands groups from Grande Terre is a common pattern.
North-easternGrande Terre – Vanuatu/Fiji The fern Lindsaea francii of north-eastern Grande Terre is distinct from all its New Caledonian congeners but very close to Vanuatu species. A similar pattern occurs in four orchids (Phreatia pachyphylla, Octarrhena oberonioides, Nervilia platychila, Anoectochilus imitans) that are present but very rare in Fiji and are each recorded elsewhere only in New Caledonia (Kores in Smith, 1979-1996), where they are all present in north-eastern Grande Terre. Another orchid, Diplocaulobium ou-hinnae, is endemic to north-eastern Grande Terre and closest to D. tipuliferum of Fiji. Orchids known in New Caledonia only from north-eastern Grande Terre and also in Vanuatu are Spathoglottis petri and Thrixspermumadenotrichum (cited as ‘Thrixspermum sp.’ in the Flora; also in New Guinea and the Solomon Is.). Trichospermum inmac (Tilia.) is in north-eastern Grande Terre and Vanuatu.
In other plants Bulbinella pachyanthum (Lilia.), disjunct between north-eastern and southern Grande Terre, is also in Fiji/Samoa/Tonga, Erythrodes oxyglossa (Orchid.), disjunct between north-eastern and southern Grande Terre, is also in Vanuatu and Fiji/Samoa/Tonga.
In insects, the noctuid moth Hypena fijiensis is known from Mt. Panié in north-eastern Grande Terre, the Loyalty Is., Vanuatu and Fiji (Holloway, 1979). The freshwater fish Rhyacichthys is in north-eastern Grande Terre (R. guilberti, cited above), the Solomon Is., Malesia, and Taiwan(R. aspro).
North-westernGrande Terre – localities to the west The only Pacific Island member of the rice genus Oryza is O. neocaledonica, endemic to north-western Grande Terre (Pouembout). Its closest relative is probably O. meyeriana of Malesia (Morat et al., 1994).
Albizia guillainii (Mimos.), found along the west coast, is not related to Asian or Australian congeners, but to African ones (sect. Zygia).
Southern Grande Terre – New Zealand Affinities with New Zealand are seen in the freshwater fish Galaxias neocaledonicus and the tree Beilschmiedia neocaledonica (Laur.), all endemic to southernmost Grande Terre and all related to New Zealand species (G. paucispondylus, B. tarairi and Libocedrus spp.). The tree Strasburgeria (Strasburger.) is endemic to the southern Grande Terre ultramafics (Oginuma et al., 2006) and is closest to Ixerba (the only other member of the family) of northern New Zealand. Korthalsella salicornioides (Visc.) is in New Zealand, Madagascar, and southern New Caledonia (I. des Pins and near Kouaoua on the south-eastern Grande Terre coast; Aubréville et al., 1967–present).
Southern Grande Terre and New Guinea Bulbophyllum lophoglottis (Orchid.) of the southern massif is very closely related to B. plumula of New Guinea, and similarly the rare liverwort Herbertus leratii, endemic to Mt. Mou in the southern massif, is probably closest to a New Guinea/Indonesian species (So, 2003). A parallel is also seen in lichens, with Megalospora hillii of southern Grande Terre closest to M. weberi of Mt Wilhelm in the PNG Highlands (Fig. 5; Sipman, 1983).
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