Synonyms: Swietenia krukovii, S. belizensis
Big-, broad- or large-leaved mahogany
, Honduras mahogany (En);
mahokkaanee bai yai (Tha); dái-ngua (Vie).
large; high buttresses; inner bark
red or pinkish-brown; 3–6 pairs of
leaflets; flowers 5-merous; seed
capsule brown, 10–22 cm long with
A large tree up to 40–60 m high,
branchless up to 18–25 m, and up to 200 cm in
diameter, with buttresses up to 5 m high. Bark on older
trees scaly, shaggy, deeply furrowed, brownish grey to
reddish brown. Inner bark red-brown or pinkish red.
Leaves alternate, even pinnate, with 2–8 pairs of
leaflets, each about 9–13 × 3–4 cm. Flowerstands 10–
20 cm long, flowers with 5-lobed calyx, ciliate sepals and 5 (or 4) petals. Light brown seed
capsule, 10–22 cm long, opening by 5 valves, seeds 7.5–12 cm long, with wings.
Use: One of the finest timbers for high quality furniture and cabinet work, interior panelling,
doors and decorative borders, boat building, musical instruments, carving and other uses. The
bark is used for dying and tanning leather and oil can be extracted from the seed kernels. In
India gum is tapped from cuts in the bark.
Growing naturally in tropical rain forests up to 1,500 m altitude.
From Central and South America. Planted throughout the tropics, including
Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines.
Small- or narrow-leaved mahogany
West Indian mahogany, Spanish or Cuban mahogany
(En); mahokkaanee bai lek (Tha).
Key characteristics: Smaller
tree; short, blunt buttresses; 2– 5
pairs of leaflets; fruit capsule 4.5–
10 cm long.
To 30 m high, often with a short trunk and
many branches. Buttresses short and blunt.
Leaves alternate, 2–5 pairs of opposite leaflets,
each 4–8 cm long and 1.5–3.3 cm wide.
Inflorescence 5–18 cm long, flowers smooth.
Fruit capsule 4.5– 10 cm. Seeds 2–6 cm long.
Use and ecology:
As S. macrophylla
As S. macrophylla
, except not
reported from Vietnam.
Soerianegara & Lemmens (1994).
The map shows the distribution of both species.→→→
Syzygium aqueum & S. samarangense
Synonyms: Sysygium aqueum: Eugenia aquea, E. javanica, E. mindanaensis. S.
samarangense: E. javanica, E. mananquil, Myrtus samarangensis, Jambosa alba
Common names: Aqueum
: Water apple, bell fruit (En); jambu air, jambu air mawar (Ins, Mal);
tambis (Phi); machomphu-pa (Tha). Samarangense: Wax jambu, java apple (En); jambu
semarang, jambu klampok (Ins); jambu air mawar (Mal); makopa (Phi); chomphu-kaemmaem,
chomphu-khieo, chomphu-nak (Tha); man, roi (Vie).
crooked, often branching from base;
crown irregular; leaves opposite;
flowers yellow-white; aqueum: 5–15
mm long leafstalk and 5–7mm long
calyx, small fruits; samarangense: 3–
5mm long leaf stalk, 15mm long calyx
and larger fruit; aromatic.
Description: S. aqueum
: 3–10m high with short
crooked trunk, 30–50cm in diameter, often
branching near base. Irregular crown. Leaves
opposite, elliptic-cordate to obovate-oblong, 7–
25cm long, 2.5–16cm wide, with 0.5– 1.5cm long
leafstalk, sometimes with aromatic smell when
crushed. Inflorescence at tip of twigs or from leaf
axils with 3–7 yellow-white flowers, 2.5–3.5cm in
diameter, calyx 5–7mm long, 4 petals about 7mm
long. Fruit cone-shaped, glossy white to red, 1.5–
2cm long and 2.5–3.5cm wide, watery with 1–2, sometimes 6 seeds. E. samarangense very
similar but is somewhat larger, has thick, 3–5mm long leaf stalks, 15mm long calyx and larger
pyriform fruits. Improved cultivars have green fruits. Leaves always aromatic smelling.
Use: Grown mainly for the fruit, which is eaten fresh, used in salads or sometimes pickled or
stewed. The hard reddish wood can be used for construction, but the dimensions of S. aqueum
are not very large. Various parts of S. samarangense are used in traditional medicine.
Ecology: Belongs to fairly moist tropical
lowlands up to 1,200 m altitude, preferring
heavy soils and easy access to water, also
during the dry season, often planted along
streams and ponds.
Distribution: Originates and widely distributed
in Southeast Asia, including Myanmar,
Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia. In Vietnam
listed as Eugenia javanica which is synonym
for both species.
References: Guzman et al. (1986), Verheij &
Synonyms: Myrtus cumini, Eugenia jambolanum, E. cumini
Jambolan (En); pring bai (Cam); jamblang, duwet (Ins); va (Lao); jambulana,
jambulan (Mal); thabyang-hpyoo (Mya); duhat, lomboi (Phi); wa, hakhiphae (Tha); vôi rung, trâm
Key characteristics: Low
branching, irregular crown; bark
rough, dark grey below, light
and smooth above; leaves
opposite, pinkish when young,
faint turpentine smell if
crushed; 4 grey-white to pink
petals; violet fruit ovoid-oblong,
1–5 cm long
Description: A stout evergreen tree 10– 20m (sometimes
30m) high, and 40– 90cm in diameter, branching low with
irregular crown spreading to about 12 m wide. Rough, dark
grey bark on lower part, lighter grey and smooth higher up.
Leaves opposite, entire, broadly obovate-elliptic to elliptic-
oblong, 5–25 cm long and 2–10 cm wide with 1–3.5 cm
long leaf stalk, cuneate or rounded at base, tip blunt,
edges thin transparent, pinkish when young, later dark
green above, faint turpentine smell when crushed. Flowers
in 5–12 cm long panicles, usually on leafless branches,
flowers small, fragrant with four grey-white to pink petals. Fruit ovoid-oblong, 1–5 cm long, dark
violet and juicy with 0–5 green to brown seeds, up to 3.5 cm long inside.
The subacid and astringent ripe fruit is eaten fresh or made into juice, jelly or wine. The
leaves can be used as fodder. The abundant nectar of the flowers is a good source for bees to
produce honey. The bark can be used for dyeing and also, together with seeds, has medicinal
value. The tree is grown as shade tree, i.e. for coffee and the wood provides fair fuelwood.
Grows on riverbanks in the tropical lowlands
, best up to 600 m altitude. Above this
height it does not fruit but can still grow up to about 1,800 m altitude and provide timber. Prefers
1,000 mm annual rain or more and a distinct dry season, but can withstand prolonged flooding.
Distribution: Native to subtropical Himalayas, India, Sri Lanka, Malesian region and Australia
and presently cultivated throughout the tropics and subtropics.
Guzman et al (1986), Hensleigh & Holaway (1988), Verheij & Coronel (1992).
Synonym: Eugenia jambos
Roseapple, malabar plum (En); châm'puu (Cam); jambu air mawar, jambu
mawar, jambu kraton (Ins); chièng, kièng (Lao); jambu kelampok, jambu mawar (Mal); thabyu-
thabye (Mya); chomphu-namdokmai, manomhom, yamu-panawa (Tha); lý, bô dào, roi (Vie).
Key characteristics: Small; ever-
green; branching low; dense wide-
spread crown; stem mostly twisted at
base; bark brown, smooth but
furrowed; leaves oblong-lanceolate;
flowers 5–10 cm wide, greenish-
white; fruit round, to 5cm diameter,
white-yellow, sometimes pink.
An evergreen tree up to 10 m high and
50 cm in diameter, often branching from low on the
trunk and with dense wide spreading crown, stem
cylindrical, sometimes quadrangular when young,
mostly twisted at base. Bark brown, smooth, but
furrowed. Leaves opposite, oblong-lanceolate, 9–26
cm long and 1.5–6cm wide, thin leathery, cuneate at
base, pointed at tip, shiny dark green above, lighter
green and glandular punctate underneath with 5–6,
rarely 13 mm long leaf stalk. Inflorescence 5– 10 cm
long corymb, arising from tip of twigs or from leaf corners, 4–5(-10) flowered with large white to
greenish-white, 5–10 cm wide 4-merous flowers with about 400 up to 4 cm long stamens. Fruit
globose to ovoid, 2.5–5 cm in diameter, crowned by persistent 4-lobed calyx, whitish yellow,
sometimes pink tainted, fragrant with yellow-pink flesh embedding 1–2(-4) sub-globose brown
seeds, 1–1.5 cm in diameter.
Use: Fresh fruit is not so tasty and popular, but is cooked or preserved in various ways and can
also be distilled to yield a high quality rose-water. Essential oil is extracted from the leaves for
use in perfume production. The heavy and hard heartwood can be used for construction timber.
The bark is used for dyeing and tanning. Several plant parts are used medicinally. Also used as
Ecology: Tropical tree now being cultivated into the subtropics as well up to about 1,200 m
altitude where climate is relatively wet. It grows on almost any slightly acid soil type including
Distribution: From its center of origin in Malesian region, it has spread throughout the tropics
and has become widely naturalized.
Guzman et al (1986), Verheij & Coronel (1992).
Synonyms: Eugenia malaccensis, Jambosa malaccensis, E. domestica
Malay apple (En); jambu bol (Ins, Mal); jambu merah (Mal); thabyo-thabyang
(Mya); yanba, tersana, makopang-kalabaw (Phi); chomphu mamieo, chomphu saraek, chomphu
daeng (Tha); cay dao, cay roi, dièu-dò (Vie).
Description: A tree in 5–20 m high with a straight stem
and a broadly ovoid canopy, often branching near the
base. Leaves opposite, elliptic-oblong, 15–38 cm long and
7–20 wide, thick leathery with 0.5–1.5 cm long thick leaf
stalk, red when young. Inflorescence only on leafless twig
parts, 1–12 flowered with 4-merous red flowers, 5–7 cm in
diameter with numerous stamens. Fruit ellipsoid, 5– 8 cm
in diameter, crowned by the incurved calyx segments, dark
red or purplish yellow or yellow white with juicy, white and
fragrant flesh and one big brown seed.
medium sized; straight stem,
often low branching; leaves
opposite and big up to 38 cm
long × 20 cm wide, thick
leathery; red flowers on
branches, red; fruits ellipsoid,
5–8 cm in diameter, dark red to
yellowish (looks like an apple).
Use: Primarily grown for its fruit which is eaten fresh or cooked in various ways. Wood is used
for construction. Bark, leaves and roots provide traditional medicine with antibiotic activity.
Native to wet tropical lowlands
up to 1,200 m altitude. Needs year round
water supply and prefers heavy soils.
Distribution: Native to southeast Asia
and primarily found in Malaysia and
Indonesia, but also grown in Myanmar,
Thailand and Vietnam.
Verheij & Coronel (1992).