Syzygium cumini L. (Myrtaceae) is a very



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INTRODUCTION

Jamun,  Syzygium cumini L. (Myrtaceae) is a very

common, large evergreen tree of Indian subcontinent. The

synonyms of S. cumini L. are :  Eugenia cumini (L.) Druce,



Eugenia jambolana Lam., Myrtus cumini L., Syzygium

jambolanum DC. Common names are java plum, black plum,

jambul and Indian blackberry. Its distribution range starts

from Myanmar and extends up to Afghanistan. It grows

naturally in tropical as well as in sub-tropical zones. It is

generally cultivated in India. It tends to grow an umbrella

like crown having dense foliage, thus gives pleasant cool

shade during summer. Jamun is used as a carminative,

against diarrhea, stomachache, astringent and also utilized

in enlargement of the spleen and as a diuretic. The leaves

have antibacterial properties and the bark is utilized against

inflammations, while the seeds have antidiabetic properties.

There are lot of major and minor pests which infest leaves,

flowers, fruits, seeds and barks, but the perusal of literature

reveals that there is no consolidated account available on

the insects associated with jamun in India except a major

contribution was made by Butani (1979). In this paper, an

attempt has been made to provide the current status, nature

of damage, pest status, hosts, updated classification of

insects associated with jamun in India.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Insects were collected in the field with aspirator,

manually and aerial sweep net and at night with the help of

light trap. The insects were killed by using tetrachloro ethane

or ethyl acetate or benzene. These were stretched, pinned,

labeled, identified, preserved in the wooden collection boxes

and deposited in the National Pusa Collection, Division of

Entomology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New

Delhi. The collected / reference specimens preserved in the

National Pusa Collection were also examined and

incorporated in the checklist.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Survey-cum-collection study on insects associated with

jamun in India

 

were undertaken covering thirteen states/union



territories namely Chandigarh, Delhi, Haryana, Himachal

Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala,

Maharashtra, Punjab, Arunachal Pradesh, Tamil Nadu,

Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh. The insect’s records on

Jamun available in the National Pusa Collection, Division of

Entomology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New

Delhi have also been incorporated.  Seventy eight insect

species have been recorded representing order and their

species i.e., Hemiptera (26 species), Coleoptera (8 species),

Diptera (5 species), Lepidoptera (34 species), Thysanoptera

(6 species). Among these, the Lepidoptera (34) shows the

highest number of species, the Diptera (5) shows that the

least number of species (Table 1).

The following sixteen species have been added from

the records in National Pusa Collection (Insects) i.e.,

Hemiptera-5  (Balocha maldanadoi kameswara Rao &

Ramakrishnan,  Wiloatma bifurcate Webb,  Balocha tricolor

Distant,  Balocha anufrievi, Rao & Ramakrishnan

(Cicadellidae);  Dictyophara pallida Walker (Fulgoridae));

Lepidoptera-6 (Hygroplasta spoliatella Walker

(Lecithoceridae);  Cania pulligonis Swinhoe (Limacodidae);

Phlegetonia delatrix Guenée,  Catephia mosara Swinhoe

(Noctuidae);  Bubonoxena ephippias Meyrick, Strepsicrates



rhothia, Meyrick (Tortricidae); Diptera-4 (Bactrocera caudata

Fabricius,  Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Tephritidae)



Bactrocera diversa (Coquillett), Bactrocera tau (Walker)

(Tephritidae)), Coleoptera-1 (Scymnus scymnus gracilis

Motschulsky (Coccinellidae)). Two species have recorded

as new record from Indian Agricultural Research Institute,

Campus, New Delhi viz.,  Bruchidius minutissimus

Motschulsky (Coleoptera : Bruchidae) and Noctuides sp.

(Lepidoptera : Pyralidae). Photographs of Carea subtilis

Walker (Nolidae) (Figs. 1,2), Noctuides sp. (Figs. 3,4) and



Bruchidius minutissimus Motschulsky (Bruchidae) (Fig. 5).

Checklist of insects associated with Jamun (Syzygium cuminii Skeels)

from India

Rajesh Kumar*, V.V. Ramamurthy* and Gaurav Sharma**

*Division of Entomology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa Campus New Delhi INDIA

**Desert Regional Centre, Zoological Survey of India, Post-Jhalamand, Pali Road, Jodhpur (RJ) INDIA

ABSTRACT : Jamun (Syzygium cuminii Skeels) is an economically important tree in India, which also has

medicinal properties. The survey of insects associated with Jamun in India was conducted and approximately 300

specimens belonging to five orders were collected, which comprises of 78 species mainly representing two orders

i.e., Lepidoptera (34 species) and Hemiptera (26 species). The salient details of their locality, feeding behaviour

and pest status have also been provided.

Keywords :  Syzygium cuminii, associated insects, India

ISSN : 0975-1130

 

Biological Forum — An International Journal, 2(1): 1-5(2010)



2

Kumar, Ramamurthy and Sharma

T

able 1 : Checklist associated with 

Syzygium cumini

 Skeels.

S

. N

o.

Order/Scientific name

Family

Distribution in India

Feeding behaviour

Status

References

HEMIPTERA

1.

Halys dentatus 

(F

.)

Pentatomidae



Bihar

Suck the sap of tree trunk

Minor

*NPC, 1966; Butani, 1979



2.

Aonidiella aurantii

 (Maskell)

Diaspididae

Wide 


distribution

Twigs and leaves

Minor

Butani, 1979



3.

Ceroplastes rubens 

(Maskell)

Coccidae

Wide 


distribution

Accumulation of sooty moulds

Minor

CABI, 2007



4.

Drosicha stebbingi 

(Green)


Margarodidae

Wide distribution

Not Known

CABI, 2007

5.

Aonidiella orientalis 

(Newstead)

Diaspididae

Wide 


distribution

Direct feeding damage on leaves

Minor

B

ut



an

i, 1


979; CABI, 2007

and removal of plant sap

6.

Aspidiotus destructor

 Signoret

Diaspididae

Wide 


distribution

Twigs and leaves

Minor

Butani, 1979



7.

Duplaspidiotus tesseratus

Diaspididae

Wide distribution

Twigs and leaves

Minor

Butani, 1979



(Grandpré and Charmoy)

8.

Parlatoria pseudopyri,

 Kuwana

Diaspididae



Wide 

distribution

Twigs and leaves

Minor


Butani, 1979

9.

Parlatoria marginalis 

McKenzie

Diaspididae

Wide 

distribution



Twigs and leaves

Minor


Butani, 1979

10.


Chloropulvinaria polygonata

 (Green)


Coccidae

Wide 


distribution

Shoots and foliage

Minor

Butani, 1979



11.

Chloropulvinaria psidii

 (Maskell)

Coccidae

Wide 


distribution

Shoots and foliage

Minor

Butani, 1979



12.

Coccus discrepans

 (Green)


Coccidae

Wide 


distribution

Shoots and foliage

Minor

Butani, 1979



13.

Vinsonia stellifera

 (W


estwood)

Coccidae


Wide 

distribution

Shoots and foliage

Minor


Butani, 1979

14.


Trioza jambolanae

 Grawford

Psyllidae

Wide 


distribution

Shoots and foliage

Minor

*NPC, 1914-1915;



Butani, 1979

15.


Megatrioza vitiensis

 Kirkaldy

Psyllidae

Wide 


distribution

Shoots and foliage

Minor

Butani, 1979



16.

Dialeurodes citri 

(Ashmead)

Aleurodidae

Maharashtra,T

amil

Suck the cell sap from leaves



Major

Fletcher, 1917; Singh, 1931

Nadu, Karnataka

17.


Singhiella bicolor

 Singh


Aleurodidae

Wide 


distribution

Suck the cell sap from leaves

Major

CABI, 2007



18.

Balocha maldanadoi Kameswara

Cicadellidae

Delhi

Not Known



Not 

Known


*NPC, 1975

Rao and Ramakrishnan

19.

W

iloatma bifur

cate 

W

eb



b

Cicadellidae

Delhi

Not Known



Not 

Known


*NPC, 1974

20.


Balocha tricolor 

Distant


Cicadellidae

Delhi


Not Known

Not 


Known

*NPC, 1974

21.

Dictyophara pallida 

W

alker



Fulgoridae

Bihar


Not Known

Not 


Known

*NPC, 1916

22.

Balocha anufrievi,

Cicadellidae

Delhi

Not Known



Not 

Known


*NPC, 1974-1975

Rao and Ramakrishnan

23.

Artemidorus pressus 

Dist


.

Lygaeidae

Bihar

Suck the cell sap from 



trunk

Not 


Known

Butani, 1979

24.

Icerya aegyptiaca 

Douglas


Margarodidae

Wide distribution

Not 

known


Minor

CABI, 2007

25.

Maconellicoccus hirsutus 

Green


Pseudococcidae

Wide distribution

Not known

Minor


CABI, 2007

26.


Aleurocanthus rugosa 

Singh


Aleurodidae

Wide 


distribution

Suck the cell sap from leaves

Minor

Butani, 1979



Kumar, Ramamurthy and Sharma

3

LEPIDOPTERA

1.

Acher

ontia styx 

W

estwood



Sphingidae

Wide 


distribution

Larvae feeding on leaves

Minor

CABI, 2007



2.

Meridarchis reprobata

Carposinidae

Kashmir, Gujarat,

Fruit 


borer

Minor


*NPC, 1914;

Fletcher and Surat

Maharashtra 

and


Butani, 

1979


south India

3.

Meridarchis scyrodes 

Meyrick

Carposinidae



Wide distribution

Fruit 


borer

Minor


Butani, 1979

4.

Indarbela quadrinotata

 W

alker


Cossidae

Wide 


distribution

Larvae feeding on bark

Minor

Butani, 1979



5.

Indarbela tetraonis

 Moore


Cossidae

Wide 


distribution

Larvae feeding on bark

Minor

Butani, 1979



6.

Idiophantis acanthopa 

Meyrick


Gelechiidae

Wide 


distribution

Feeding on leaves

Minor

Butani, 1979



7.

Chrysocraspeda olearia

 Guenée


Geometridae

Wide 


distribution

Feeding on leaves

Minor

Butani, 1979



8.

Hyposidra successaria

 W

alker



Geometridae

Wide distribution

Mining 

leaves


Minor

Butani, 1979

9.

Oenospila flavifuscata

 Swinhoe


Geometridae

South India

Mining 

leaves


Minor

V

enugopal, 1958



10.

Acrocercops loxias 

Meyrick


Gracillariidae

Wide distribution

Mining 

leaves


Minor

Butani, 1979

11.

Acrocercops phaespora

 Meyrick


Gracillariidae

Bihar, Delhi,

Mining leaves

Major


Butani, 1979

Haryana, Punjab

12.

Acrocercops syngramma

 Meyrick


Gracillariidae

Delhi


Mining leaves

Minor


*NPC, 1941; Butani, 1979

13.


Acrocercops telestis

 Meyrick


Gracillariidae

Bihar


, W

est 


Bengal

Mining 


leaves

Minor


Butani, 1979

14.


Antispila anna

 Fletcher

Heliozelidae

Wide distribution

Leaf 

eater


Minor

*NPC, 1931; Butani, 1979

15.

Metanastria hyrtaca

 Cramer


Lasiocampidae

Bihar


Larvae feeding on leaves

Minor


*NPC, 1931; CABI, 2007

16.


Trabala vishnou

 Lefèbvre

Lasiocampidae

K

ar



na

ta

ka



Feeding on leaves

Minor


Butani, 1976

17.


Hygr

oplasta spoliatella

 W

alker



Lecithoceridae

Bihar, Delhi

Mining leaves

Not Known

*NPC, 1945

18.


Cania pulligonis 

Swinhoe


Limacodidae

Bihar


Feeding on leaves

Not Known

*NPC, 1913

19.


Lymantria mathura 

Moore


Lymantriidae

Wide 


distribution

Feeding on leaves

Major

CABI, 2007



20.

Orygia postica 

W

alker



Lymantriidae

Wide 


distribution

Feeding on leaves

Major

CABI, 2007



21.

Phlegetonia delatrix 

Guenée


Noctuidae

Bihar


Larvae on leaves

Not Known

*NPC, 1931

22.


Phlegetonia delatrix

 Guenée


Noctuidae

Wide 


distribution

Larvae feeding on leaves

Minor

Butani, 1979



23.

Catephia mosara

 Swinhoe

Noctuidae

 Bihar

Not Known



Not 

Known


*NPC, 1916

24.


Car

ea subtilis

 W

alker



Nolidae

Wide distribution

Leaves

Minor


Butani, 1979

25.


Exelastis atomosa

 W

alsingham



Pterophoridae

Wide 


distribution

Not known

Not known

Butani, 


1979

26.


Lepidogma

 s

p.



Pyralidae

South 


India

W

ebbing leaves



Minor

Butani,1979;

Annathakrishnan and

V

enugopal, 1955



27.

Noctuides

 s

p.



Pyralidae

New 


Delhi

W

ebbing leaves



Minor

New record

28.

Orthaga

 s

p.



Pyralidae

Wide 


distribution

W

ebbing leaves



Minor

Butani, 1979

29.

Bubonoxena ephippias

 Meyrick


To

rt

ricidae



Bihar

Larvae feeding on leaves

Not 

known


*NPC, 

1931


30.

Cellifera cellifera 

Meyrick


To

rtricidae

Wide distribution

Mining 


leaves

Minor


Butani, 1979

31.


Cellifera mormopa

 Meyrick


To

rt

ricidae



Kerala

Not known

Not known

Aiyer, 


1943

4

Kumar, Ramamurthy and Sharma

32.


Dudua aprobola 

Meyrick


Tortricidae

Wide 


distribution

Rolling the leaves

Minor

Butani, 1979



33.

Homona coffearia 

(Nietner)

Tortricidae

South 


India

Not known

Not known

Butani, 


1979

34.


Strepsicrates rhothia, 

Meyrick


To

rt

ri



ci

da

e



Bihar

Larvae feeding on leaves

Not 

known


*NPC, 

1931


DIPTERA

1.

Bactrocera caudata

 Fabricius

Tephritidae

Bihar

Leaves


Minor

*NPC, 1914

2.

Bactrocera correcta

Tephritidae

Bihar

Fruit borer



Minor

Butani, 1979

3.

Bactrocera cucurbitae

 Coquillett

Tephritidae

Bihar


Fruit borer

Not Known

*NPC, 1913

4.

Bactrocera diversa

 (Coquillett)

Tephritidae

Bihar

Fruit borer



Minor

*NPC, 1913

5.

Bactr

ocera tau

 (W


alker)

Tephritidae

Bihar

Not known



Not known

*NPC, 


1913

COLEOPTERA

1.

Curculio c-album 

Fabricius

Curculionidae

Bihar

Fallen fruits and bore feed



*NPC, 

1914- 


1915;

Fletcher, 1917

2.

Myllocerus undecimpustulatus 

Faust


Curculionidae

Wide 


distribution

Not known

Not known

CABI, 


2007

3.

Myllocerus viridanus 

(Fabricius)

Curculionidae

Wide 

distribution



Not known

Not known

CABI, 

2007


4.

Phrynocaria perrotteti 

(Mulsant)

C

oc

cinellidae



Wide 

distribution

Not known

Not known

*NPC, 

1945


5.

Scymnus scymnusgracilis 

Motschulsky

Coccinellidae

Delhi


Not 

known


Not known

*NPC, 


1950

6.

Xylosandrus crassiusculus

Scolytidae

Wide 


distribution

Feeds on bark

Not 

known


CABI, 

2007


(Motschulsky)

7.

Xyleborus similis 

Ferrari

Scolytidae



Wide 

distribution

Feeds on bark

Minor


CABI, 2007

8.

Bruchidius minutissimus

 Motschulsky

Bruchidae

Delhi

Feeding on leaves



Minor

New Record



THYSANOPTERA

1.

Rhipiphorothrips cruentatus

 Hood

Thripidae



Wide 

distribution

Suck sap from the leaves

Major


Butani, 1979; Dahiya, and

Lakra, 2001; CABI, 2007

2.

Leeuwenia ramakrishnae

Phlaeothripidae

Wide 

distribution



Suck sap from 

the leaves

Minor

Annanthakrishnan, 



1971

Ananthakrishnan

3.

Mallothrips indica 

Ramakrishna

Phlaeothripidae

Wide 


distribution

Suck sap from the leaves

Minor

Annanthakrishnan, 1971



4.

Teuchothrips eugeniae 

Seshadri


Phlaeothripidae

Wide 


distribution

Suck sap from the leaves

Minor

Annanthakrishnan, 1971



and Ananthakrishnan

5.

Retithrips syriacus 

(Mayet)

Thripidae



Wide 

distribution

Infests flowers

Minor


CABI, 2007

6.

Thrips florum

 Schmutz

Thripidae

Wide 

distribution



Infests the flowers

Minor


Annanthakrishnan, 1971

* National Pusa Collection (Insects and mites), year of collection



Kumar, Ramamurthy and Sharma

5

Fig.1-5. 1. Larva of 

Carea subtilis Walker (Nolidae), 2. Adult of

Carea subtilis Walker (Nolidae), 3. Larva of Noctuides  sp.

(Pyralidae), 4. Adult of 

Noctuides  sp. (Pyralidae), 5. Bruchidius

minutissimus  Motschulsky (Bruchidae).

In the checklist the families, genera and species are

arranged alphabetically, and the pest status (major/minor)

and host range is according to the literature cited. In India

the research works of Butani (1979) provided valuable

information on insects pests of jamun. The present study

provides all the existing information on insects associated

with jamun in India The scientific names were updated from



Coleoptera Collection and Card Index (NHM, London),

Poorani (2004), Lepindex (Lepidoptera) (NHM, London),



Thysanoptera of World (CSIRO, Australia), Diptera (ITIS,

2009).


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This work supported by ICAR funded “Network Project

on Insect Biosystematics” is gratefully acknowledged.

REFERENCES

Coleoptera Index, (2004). Coleoptera  Collection and Reference Card

Online Database, Natural History Museum, London. http://

www.nhm.ac.uk/research-curation/research/projects/coleoptera/.

CSIRO, (2008). CSIRO, Locked Bag 10, Clayton South VIC 3169,

Australia http://www.ento.csiro.au/thysanoptera/worldthrips.html

Aiyer, Padmanabha, K.S. (1943). Notes on two major caterpillar

pests of Eugenia jambos (Rose apple). Journal of Bombay



Nat. Hist. Soc.,  48: 673-675.

Annanthakrishnan, T.N. (1971). Thrips (Thysanoptera) in agriculture,

horticulture & forestry – diagnosis, bionomics and control.

Journal of  Science & Industrial Research., 30(3): 113-146.

Annathakrishnan, T.N. and Venugopal, S. (1955). Notes on a new

pest Lepidogma sp. (Pyralidae) on Eugenia jambolana in

Coimbatore.  Indian Journal of Entomology,  17(2): 183-

185.


Butani, D.K. (1976). Insect pests of fruit crops and their control.

Pesticides,  10(5): 27-29.

Butani, D.K. (1979). Insects and Fruits. Periodical Expert Book

Agency, D-42, Vivek Vihar, Delhi 110032. 415pp.

CABI, (2007). Crop Protection Compendium, CAB International,

Wallingford, Oxon OX10 8DE, UK.

Venugopal, S. (1958). Oenospila  (Thalassodes)  flavifusata Wlk.

A geometrid pest of Eugenia jambolana in South India.

Madras Agricultural Journal,  45(3): 120-121.

Dahiya, K.K. and Lakra, R.K. (2001). Population build up and

seasonal activity of thripsRhipiphorothrips cruentatus Hood

in jamun, Syzygium cuminii Skeels. National Journal of



Plant Improvement,  3: 113-114.

Fletcher, T.B. (1917). Jamun Proceedings of the Second

Entomological Meeting. held at  5th to 12th February 1917.

pp.247.


Poorani, J. (2004). Annotated Checklist of the Coccinellidae

(Coleoptera) of the Indian Subregion http://

www.angelfire.com/bug2/j_poorani.

ITIS, (2009). The Integrated Taxonomic Information System on-

line database, http://www.itis.gov.

Lepindex, (2007). Lepidoptera Collection and Reference Card Online

Database, Natural History Museum, London. http://

www.nhm.ac.uk/jdsml/research-curation/research/ projects/

lepindex/index.dsml.

Singh, K. (1931).  Contribution towards our knowledge of the



Aleyrodidae (Whiteflies) of India. Mem. Dept. Agric. India

12: 1-100.


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